butylated hydroxytoluene


Summary: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.

Top Publications

  1. Sanches Silva A, Cruz J, Sendón García R, Paseiro Losada P. Determination of butylated hydroxytoluene in food samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J AOAC Int. 2007;90:277-83 pubmed
    ..was developed and compared with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for determining butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in foodstuffs as a result of migration from plastic packaging...
  2. Price R, Scott M, Giddings A, Walters D, Stierum R, Meredith C, et al. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes. Xenobiotica. 2008;38:574-86 pubmed
    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four food chemicals, namely butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG) and thiabendazole (TB), on cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms in cultured human ..
  3. Roca J, Gil M, Hernandez M, Parrilla I, Vazquez J, Martinez E. Survival and fertility of boar spermatozoa after freeze-thawing in extender supplemented with butylated hydroxytoluene. J Androl. 2004;25:397-405 pubmed
    This study evaluated the protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble antioxidant, against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa...
  4. Bauer A, Dwyer Nield L, Keil K, Koski K, Malkinson A. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) induction of pulmonary inflammation: a role in tumor promotion. Exp Lung Res. 2001;27:197-216 pubmed
    Chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases predispose towards lung cancer by unknown mechanisms. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) administration to mice causes lung injury and a subsequent inflammatory response, and when administered ..
  5. Meyer A, Dwyer Nield L, Hurteau G, Keith R, Ouyang Y, Freed B, et al. Attenuation of the pulmonary inflammatory response following butylated hydroxytoluene treatment of cytosolic phospholipase A2 null mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;290:L1260-6 pubmed
    Administration of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to mice causes lung damage characterized by the death of alveolar type I pneumocytes and the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of type II cells to replace them...
  6. Klein P, Van Vleet T, Hall J, Coulombe R. Dietary butylated hydroxytoluene protects against aflatoxicosis in Turkeys. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;182:11-9 pubmed
    ..In mammals, dietary antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), have been shown to lessen the toxic effects of AFB(1) by various mechanisms...
  7. Bauer A, Dwyer Nield L, Hankin J, Murphy R, Malkinson A. The lung tumor promoter, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), causes chronic inflammation in promotion-sensitive BALB/cByJ mice but not in promotion-resistant CXB4 mice. Toxicology. 2001;169:1-15 pubmed
    An inflammatory response accompanies the reversible pneumotoxicity caused by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) administration to mice...
  8. Passone M, Resnik S, Etcheverry M. Antiaflatoxigenic property of food grade antioxidants under different conditions of water activity in peanut grains. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007;118:8-14 pubmed
    ..grade (AG) and industrial grade (IG) of three-food grade antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl paraben (PP) were analyzed to prove their fungitoxic effect on Aspergillus section Flavi ..
  9. Kwak J, Josue J, Faranda A, Opiekun M, Preti G, Osada K, et al. Butylated hydroxytoluene is a ligand of urinary proteins derived from female mice. Chem Senses. 2011;36:443-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a synthetic antioxidant present in the laboratory rodent diet, as a major ligand bound to urinary ..

More Information


  1. Yehye W, Abdul Rahman N, Alhadi A, Khaledi H, Weng N, Ariffin A. Butylated hydroxytoluene analogs: synthesis and evaluation of their multipotent antioxidant activities. Molecules. 2012;17:7645-65 pubmed publisher
    ..5 showed more inhibition of DPPH stable free radical at 10?? M than the well-known standard antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)...
  2. Tombesi N, Freije H. Application of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the determination of butylated hydroxytoluene in bottled drinking water. J Chromatogr A. 2002;963:179-83 pubmed
    b>Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is an antioxidant utilized as additive in foods and packaging plastic...
  3. Vanyushin B, Lopatina N, Wise C, Fullerton F, Poirier L. Butylated hydroxytoluene modulates DNA methylation in rats. Eur J Biochem. 1998;256:518-27 pubmed
    The major observation of this investigation is that a single intraperitoneal injection of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 60 mg/kg body mass) results within a few hours in a strong increase in nuclear DNA(cytosine-5)-methyl transferase (..
  4. Guarisco J, Hall J, Coulombe R. Mechanisms of butylated hydroxytoluene chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis--inhibition of aflatoxin B1 metabolism. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;227:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..One such compound, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), has been found to protect against cancer formation caused by exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in ..
  5. Malkinson A, Koski K, Evans W, Festing M. Butylated hydroxytoluene exposure is necessary to induce lung tumors in BALB mice treated with 3-methylcholanthrene. Cancer Res. 1997;57:2832-4 pubmed
    Chronic butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) treatment after a single administration of a carcinogen increases lung tumor multiplicity in some inbred strains of mice...
  6. Klein P, Van Vleet T, Hall J, Coulombe R. Effects of dietary butylated hydroxytoluene on aflatoxin B1-relevant metabolic enzymes in turkeys. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41:671-8 pubmed
    ..Phenolic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) have been shown to be chemoprotective in some animal models due, in part, to modulation of AFB(1)-..
  7. Neagu V, García B, Sandoval C, Rodríguez A, Ferrusola C, Fernández L, et al. Freezing dog semen in presence of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene improves postthaw sperm membrane integrity. Theriogenology. 2010;73:645-50 pubmed publisher
    In an attempt to evaluate the protective effect of a lipid-soluble antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT), semen from four dogs (Canis familiaris) was frozen in two different extenders (Uppsala or INRA-96 plus glycerol) with or ..
  8. Fries E, Püttmann W. Analysis of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in water by means of solid phase extraction combined with GC/MS. Water Res. 2002;36:2319-27 pubmed
    ..Both compounds were also detected in rain water in Frankfurt/Main at a concentration of 1797 ng l(-1) for BHT and 59 ng l(-1) for BHT-CHO. ..
  9. Wang I, Meliton L, Tretiakova M, Costa R, Kalinichenko V, Kalin T. Transgenic expression of the forkhead box M1 transcription factor induces formation of lung tumors. Oncogene. 2008;27:4137-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Lung tumors were induced in Rosa26-Foxm1 mice using the 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) lung tumor initiation/promotion protocol...
  10. Chevillard G, Nouhi Z, Anna D, Paquet M, Blank V. Nrf3-deficient mice are not protected against acute lung and adipose tissue damages induced by butylated hydroxytoluene. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:923-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data provide the first evidence that BHT exposure not only affects lung function but also leads to impaired adipogenesis in adipocytes. ..
  11. Vikis H, Gelman A, Franklin A, Stein L, Rymaszewski A, Zhu J, et al. Neutrophils are required for 3-methylcholanthrene-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene-promoted lung carcinogenesis. Mol Carcinog. 2012;51:993-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..Inbred mouse strains vary in their susceptibility to methylcholanthrene (MCA)-initiated butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-promoted lung carcinogenesis...
  12. Lin H, Yen F, Ng L, Lin C. Protective effects of Ligustrum lucidum fruit extract on acute butylated hydroxytoluene-induced oxidative stress in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111:129-36 pubmed
    ..the antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of Ligustrum lucidum fruits (ELL) and its effects on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-induced oxidative stress in rats. Results showed that ELL possesses weak antioxidant activities...
  13. Passone M, Resnik S, Etcheverry M. In vitro effect of phenolic antioxidants on germination, growth and aflatoxin B accumulation by peanut Aspergillus section Flavi. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;99:682-91 pubmed
    The effectiveness of the food-grade antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), trihydroxybutyrophenone (THB), propyl paraben (PP) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 1, 10 and 20 mmol l(-1) concentrations on germination, growth, and ..
  14. Hultén L, Lindmark H, Schersten H, Wiklund O, Nilsson F, Riise G. Butylated hydroxytoluene and N-acetylcysteine attenuates tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in alveolar macrophages from human lung transplant recipients in vitro. Transplantation. 1998;66:364-9 pubmed
    ..The present study was designed to investigate whether the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) modified TNF-alpha production in stimulated and unstimulated alveolar ..
  15. Magnusardottir A, Skuladottir G. Effects of storage time and added antioxidant on fatty acid composition of red blood cells at -20 degrees C. Lipids. 2006;41:401-4 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that PUFA in RBC from healthy women are stable at -20 degrees C for 4 wk without BHT and for at least 17 wk with BHT. ..
  16. Eriksson U, Simán C. Pregnant diabetic rats fed the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene show decreased occurrence of malformations in offspring. Diabetes. 1996;45:1497-502 pubmed
    ..diabetic and normal rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with 1% of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The fetuses of the diabetic rats were smaller than the fetuses of the normal rats (body weight 2...
  17. Saito M, Sakagami H, Fujisawa S. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Anticancer Res. 2003;23:4693-701 pubmed
    The cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BMP) and the mixture of BHA and BHT (BHA/BHT) (1:1, molar ratio) were investigated, using ..
  18. Nesci A, Rodriguez M, Etcheverry M. Control of Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin production using antioxidants at different conditions of water activity and pH. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;95:279-87 pubmed
    The effect of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), trihydroxybutyrophenone (THB) and propyl paraben (PP) (at concentrations of 1, 10 and 20 mmol l(-1)) on germination, growth and aflatoxin B1 production by ..
  19. Bauer A, Dixon D, Degraff L, Cho H, Walker C, Malkinson A, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 in butylated hydroxytoluene-induced mouse pulmonary inflammation and tumorigenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:1778-81 pubmed
    ..infiltration, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) DNA binding in butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-treated (four weekly injections of 125-200 mg/kg each) inbred mouse strains with functional Tlr4 (..
  20. Soares D, Andreazza A, Salvador M. Sequestering ability of butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, resveratrol, and vitamins C and E against ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl free radicals in chemical and biological systems. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:1077-80 pubmed
    The antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol), propyl gallate (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid n-propyl ester), resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), and vitamins C (l-ascorbic acid) and E [(+..
  21. Guarisco J, Hall J, Coulombe R. Butylated hydroxytoluene chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis - effects on aflatoxin B(1) bioavailability, hepatic DNA adduct formation, and biliary excretion. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3727-31 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) protects against AFB(1) toxicity in turkeys through mechanisms that include competitive inhibition ..
  22. Botterweck A, Verhagen H, Goldbohm R, Kleinjans J, van den Brandt P. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk: results from analyses in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000;38:599-605 pubmed
    ..properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)...
  23. Etcheverry M, Torres A, Ramirez M, Chulze S, Magan N. In vitro control of growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum using antioxidants under different water availability and temperature regimes. J Appl Microbiol. 2002;92:624-32 pubmed
    To examine the effect of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), trihydroxybutyrophenone and propylparaben (PP) (at concentrations of 1-20 mmol l(-1)) on growth of and fumonisin production by Argentinian strains of ..
  24. Malkinson A, Radcliffe R, Bauer A. Quantitative trait locus mapping of susceptibilities to butylated hydroxytoluene-induced lung tumor promotion and pulmonary inflammation in CXB mice. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23:411-7 pubmed
    ..to both lung tumor promotion and pulmonary inflammation induced by chronic administration of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)...
  25. Kalinichenko V, Lim L, Shin B, Costa R. Differential expression of forkhead box transcription factors following butylated hydroxytoluene lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;280:L695-704 pubmed
    ..We report here on the use of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-mediated lung injury to demonstrate that HFH-11 protein and RNA levels were markedly increased ..
  26. Safer A, al Nughamish A. Hepatotoxicity induced by the anti-oxidant food additive, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in rats: an electron microscopical study. Histol Histopathol. 1999;14:391-406 pubmed publisher
    The anti-oxidant food additive, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), was fed to Sprague-Dawley rats at three concentrations: 0.2%, 0.4% and 0...
  27. Fabris S, Momo F, Ravagnan G, Stevanato R. Antioxidant properties of resveratrol and piceid on lipid peroxidation in micelles and monolamellar liposomes. Biophys Chem. 2008;135:76-83 pubmed publisher
  28. Scalia S, Marchetti N, Bianchi A. Comparative evaluation of different co-antioxidants on the photochemical- and functional-stability of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in topical creams exposed to simulated sunlight. Molecules. 2013;18:574-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the co-antioxidant agents vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, vitamin C and a-lipoic acid for their potential to protect the catechin from photochemical degradation...
  29. Wahid S, Versiani M, Jahangir S, Jawaid K, Shafique M, Khan H, et al. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Pseudocalymma elegans: A False Garlic. Chem Biodivers. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..221 ± 0.011, and 0.054 ± 0.001, respectively, as compared to standard drugs ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)...
  30. Araujo P, Bjørkkjær T, Frøyland L, Waagbø R. Effect of storage time, temperature, antioxidant and thawing on fatty acid composition of plasma, serum and red blood cells - A pilot biobank study. Clin Biochem. 2018;52:94-105 pubmed publisher
    ..have changed significantly as a result of the storage time (0-52weeks), temperature (-20°C/-80°C), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) antioxidant (presence/absence) or thawing (single/multiple)...
  31. Femenía Rios M, García Pajón C, Hernandez Galan R, Macías Sánchez A, Collado I. Synthesis and free radical scavenging activity of a novel metabolite from the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006;16:5836-9 pubmed
    ..The tetraol (-)-1 showed free radical scavenging activity comparable to that of BHT, caffeic acid or protocatechuic acid...
  32. McCartan F, Bowers N, Turner J, Mandalia M, Kalnad N, Bishop Bailey A, et al. Introduction of a novel service model to improve uptake and adherence with cardiac rehabilitation within Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2017;17:184 pubmed publisher
    ..Introduction of the novel technology-enabled CR model was associated with short-term improvements in emergency readmissions and sustained increases in CR entry, duration and completion. ..
  33. Dance Barnes S, Kock N, Moore J, Lin E, Mosley L, D Agostino R, et al. Lung tumor promotion by curcumin. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:1016-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of curcumin were compared with the lung tumor promoter, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the lung cancer chemopreventive agent, sulindac...
  34. Karthik R, Chen S, Elangovan A, Muthukrishnan P, Shanmugam R, Lou B. Phyto mediated biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cerasus serrulata and its utility in detecting hydrazine, microbial activity and DFT studies. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2016;468:163-175 pubmed publisher
    ..serrulata leaves extract demonstrated greater reducing and stabilizing properties compared to the properties of other compounds like butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and hydrocoumarin (HCM) present in the extract. ..
  35. Jayawardana B, Hirano T, Han K, Ishii H, Okada T, Shibayama S, et al. Utilization of adzuki bean extract as a natural antioxidant in cured and uncured cooked pork sausages. Meat Sci. 2011;89:150-3 pubmed publisher
    ..For uncured sausages, AE at 0.2% was equally effective as 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in reducing TBARS values. Similarly, AE at 0.2% significantly (P<0...
  36. Severina I, Bussygina O, Pyatakova N, Khropov Y, Krasnoperov R. Ambroxol as an inhibitor of nitric oxide-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;407:61-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is possible that the molecular mechanism of the therapeutic action of ambroxol involves the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase...
  37. Trautinger F, Kokesch C, Klosner G, Knobler R, Kindås Mügge I. Expression of the 72-kD heat shock protein is induced by ultraviolet A radiation in a human fibrosarcoma cell line. Exp Dermatol. 1999;8:187-92 pubmed
    ..UVA-induced lipid peroxidation was inhibited by alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). UVA but not UVB induced hsp72 with maximal expression at 40 J/cm2, 8-12 h after exposure...
  38. Malkinson A, Radcliffe R, Bauer A, Dwyer Nield L, Kleeberger S. Quantitative trait loci that regulate susceptibility to both butylated hydroxytoluene-induced pulmonary inflammation and lung tumor promotion in CXB recombinant inbred mice. Chest. 2002;121:82S pubmed
  39. Kobayashi A, Kato Noguchi H. The seasonal variations of allelopathic activity and allelopathic substances in Brachiaria brizantha. Bot Stud. 2015;56:25 pubmed publisher
    ..The effectiveness of B. brizantha of June and October as a weed suppressive agent may be greater than that of January. ..
  40. Lu Q, Sun Y, Shu Y, Tan S, Yin L, Guo Y, et al. HSCCC Separation of the Two Iridoid Glycosides and Three Phenolic Compounds from Veronica ciliata and Their in Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Hepatocarcinoma Activities. Molecules. 2016;21: pubmed publisher
    ..Five compounds also exhibited strong anti-hepatocarcinoma activities. ..
  41. Cacho J, Campillo N, Viñas P, Hernández Córdoba M. Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using microvial insert large volume injection gas-chromatography. Food Chem. 2016;200:249-54 pubmed publisher
    Three synthetic phenolic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), were determined in different edible vegetable oil samples...
  42. Freitas K, Fatibello Filho O. Simultaneous determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in food samples using a carbon composite electrode modified with Cu(3)(PO(4))(2) immobilized in polyester resin. Talanta. 2010;81:1102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..method was developed for the single and simultaneous determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in food samples using square-wave voltammetry (SWV)...
  43. Gilani A, Bukhari I, Khan R, Shah A, Ahmad I, Malik A. Presence of blood-pressure lowering and spasmolytic constituents in Buddleja crispa. Phytother Res. 2009;23:492-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the pure compounds, Bdl-H3 is likely to be the active compound involved in the spasmolytic and possibly BP lowering effect of the parent crude extract...
  44. Vilcacundo R, Barrio D, Carpio C, García Ruiz A, Rúales J, Hernández Ledesma B, et al. Digestibility of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Protein Concentrate and Its Potential to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2017;72:294-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The digest obtained at the end of the digestive process showed an inhibition percentage of 82.10%, comparable to that showed when using BHT as positive control (87.13%). ..
  45. Lee K, Shibamoto T. Determination of antioxidant potential of volatile extracts isolated from various herbs and spices. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:4947-52 pubmed
    ..The antioxidant potentials of the volatile extracts used in this study were accurately measured by the lipophilic systems, such as the aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay and the conjugated diene assay. ..
  46. Gultekin F, Ozturk M, Akdogan M. The effect of organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos-ethyl on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (in vitro). Arch Toxicol. 2000;74:533-8 pubmed
    ..01, 0.1, 0.4, and 10 g/l by adding butylated hydroxytoluene and vitamin E to the medium. The MDA levels were determined spectrophotometrically...
  47. Bethke P, Jones R. Cell death of barley aleurone protoplasts is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Plant J. 2001;25:19-29 pubmed
  48. Chakraborty K, Joseph D, Joseph D. Concentration and stabilization of Câ‚‚â‚€-â‚‚â‚‚ n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid esters from the oil of Sardinella longiceps. Food Chem. 2016;199:828-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential of seaweeds to improve the storage stability of C20-22n-3 fatty acid methyl esters was studied. This study has applications in development of food and pharmaceutical products. ..
  49. Slaghenaufi D, Franc C, Mora N, Marchand S, Perello M, De Revel G. Quantification of three galloylglucoside flavour precursors by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in brandies aged in oak wood barrels. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1442:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection limits (48 μg L(-1) for VGG, 52 μg L(-1) for TMPGG, and 19 μg L(-1) for macarangioside E) were low enough to quantify these aroma precursors in spirits without any sample preparation. ..
  50. Lucente Schultz R, Moore V, Leonard A, Price B, Kosynkin D, Lu M, et al. Antioxidant single-walled carbon nanotubes. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:3934-41 pubmed publisher
    ..and ultrashort SWCNTs (US-SWCNTs) were functionalized with derivatives of the phenolic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)...
  51. Farber T, Clewell A, Endres J, Hauswirth J, van Gemert M, Schauss A, et al. Safety assessment of a novel ingredient for removable chewing gum. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:831-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Rev7 was found to be free from contaminants such as heavy metals, monomers, and solvents. Lastly, Rev7 did not demonstrate skin-sensitizing properties in the murine local lymph node assay. ..
  52. Shiva S, Brookes P, Patel R, Anderson P, Darley Usmar V. Nitric oxide partitioning into mitochondrial membranes and the control of respiration at cytochrome c oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7212-7 pubmed
    ..The implications of this conclusion are discussed in the context of mitochondrial lipid:protein ratios and the importance of NO as a regulator of respiration in pathophysiology. ..
  53. Hebi M, Farid O, Ajebli M, Eddouks M. Potent antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Tamarix articulata Vahl. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;87:230-239 pubmed publisher
    ..71?g/ml. In conclusion, this study demonstrates antihyperglycemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of T. articulata in severe diabetic state thus warrants further investigation on its major compounds as well as mechanistic studies. ..
  54. Enes R, Tomé A, Cavaleiro J, Amorati R, Fumo M, Pedulli G, et al. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of [60]fullerene-BHT conjugates. Chemistry. 2006;12:4646-53 pubmed
    ..The inherent rate constant for trapping of peroxyl radicals by C(60) per se (k(inh)=3.1+/-1.1 x 10(2) m(-1) s(-1)) indicates that, contrary to previous reports, [60]fullerene is an extremely weak chain-breaking antioxidant. ..
  55. Philippova T, Novoselov V, Alekseev S. Influence of microwaves on different types of receptors and the role of peroxidation of lipids on receptor-protein shedding. Bioelectromagnetics. 1994;15:183-92 pubmed
    ..Ascorbate-dependent or non-enzymatic POL was not responsible for the inhibition, and POL was not found in other model systems. However, enzymatic POL mechanisms in localized areas of receptor binding remain a possibility. ..
  56. Chaiyasit W, McClements D, Decker E. The relationship between the physicochemical properties of antioxidants and their ability to inhibit lipid oxidation in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsions. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:4982-8 pubmed
    ..Antioxidants differed in the number of methyl (alpha-tocopherol and delta-tocopherol) or hydroxyl (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and 4-hydroxymethyl-2,6-ditertiarybutylphenol) groups...
  57. Dunaevskiĭ I, Aleksandrushkina N, Smirnova T, Kolomiitseva G, Vaniushin B, Belozerskii M. [Effect of the antioxidant ionol on proteolytic apparatus of aging coleoptiles of wheat seedlings grown in light]. Bioorg Khim. 2003;29:505-9 pubmed
    ..We presume that the revealed quantitative and qualitative changes in the proteolytic apparatus of the coleoptile cells induced by BHT may be largely responsible for the retardant and geroprotective effect of this antioxidant in plants. ..
  58. Gulcin I. Antioxidant activity of L-adrenaline: a structure-activity insight. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;179:71-80 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), alpha-tocopherol and trolox displayed 83.3, 82.1, 68.1 and 81...
  59. Mauricio Iglesias M, Jansana S, Peyron S, Gontard N, Guillard V. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010;27:118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied. ..
  60. Yu J, Zhang Y, Niu C, Li J. [Effects of two kinds of allelochemicals on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Solanum melongena L. seedlings]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2006;17:1629-32 pubmed
    ..2,6-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol made non-photochemical quenching (qN) increase first and decrease then, while 1,2-benzodicarboxylic dimethyl ester decreased qN, which was harmful to the photosynthesis structure. ..
  61. Fedorova T, Boldyrev A, Gannushkina I. Lipid peroxidation in experimental ischemia of the brain. Biochemistry (Mosc). 1999;64:75-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the destructive effect of free radicals may occur even during the early stage of ischemic injury of the brain. ..
  62. Nabhani S, Schipp C, Miskin H, Levin C, Postovsky S, Dujovny T, et al. STAT3 gain-of-function mutations associated with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome like disease deregulate lymphocyte apoptosis and can be targeted by BH3 mimetic compounds. Clin Immunol. 2017;181:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, STAT3-mutant cells were more sensitive to death induced by the BCL2-inhibitor ABT-737 indicating a dependence on anti-apoptotic BCL2 proteins and potential novel therapeutic options. ..
  63. Yamaki K, Taneda S, Yanagisawa R, Inoue K, Takano H, Yoshino S. Enhancement of allergic responses in vivo and in vitro by butylated hydroxytoluene. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;223:164-72 pubmed
    The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which is used widely as an antioxidant, on IgE-dependent allergic responses in vivo and in vitro was investigated...
  64. Sangle G, Zhao R, Shen G. Transmembrane signaling pathway mediates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E1243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that LOX-1, H-Ras, and Raf-1/ERK1/2 are implicated in PAI-1 expression induced by oxidized LDLs or LDL in cultured EC. ..
  65. Ma Y, Pan J, Zhang G, Zhang Y. Binding properties of butylated hydroxytoluene with calf thymus DNA in vitro. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2013;126:112-8 pubmed publisher
    The binding properties of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in simulated physiological buffer (pH 7...
  66. Thompson J, Carlson T, Sun Y, Dwyer Nield L, Malkinson A. Studies using structural analogs and inbred strain differences to support a role for quinone methide metabolites of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in mouse lung tumor promotion. Toxicology. 2001;160:197-205 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the hypothesis that a two-step oxidation process, i.e. hydroxylation and quinone methide formation, is required for the promotion of mouse lung tumors by BHT. ..
  67. Saunier J, Mazel V, Aymes Chodur C, Yagoubi N. Blooming of Irganox 3114® antioxidant onto a medical grade elastomer. Impact of the recrystallization conditions on the antioxidant polymorphism, on the film wettability and on the antioxidant leachability. Int J Pharm. 2012;437:89-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Depending on the recrystallization morphology, the wettability with water could be lowered and the leachability of the additives into aqueous media could be favored. ..
  68. Balli D, Ren X, Chou F, Cross E, Zhang Y, Kalinichenko V, et al. Foxm1 transcription factor is required for macrophage migration during lung inflammation and tumor formation. Oncogene. 2012;31:3875-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Lung tumorigenesis was induced using a 3-methylcholanthrene/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene) tumor initiation/promotion protocol...
  69. Barberis C, Astoreca A, Fernández Juri M, Dalcero A, Magnoli C. Effect of antioxidant mixtures on growth and ochratoxin a production of Aspergillus section Nigri species under different water activity conditions on peanut meal extract agar. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:1399-413 pubmed publisher
    ..carbonarius strain (RCP G). These results could enable a future intervention strategy to minimize OTA contamination. ..
  70. Qiu L, Wang W, Zhong W, Zhong L, Fang J, Li X, et al. Coenzyme Q10 production by Sphingomonas sp. ZUTE03 with novel precursors isolated from tobacco waste in a two-phase conversion system. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;21:494-502 pubmed
    ..The novel precursors were separated by silica gel and identified as alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) based on the effect on CoQ10 production and GC-MS...
  71. Singh S, Agarwal R, Jamal F, Mehrotra S, Singh R. Effects of tert-butyl hydroperoxide on Ca(2+) ATPase activity in isolated rat hepatocytes and its reversal by antioxidants. J Environ Biol. 2012;33:867-70 pubmed
  72. Hanada H. Phenolic antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (vitamin E synthetic analogue) does not inhibit 1,1'-dimetyl-4,4'-bipyridium dichloride (paraquat)-induced structural chromosomal damage in cultured leukocytes of the dark-spotted-frog Pelophylax (Rana). Hereditas. 2012;149:173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that BHT functions in chemically donating electron to paraquat and thereby induces an acute accumulation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in increase in chromosomal damage. ..
  73. D Agostini F, Balansky R, Bennicelli C, Lubet R, Kelloff G, De Flora S. Pilot studies evaluating the lung tumor yield in cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Int J Oncol. 2001;18:607-15 pubmed
    ..8% vs. 22.2%, and 1.11+/-0.26 vs. 0.22+/-0.15, means +/- SE). Multiple i.p. injections of butylated hydroxytoluene did not significantly enhance the tumor yield...
  74. Lanigan R, Yamarik T. Final report on the safety assessment of BHT(1). Int J Toxicol. 2002;21 Suppl 2:19-94 pubmed
    BHT is the recognized name in the cosmetics industry for butylated hydroxytoluene. BHT is used in a wide range of cosmetic formulations as an antioxidant at concentrations from 0.0002% to 0.5%...
  75. Seifi Jamadi A, Kohram H, Zareh Shahne A, Dehghanizadeh P, Ahmad E. Effect of various concentrations of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on freezing capacity of Turkman stallion sperm. Anim Reprod Sci. 2016;170:108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..study aimed to determine the effect of different concentrations of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on post-thaw stallion sperm quality...
  76. Engin A, Bukan N, Kurukahvecioglu O, Memis L, Engin A. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (E321) pretreatment versus L-arginine on liver injury after sub-lethal dose of endotoxin administration. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;32:457-64 pubmed publisher
    Aim of this study was to compare the effects of L-arginine (L-arg) and food-antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against oxidative stress of Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) in liver...
  77. Tsuji S, Nakanoi M, Terada H, Tamura Y, Tonogai Y. Determination and confirmation of five phenolic antioxidants in foods by LC/MS and GC/MS. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2005;46:63-71 pubmed
    Identification and determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) by means of LC/MS and GC/MS were examined...
  78. Ye C, Hu W, Dai D. Extraction of polysaccharides and the antioxidant activity from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. Int J Biol Macromol. 2011;49:466-70 pubmed publisher
    ..the polysaccharides was dose dependent, and the reducing capacity of the polysaccharides was inferior to butylated hydroxytoluene, which is known to be a strong reducing agent...
  79. Williams G. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 1000 and 4000 ppm in the diet protected turkeys against aflatoxicosis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;189:151; author reply 152 pubmed
  80. Kanai Y, Hiroki S, Koshino H, Konoki K, Cho Y, Cayme M, et al. Identification of novel oxidized levuglandin D2 in marine red alga and mouse tissue. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:2245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These structural differences imply that ox-LGD(2) is less reactive with amines than LGs. Therefore, ox-LGD(2) might be considered a detoxification metabolite of LGD(2). ..