Summary: Any of three isomeric crystalline aromatic methylphenols, also known as hydroxytoluenes.

Top Publications

  1. Khullar V, Amarenco G, Angulo J, Cambronero J, Høye K, Milsom I, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of mirabegron, a ?(3)-adrenoceptor agonist, in patients with overactive bladder: results from a randomised European-Australian phase 3 trial. Eur Urol. 2013;63:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Mirabegron, a ?(3)-adrenoceptor agonist, has been developed for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB)...
  2. Meijers B, Van Kerckhoven S, Verbeke K, Dehaen W, Vanrenterghem Y, Hoylaerts M, et al. The uremic retention solute p-cresyl sulfate and markers of endothelial damage. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54:891-901 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that p-cresyl sulfate alters endothelial function in hemodialysis patients. ..
  3. Meijers B, Claes K, Bammens B, de Loor H, Viaene L, Verbeke K, et al. p-Cresol and cardiovascular risk in mild-to-moderate kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1182-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether p-cresol is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in CKD patients remains to be proven. ..
  4. Kaplan S, Schneider T, Foote J, Guan Z, Carlsson M, Gong J. Superior efficacy of fesoterodine over tolterodine extended release with rapid onset: a prospective, head-to-head, placebo-controlled trial. BJU Int. 2011;107:1432-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To show the superior efficacy of fesoterodine over tolterodine extended release (ER) in a placebo-controlled overactive bladder (OAB) trial with predefined treatment comparisons for both diary measures and patient-reported outcomes...
  5. Ying Y, Yang K, Liu Y, Chen Q, Shen W, Lu L, et al. A uremic solute, P-cresol, inhibits the proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells via the p38 pathway. Circ J. 2011;75:2252-9 pubmed
    ..This study has demonstrated that p-cresol inhibits proliferation of EPCs via activation of p38 MAPK pathways. P-cresol also attenuates angiogenesis function of EPCs and interferes with the Notch1 path-way. ..
  6. Schuster A, Glassmeier G, Bauer C. Strong activation of ether-à-go-go-related gene 1 K+ channel isoforms by NS1643 in human embryonic kidney 293 and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;80:930-42 pubmed publisher
    ..laevis oocytes. ..
  7. Meyer T, Hostetter T. Uremic solutes from colon microbes. Kidney Int. 2012;81:949-954 pubmed publisher
    ..To the extent that they are toxic, suppressing their production could improve the health of renal failure patients without the need for more intensive or prolonged dialysis. ..
  8. Wellhauser L, Kim Chiaw P, Pasyk S, Li C, Ramjeesingh M, Bear C. A small-molecule modulator interacts directly with deltaPhe508-CFTR to modify its ATPase activity and conformational stability. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:1430-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that direct binding of this small molecule induces and/or stabilizes a structure that promotes the channel open state and may underlie its efficacy as a corrector of DeltaPhe508-CFTR. ..
  9. Krieter D, Hackl A, Rodriguez A, Chenine L, Moragues H, Lemke H, et al. Protein-bound uraemic toxin removal in haemodialysis and post-dilution haemodiafiltration. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For a sustained decrease of pCS and IS plasma levels, alternative strategies promise to be more efficient therapy forms. ..

More Information


  1. Liabeuf S, Barreto D, Barreto F, Meert N, Glorieux G, Schepers E, et al. Free p-cresylsulphate is a predictor of mortality in patients at different stages of chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:1183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum levels of free and total p-cresylsulphate (the main in vivo circulating metabolites of p-cresol) were elevated in later CKD stages. However, only free p-cresylsulphate seems to be a predictor of survival in CKD. ..
  2. Bergé Lefranc D, Chaspoul F, Calaf R, Charpiot P, Brunet P, Gallice P. Binding of p-cresylsulfate and p-cresol to human serum albumin studied by microcalorimetry. J Phys Chem B. 2010;114:1661-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The low fraction of bound toxin (13-20%) appears to be insufficient to link strong binding to poor removal of this toxin by hemodialysis. ..
  3. Lee C, Kuo C, Chen Y, Hsu C, Lee W, Tsai Y, et al. Factors associated with blood concentrations of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int. 2010;30:456-63 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-6 level was significantly associated with free indoxyl sulfate level. There was a close relationship between indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol levels in their free forms in PD patients. ..
  4. Lin C, Wu C, Pan C, Chen Y, Sun F, Chen H. Serum protein-bound uraemic toxins and clinical outcomes in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:3693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Serum free and total p-cresol levels were significantly related to cardiovascular events. In addition, serum free p-cresol and hsCRP levels were also found to be associated with infection-related hospitalization. ..
  5. Wu I, Hsu K, Lee C, Sun C, Hsu H, Tsai C, et al. p-Cresyl sulphate and indoxyl sulphate predict progression of chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:938-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to traditional and uraemia-related risk factors such as renal function, serum IS and PCS levels may help in predicting the risk of renal progression in patients having different stages of CKD. ..
  6. Durdagi S, Guo J, Lees Miller J, Noskov S, Duff H. Structure-guided topographic mapping and mutagenesis to elucidate binding sites for the human ether-a-go-go-related gene 1 potassium channel (KCNH2) activator NS1643. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;342:441-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Model-guided mutagenesis led to the discovery of a range of novel interacting residues that modify NS1643-induced pharmacologic responses. ..
  7. Castro Diaz D, Miranda P, Sánchez Ballester F, Lizarraga I, Arumi D, Rejas J. Dose and aging effect on patients reported treatment benefit switching from the first overactive bladder therapy with tolterodine ER to fesoterodine: post-hoc analysis from an observational and retrospective study. BMC Urol. 2012;12:19 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to assess the effect of aging and dose escalation on patient-reported treatment benefit, after changing their first Overactive Bladder (OAB) therapy with tolterodine-ER to fesoterodine in daily clinical practice...
  8. Herschorn S, Swift S, Guan Z, Carlsson M, Morrow J, Brodsky M, et al. Comparison of fesoterodine and tolterodine extended release for the treatment of overactive bladder: a head-to-head placebo-controlled trial. BJU Int. 2010;105:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine 8 mg with tolterodine extended-release (ER) 4 mg and placebo in a randomized clinical trial of patients with an overactive bladder (OAB)...
  9. Szabo G, Farkas V, Grunnet M, Mohacsi A, Nanasi P. Enhanced repolarization capacity: new potential antiarrhythmic strategy based on HERG channel activation. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:3607-21 pubmed
    ..Although the multiple ion channel activity of NS1643 may carry proarrhythmic risk, the rationale of antiarrhythmic strategy based on I(Kr) activation is not questioned. ..
  10. Grunnet M, Abbruzzese J, Sachse F, Sanguinetti M. Molecular determinants of human ether-à-go-go-related gene 1 (hERG1) K+ channel activation by NS1643. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;79:1-9 pubmed publisher
  11. Larsen A, Bentzen B, Grunnet M. Differential effects of Kv11.1 activators on Kv11.1a, Kv11.1b and Kv11.1a/Kv11.1b channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:614-28 pubmed publisher
    ..1a and K(v)11.1b channels, the effects being relatively more pronounced on K(v)11.1b channels. This affirms the importance of testing the effect of K(v)11.1 activators on different channel isoforms. ..
  12. Tseng L, Wang A, Chang Y, Soong Y, Lloyd L, Ko Y. Randomized comparison of tolterodine with vaginal estrogen cream versus tolterodine alone for the treatment of postmenopausal women with overactive bladder syndrome. Neurourol Urodyn. 2009;28:47-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate whether vaginal estrogen cream combined with tolterodine is more effective than tolterodine alone in the treatment of postmenopausal women with overactive bladder (OAB)...
  13. Meijers B, de Loor H, Bammens B, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem Y, Evenepoel P. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4:1932-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are both valid markers to monitor behavior of protein-bound solutes during dialysis. Finally, they are competitive binding inhibitors for the same albumin binding site. ..
  14. MacDiarmid S. Overactive bladder: improving the efficacy of anticholinergics by dose escalation. Curr Urol Rep. 2003;4:446-51 pubmed
    ..This paper critically evaluates the pros and cons of dose escalation in the hope to improve efficacy in patients with OAB...
  15. Rackley R, Weiss J, Rovner E, Wang J, Guan Z. Nighttime dosing with tolterodine reduces overactive bladder-related nocturnal micturitions in patients with overactive bladder and nocturia. Urology. 2006;67:731-6; discussion 736 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of nighttime tolterodine dosing on urgency-related micturitions in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and nocturia...
  16. Malone Lee J, Shaffu B, Anand C, Powell C. Tolterodine: superior tolerability than and comparable efficacy to oxybutynin in individuals 50 years old or older with overactive bladder: a randomized controlled trial. J Urol. 2001;165:1452-6 pubmed
  17. Michel M, Schneider T, Krege S, Goepel M. Does gender or age affect the efficacy and safety of tolterodine?. J Urol. 2002;168:1027-31 pubmed
    ..While gender does not affect the efficacy or tolerability of tolterodine in a clinically relevant manner, advanced age is associated with a slight decrease in efficacy but not in tolerability. ..
  18. Bammens B, Evenepoel P, Keuleers H, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem Y. Free serum concentrations of the protein-bound retention solute p-cresol predict mortality in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2006;69:1081-7 pubmed
    ..These findings may encourage nephrologists to widen their field of interest beyond the scope of small water-soluble uremic solutes and middle molecules. ..
  19. Kelleher C, Kreder K, Pleil A, Burgess S, Reese P. Long-term health-related quality of life of patients receiving extended-release tolterodine for overactive bladder. Am J Manag Care. 2002;8:S616-30 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the long-term effects of tolterodine on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients diagnosed with overactive bladder with incontinence...
  20. Homma Y, Paick J, Lee J, Kawabe K. Clinical efficacy and tolerability of extended-release tolterodine and immediate-release oxybutynin in Japanese and Korean patients with an overactive bladder: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. BJU Int. 2003;92:741-7 pubmed
    ..7% vs. 33.5%; P < 0.001), and occurred in 9.8% of placebo patients. Tolterodine ER has similar efficacy but is better tolerated than oxybutynin IR in Japanese and Korean patients with OAB. ..
  21. Elmedyb P, Olesen S, Grunnet M. Activation of ERG2 potassium channels by the diphenylurea NS1643. Neuropharmacology. 2007;53:283-94 pubmed
    ..It may be useful for revealing physiological functions of ERG channels in neuronal tissue as well as to elucidate the structure-function relationships of the ERG channels. ..
  22. Kim Y, Yoshimura N, Masuda H, De Miguel F, Chancellor M. Antimuscarinic agents exhibit local inhibitory effects on muscarinic receptors in bladder-afferent pathways. Urology. 2005;65:238-42 pubmed
    ..To investigate the potential of antimuscarinic agents for sensory mechanisms in overactive bladder using intravesical instillation...
  23. Dmochowski R, Sand P, Zinner N, Gittelman M, Davila G, Sanders S. Comparative efficacy and safety of transdermal oxybutynin and oral tolterodine versus placebo in previously treated patients with urge and mixed urinary incontinence. Urology. 2003;62:237-42 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and safety of an oxybutynin transdermal delivery system (OXY-TDS) and oral, long-acting tolterodine (TOL-LA) with placebo in previously treated patients with urge or mixed urinary incontinence...
  24. D Souza A, Smith M, Miller L, Doyle J, Ariely R. Persistence, adherence, and switch rates among extended-release and immediate-release overactive bladder medications in a regional managed care plan. J Manag Care Pharm. 2008;14:291-301 pubmed
    ..No study has compared persistence and adherence to therapy for both the ER and IR versions of tolterodine and oxybutynin...
  25. Schepers E, Meert N, Glorieux G, Goeman J, Van der Eycken J, Vanholder R. P-cresylsulphate, the main in vivo metabolite of p-cresol, activates leucocyte free radical production. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:592-6 pubmed
    ..This effect could contribute to the propensity to vascular disease in the uraemic population. ..
  26. Kaplan S, Roehrborn C, Rovner E, Carlsson M, Bavendam T, Guan Z. Tolterodine and tamsulosin for treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms and overactive bladder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296:2319-28 pubmed
    ..Men with overactive bladder and other lower urinary tract symptoms may not respond to monotherapy with antimuscarinic agents or alpha-receptor antagonists...
  27. Todorova A, Vonderheid Guth B, Dimpfel W. Effects of tolterodine, trospium chloride, and oxybutynin on the central nervous system. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;41:636-44 pubmed
    ..The minimal qEEG changes observed with tolterodine and trospium chloride reflect most probably a rebound message from the peripheral target organs. Prescription of oxybutynin thus implicates a higher risk of CNS side effects. ..
  28. Andersen A. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium p-chloro-m-cresol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorothymol, mixed cresols, m-cresol, o-cresol, p-cresol, isopropyl cresols, thymol, o-cymen-5-ol, and carvacrol. Int J Toxicol. 2006;25 Suppl 1:29-127 pubmed
    Sodium p-Chloro-m-Cresol, p-Chloro-m-Cresol (PCMC), Mixed Cresols, m-Cresol, o-Cresol, p-Cresol, Isopropyl Cresols, Thymol, Chlorothymol, o-Cymen-5-ol, and Carvacrol are substituted phenols used as cosmetic biocides/preservatives and/or ..
  29. Malone Lee J, Walsh J, Maugourd M. Tolterodine: a safe and effective treatment for older patients with overactive bladder. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49:700-5 pubmed
    ..Tolterodine (taken for 4 weeks) is safe and shows efficacy, particularly at a dosage of 2 mg bid, in the treatment of older patients with urinary symptoms attributable to overactive bladder. ..
  30. Selmer T, Andrei P. p-Hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium difficile. A novel glycyl radical enzyme catalysing the formation of p-cresol. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:1363-72 pubmed
    ..Based on the identification of p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase as a novel glycyl radical enzyme and the substrate specificity of the enzyme, a catalytic mechanism involving ketyl radicals as intermediates is proposed. ..
  31. Diokno A, Appell R, Sand P, Dmochowski R, Gburek B, Klimberg I, et al. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy and tolerability of the extended-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine for overactive bladder: results of the OPERA trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:687-95 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and tolerability of extended-release formulations of oxybutynin chloride and tolterodine tartrate in women with overactive bladder...
  32. Mattiasson A, Blaakaer J, Høye K, Wein A. Simplified bladder training augments the effectiveness of tolterodine in patients with an overactive bladder. BJU Int. 2003;91:54-60 pubmed
    ..Tolterodine 2 mg twice daily is an effective and well tolerated treatment for an overactive bladder, the effectiveness of which can be augmented by a simplified BT regimen. ..
  33. Chapple C, Rechberger T, al Shukri S, Meffan P, Everaert K, Huang M, et al. Randomized, double-blind placebo- and tolterodine-controlled trial of the once-daily antimuscarinic agent solifenacin in patients with symptomatic overactive bladder. BJU Int. 2004;93:303-10 pubmed
    ..Solifenacin demonstrated significantly favourable efficacy to side-effect ratio in treating symptomatic OAB. ..
  34. Coyne K, Elinoff V, Gordon D, Deng D, Brodsky M, Glasser D, et al. Relationships between improvements in symptoms and patient assessments of bladder condition, symptom bother and health-related quality of life in patients with overactive bladder treated with tolterodine. Int J Clin Pract. 2008;62:925-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Relationships were evaluated between treatment-related improvements in overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms as recorded in bladder diaries and patient-reported symptom bother, bladder-related problems and health-related quality of life (HRQL)...
  35. Mewe M, Wulfsen I, Schuster A, Middendorff R, Glassmeier G, Schwarz J, et al. Erg K+ channels modulate contractile activity in the bovine epididymal duct. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data provide strong evidence for a physiological role of erg1 channels in regulating epididymal motility patterns. ..
  36. Diness T, Yeh Y, Qi X, Chartier D, Tsuji Y, Hansen R, et al. Antiarrhythmic properties of a rapid delayed-rectifier current activator in rabbit models of acquired long QT syndrome. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;79:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Pharmacological activation of I(Kr) reverses acquired LQTS and TdP caused by bradycardic remodelling and I(Kr)-blocking drugs. I(Kr)-activating drug therapy could be a potentially interesting treatment approach for LQTS. ..
  37. Khullar V, Hill S, Laval K, Schiøtz H, Jonas U, Versi E. Treatment of urge-predominant mixed urinary incontinence with tolterodine extended release: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Urology. 2004;64:269-74; discussion 274-5 pubmed
    ..To examine the efficacy and tolerability of antimuscarinic therapy in women with urge-predominant mixed incontinence...
  38. Hansen R, Diness T, Christ T, Demnitz J, Ravens U, Olesen S, et al. Activation of human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels by the diphenylurea 1,3-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1643). Mol Pharmacol. 2006;69:266-77 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, HERG channel activation by small molecules such as NS1643 increases the repolarization reserve and presents an interesting new antiarrhythmic approach. ..
  39. Oxford J, Lambkin R, Gibb I, Balasingam S, Chan C, Catchpole A. A throat lozenge containing amyl meta cresol and dichlorobenzyl alcohol has a direct virucidal effect on respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and SARS-CoV. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2005;16:129-34 pubmed
  40. Drutz H, Appell R, Gleason D, Klimberg I, Radomski S. Clinical efficacy and safety of tolterodine compared to oxybutynin and placebo in patients with overactive bladder. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 1999;10:283-9 pubmed
    ..Tolterodine has equivalent efficacy to oxybutynin, but with less severe adverse effects. This will allow patients to receive more effective treatment for their condition, with better compliance...
  41. Kelleher C, Reese P, Pleil A, Okano G. Health-related quality of life of patients receiving extended-release tolterodine for overactive bladder. Am J Manag Care. 2002;8:S608-15 pubmed
    ..These HRQoL improvements were consistent with clinical efficacy benefits. Patients receiving tolterodine ER experienced overall improvement in their condition that was associated with an important impact on their HRQoL. ..
  42. Brubaker L, Chapple C, Coyne K, Kopp Z. Patient-reported outcomes in overactive bladder: importance for determining clinical effectiveness of treatment. Urology. 2006;68:3-8 pubmed
    ..We provide an overview of instruments used to assess symptoms, health-related quality of life, and treatment satisfaction in patients with OAB and discuss how PROs can be incorporated into clinical trial protocols...
  43. Bammens B, Evenepoel P, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem Y. Removal of middle molecules and protein-bound solutes by peritoneal dialysis and relation with uremic symptoms. Kidney Int. 2003;64:2238-43 pubmed
    ..Our data further suggest that protein-bound solutes are involved in the pathophysiology of uremic symptoms. ..
  44. Tsao J, Heilman K. Transient memory impairment and hallucinations associated with tolterodine use. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:2274-5 pubmed
  45. Dou L, Cerini C, Brunet P, Guilianelli C, Moal V, Grau G, et al. P-cresol, a uremic toxin, decreases endothelial cell response to inflammatory cytokines. Kidney Int. 2002;62:1999-2009 pubmed
    ..P-cresol may play a role in the immune defect of uremic patients by inhibiting cytokine-induced endothelial adhesion molecule expression and endothelium/monocyte adhesion. ..
  46. Cerini C, Dou L, Anfosso F, Sabatier F, Moal V, Glorieux G, et al. P-cresol, a uremic retention solute, alters the endothelial barrier function in vitro. Thromb Haemost. 2004;92:140-50 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results show that p-cresol causes a severe dysfunction of endothelial barrier function in vitro and suggest this uremic retention solute may participate in the endothelium dysfunction observed in CRF patients. ..
  47. Coyne K, Matza L, Thompson C. The responsiveness of the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q). Qual Life Res. 2005;14:849-55 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Overactive Bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) during anti-muscarinic treatment...
  48. Homma Y, Kawabe K. Health-related quality of life of Japanese patients with overactive bladder treated with extended-release tolterodine or immediate-release oxybutynin: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. World J Urol. 2004;22:251-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that Japanese OAB patients receiving tolterodine ER or oxybutynin experienced overall improvement in their quality of life...
  49. Serati M, Salvatore S, Uccella S, Cromi A, Khullar V, Cardozo L, et al. Urinary incontinence at orgasm: relation to detrusor overactivity and treatment efficacy. Eur Urol. 2008;54:911-5 pubmed
    ..To understand the pathophysiological mechanism of incontinence during orgasm and to compare women affected by symptomatic detrusor overactivity (DO) with and without incontinence at orgasm in terms of efficacy of antimuscarinic treatment...
  50. Van Kerrebroeck P, Kreder K, Jonas U, Zinner N, Wein A. Tolterodine once-daily: superior efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of the overactive bladder. Urology. 2001;57:414-21 pubmed
  51. Jungbluth H, Zhou H, Sewry C, Robb S, Treves S, Bitoun M, et al. Centronuclear myopathy due to a de novo dominant mutation in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene. Neuromuscul Disord. 2007;17:338-45 pubmed
  52. Veeresh G, Kumar P, Mehrotra I. Treatment of phenol and cresols in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process: a review. Water Res. 2005;39:154-70 pubmed
    ..recognition of the UASB process, feasibility studies on the treatment of wastewater containing phenol and cresols (o-, m- and p- isomers) in UASB have been reviewed...
  53. Kavitha V, Palanivelu K. Destruction of cresols by Fenton oxidation process. Water Res. 2005;39:3062-72 pubmed
    The present study was used to probe the treatment of simulated wastewater containing cresols by Fenton process...
  54. De Smet R, Van Kaer J, van Vlem B, De Cubber A, Brunet P, Lameire N, et al. Toxicity of free p-cresol: a prospective and cross-sectional analysis. Clin Chem. 2003;49:470-8 pubmed
    ..Patients hospitalized for infections have higher free p-cresol. In vitro, high free p-cresol has a negative impact on leukocyte chemiluminescence production. These data demonstrate the toxicity of free p-cresol. ..
  55. Shaya F, Blume S, Gu A, Zyczynski T, Jumadilova Z. Persistence with overactive bladder pharmacotherapy in a Medicaid population. Am J Manag Care. 2005;11:S121-9 pubmed
  56. Michel M, de la Rosette J, Piro M, Schneider T. Comparison of symptom severity and treatment response in patients with incontinent and continent overactive bladder. Eur Urol. 2005;48:110-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we have explored baseline symptoms and treatment responses to tolterodine in continent relative to incontinent OAB patients...
  57. Sussman D, Garely A. Treatment of overactive bladder with once-daily extended-release tolterodine or oxybutynin: the antimuscarinic clinical effectiveness trial (ACET). Curr Med Res Opin. 2002;18:177-84 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the greater efficacy and tolerability of tolterodine ER 4 mg suggests improved clinical effectiveness compared with oxybutynin ER 10 mg. ..
  58. Cardozo L, Coyne K, Versi E. Validation of the urgency perception scale. BJU Int. 2005;95:591-6 pubmed
    ..To ascertain the validity and responsiveness of the Urgency Perception Scale (UPS) as an indicator of perceived urinary urgency...
  59. Appell R, Sand P, Dmochowski R, Anderson R, Zinner N, Lama D, et al. Prospective randomized controlled trial of extended-release oxybutynin chloride and tolterodine tartrate in the treatment of overactive bladder: results of the OBJECT Study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:358-63 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and tolerability of extended-release oxybutynin chloride and tolterodine tartrate at 12 weeks in participants with overactive bladder...
  60. Womack K, Heilman K. Tolterodine and memory: dry but forgetful. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:771-3 pubmed
    ..Anticholinergic drugs are known to produce or enhance cognitive deficits. Tolterodine tartrate is marketed as a bladder-selective anticholinergic drug that is reported to be free of significant cognitive adverse effects...
  61. Fessenden J, Perez C, Goth S, Pessah I, Allen P. Identification of a key determinant of ryanodine receptor type 1 required for activation by 4-chloro-m-cresol. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:28727-35 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that essential determinants required for activation of RyR1 by 4-CmC reside within a 173-amino acid region between residues 4007 and 4180. ..
  62. de Loor H, Bammens B, Evenepoel P, De Preter V, Verbeke K. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis for measurement of p-cresol and its conjugated metabolites in uremic and normal serum. Clin Chem. 2005;51:1535-8 pubmed
  63. Freeman R, Hill S, Millard R, Slack M, Sutherst J. Reduced perception of urgency in treatment of overactive bladder with extended-release tolterodine. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102:605-11 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effect of once-daily, extended-release tolterodine on urinary urgency in patients with overactive bladder...
  64. Millard R. Clinical efficacy of tolterodine with or without a simplified pelvic floor exercise regimen. Neurourol Urodyn. 2004;23:48-53 pubmed
  65. Casis O, Olesen S, Sanguinetti M. Mechanism of action of a novel human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel activator. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;69:658-65 pubmed
    ..We conclude that NS1643 is a partial agonist of hERG channels and that the mechanism of activation is reduced channel inactivation. ..
  66. Meijers B, Bammens B, De Moor B, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem Y, Evenepoel P. Free p-cresol is associated with cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2008;73:1174-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that free p-cresol is a novel cardiovascular risk factor in non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. ..
  67. Anderson R, MacDiarmid S, Kell S, Barada J, Serels S, Goldberg R. Effectiveness and tolerability of extended-release oxybutynin vs extended-release tolterodine in women with or without prior anticholinergic treatment for overactive bladder. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006;17:502-11 pubmed
    ..Discontinuation rates were comparably low across groups. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of initiating treatment for OAB with extended-release oxybutynin, particularly in women presenting with incontinence...
  68. Dawson L, Stabler R, Wren B. Assessing the role of p-cresol tolerance in Clostridium difficile. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:745-9 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile strains including 630, CF4 and CD196. Surprising, it was shown that Clostridium sordellii also has a high tolerance to p-cresol, suggesting an overlap in the tolerance pathways in these clostridial species...
  69. Chapple C, van Kerrebroeck P, Tubaro A, Haag Molkenteller C, Forst H, Massow U, et al. Clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-daily fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder. Eur Urol. 2007;52:1204-12 pubmed
    ..To determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB)...
  70. Tallur P, Megadi V, Kamanavalli C, Ninnekar H. Biodegradation of p-cresol by Bacillus sp. strain PHN 1. Curr Microbiol. 2006;53:529-33 pubmed
    ..Such a bacterial strain can be used for bioremediation of environments contaminated with phenolic compounds. ..