trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid


Summary: A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.

Top Publications

  1. Yang J, Yu Y, Yu H, Zuo X, Liu C, Gao L, et al. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in experimental inflammation of mouse gut. Eur J Pain. 2010;14:574-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This article highlights the role of BDNF in colonic and referred bladder hyperalgesia in mice. The findings might help in determining novel pharmaceutical interventions targeted at BDNF to relieve abdominal pain. ..
  2. Pontell L, Castelucci P, Bagyánszki M, Jovic T, Thacker M, Nurgali K, et al. Structural changes in the epithelium of the small intestine and immune cell infiltration of enteric ganglia following acute mucosal damage and local inflammation. Virchows Arch. 2009;455:55-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This is much briefer than the enteric neuropathy that ensues. Ongoing mucosal inflammatory reaction may contribute to the persistence of enteric neuropathy. ..
  3. Bellavia M, Rappa F, Lo Bello M, Brecchia G, Tomasello G, Leone A, et al. Lactobacillus casei and bifidobacterium lactis supplementation reduces tissue damage of intestinal mucosa and liver after 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid treatment in mice. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2014;28:251-61 pubmed
    ..Experimentation in human subjects in needed to prove their efficacy in reducing histological alterations that may be present in subjects with IBD. ..
  4. Mahavadi S, Flynn R, Grider J, Qiao L, Murthy K, Hazelgrove K, et al. Amelioration of excess collagen I?I, fibrosis, and smooth muscle growth in TNBS-induced colitis in IGF-I(+/-) mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings indicate that IGF-I is a key regulator in intestinal smooth muscle hyperplasia and excess collagen production that leads to fibrosis and long term to stricture formation. ..
  5. Witaicenis A, Fruet A, Salem L, Di Stasi L. Dietary polydextrose prevents inflammatory bowel disease in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis. J Med Food. 2010;13:1391-6 pubmed publisher high doses, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventative effect of polydextrose on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced intestinal inflammation and its effects on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of ..
  6. Nurgali K, Qu Z, Hunne B, Thacker M, Pontell L, Furness J. Morphological and functional changes in guinea-pig neurons projecting to the ileal mucosa at early stages after inflammatory damage. J Physiol. 2011;589:325-39 pubmed publisher
  7. Oehlers S, Flores M, Okuda K, Hall C, Crosier K, Crosier P. A chemical enterocolitis model in zebrafish larvae that is dependent on microbiota and responsive to pharmacological agents. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:288-98 pubmed publisher
    ..This system will be useful to rapidly interrogate in vivo the biological significance of the IBD candidate genes so far identified and to carry out pharmacological modifier screens. ..
  8. Paiotti A, Miszputen S, Oshima C, Artigiani Neto R, Ribeiro D, Franco M. Etanercept attenuates TNBS-induced experimental colitis: role of TNF-? expression. J Mol Histol. 2011;42:443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment with etanercept attenuated the colonic damages and reduced the inflammation caused by TNBS. Taken together, our results suggest that ETC attenuates intestinal colitis induced by TNBS in Wistar rats by TNF-? downregulation. ..
  9. Liu P, Lu C, Wang C, Lee I, Hsieh J, Chen C, et al. Spinal microglia initiate and maintain hyperalgesia in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2012;142:165-173.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated spinal microglia have important roles in maintaining and initiating chronic pain in a rat model of CP. Microglia might be a target for treatment of hyperalgesia caused by pancreatic inflammation. ..

More Information


  1. Rosillo M, Sanchez Hidalgo M, Cárdeno A, Aparicio Soto M, Sánchez Fidalgo S, Villegas I, et al. Dietary supplementation of an ellagic acid-enriched pomegranate extract attenuates chronic colonic inflammation in rats. Pharmacol Res. 2012;66:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Dietary supplementation of EA contributes in the beneficial effect of PE in this experimental colitis model and may be a novel therapeutic strategy to manage inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). ..
  2. da Silva M, Sánchez Fidalgo S, Talero E, Cárdeno A, da Silva M, Villegas W, et al. Anti-inflammatory intestinal activity of Abarema cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & Grimes in TNBS colitis model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128:467-75 pubmed publisher
  3. Vermeulen W, de Man J, Nullens S, Pelckmans P, de Winter B, Moreels T. The use of colonoscopy to follow the inflammatory time course of TNBS colitis in rats. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2011;74:304-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that routine endoscopy is a reliable method for monitoring the development and follow-up of the degree of TNBS colitis in rats. ..
  4. Paiotti A, Miszputen S, Oshima C, De Oliveira Costa H, Ribeiro D, Franco M. Effect of COX-2 inhibitor after TNBS-induced colitis in Wistar rats. J Mol Histol. 2009;40:317-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the use of COX-2 inhibitors for treating IBD should be considered with caution and warrants further experimental investigation to elucidate their applicability. ..
  5. Lee B, Lee J, Lee H, Bae E, Huh C, Ahn Y, et al. Glycosaminoglycan degradation-inhibitory lactic acid bacteria ameliorate 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:616-21 pubmed
    ..These LAB inhibited colon shortening and myeloperoxidase production in 2,4,6- trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitic mice...
  6. San Miguel B, Crespo I, Kretzmann N, Mauriz J, Marroni N, Tunon M, et al. Glutamine prevents fibrosis development in rats with colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. J Nutr. 2010;140:1065-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This molecule may be an interesting candidate for reducing the risk of fibrosis and stricture formation in inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  7. Periasamy S, Hsu D, Chandrasekaran V, Liu M. Sesame oil accelerates healing of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced acute colitis by attenuating inflammation and fibrosis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2013;37:674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the protective effect of sesame oil against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis in rats...
  8. Liu X, Wang J. Anti-inflammatory effects of iridoid glycosides fraction of Folium syringae leaves on TNBS-induced colitis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133:780-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects and the protective mechanism of iridoid glycosides (IG) enriched from Folium syringae leaves on ulcerative colitis (UC) model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats.
  9. Abdallah D, Ismael N. Resveratrol abrogates adhesion molecules and protects against TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;89:811-8 pubmed publisher
  10. Brenna Ø, Furnes M, Drozdov I, van Beelen Granlund A, Flatberg A, Sandvik A, et al. Relevance of TNBS-colitis in rats: a methodological study with endoscopic, histologic and Transcriptomic [corrected] characterization and correlation to IBD. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54543 pubmed publisher
    ..TNBS-colitis is an appropriate model to study specific biological processes in IBD. ..
  11. Zhao Y, Zhang S, Jiang L, Jiang J, Liu H. Preventive effects of Schistosoma japonicum ova on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis and bacterial translocation in mice. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:1775-80 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the preventive effects of Schistosoma japonicum ova on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis and bacterial translocation in mice...
  12. Vavassori P, Mencarelli A, Renga B, Distrutti E, Fiorucci S. The bile acid receptor FXR is a modulator of intestinal innate immunity. J Immunol. 2009;183:6251-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In aggregate, these findings provide evidence that FXR is an essential component of a network of nuclear receptors that regulate intestinal innate immunity and homeostasis. ..
  13. Pan X, Gonzalez J, Chang S, Chacko S, Wein A, Malykhina A. Experimental colitis triggers the release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the urinary bladder via TRPV1 signaling pathways. Exp Neurol. 2010;225:262-73 pubmed publisher
  14. Gadaleta R, van Erpecum K, Oldenburg B, Willemsen E, Renooij W, Murzilli S, et al. Farnesoid X receptor activation inhibits inflammation and preserves the intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 2011;60:463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of FXR agonists in the treatment of intestinal inflammation in complementary in vivo and in vitro models...
  15. Yin B, Hu X, Wang J, Liang H, Li X, Niu N, et al. Blocking TNF-? by combination of TNF-?- and TNFR-binding cyclic peptide ameliorates the severity of TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;656:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This combination may be a potent candidate for clinical treatment of the inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  16. Koon H, Shih D, Karagiannides I, Zhao D, Fazelbhoy Z, Hing T, et al. Substance P modulates colitis-associated fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:2300-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied whether SP modulates colonic fibrosis by using a chronic model of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and NK-1R-deficient (NK-1R KD) mice...
  17. Zhou Q, Price D, Caudle R, Verne G. Spinal NMDA NR1 subunit expression following transient TNBS colitis. Brain Res. 2009;1279:109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The recombination of NR1 splice variants may serve as a key functional protein that maintains hypersensitivity following resolution of TNBS colitis. ..
  18. Zhang W, Gao J, Zhao T, Wu W, Bai Y, Zou D, et al. High-dose naproxen aggravates pancreatic fibrosis in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2010;39:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..05). High-dose naproxen treatment (40 mg/kg PO) aggravated pancreatic fibrosis in CP rats and played an algogenic role that suggests the potential risk of long-term use of NSAIDs as analgesic in clinical practice with CP. ..
  19. Abdolghaffari A, Baghaei A, Moayer F, Esmaily H, Baeeri M, Monsef Esfahani H, et al. On the benefit of Teucrium in murine colitis through improvement of toxic inflammatory mediators. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010;29:287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination of this herbal medicine in patients with IBD as a supplement would further reveal the potential of Teucrium...
  20. Mencarelli A, Distrutti E, Renga B, D Amore C, Cipriani S, Palladino G, et al. Probiotics modulate intestinal expression of nuclear receptor and provide counter-regulatory signals to inflammation-driven adipose tissue activation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22978 pubmed publisher
    ..Mesenteric adipose tissue from rodent colitis and Crohn's disease is metabolically active and shows inflammation-driven regulation of PPAR?, FXR and leptin. Probiotics correct the inflammation-driven metabolic dysfunction. ..
  21. Feng Q, Wang W, Feng X, Mei X, Zhu C, Liu Z, et al. Astrocytic activation in thoracic spinal cord contributes to persistent pain in rat model of chronic pancreatitis. Neuroscience. 2010;167:501-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide for the first time that astrocytes may play a critical role in pain of CP. Some actions could be taken to prevent astrocytic activation to treat pain in CP patients...
  22. Qian A, Song D, Li Y, Liu X, Tang D, Yao W, et al. Role of voltage gated Ca2+ channels in rat visceral hypersensitivity change induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Mol Pain. 2013;9:15 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the molecular mechanisms and the role for voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) in the pathogenesis in a rat model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced visceral inflammatory hypersensitivity.
  23. Joh E, Lee I, Jung I, Kim D. Ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolite compound K inhibit IRAK-1 activation--the key step of inflammation. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;82:278-86 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these findings, ginsenosides, particularly compounds K, could be used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as colitis, by targeting IRAK-1 activation. ..
  24. Funakoshi T, Yamashita K, Ichikawa N, Fukai M, Suzuki T, Goto R, et al. A novel NF-?B inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, ameliorates inflammatory colonic injury in mice. J Crohns Colitis. 2012;6:215-25 pubmed publisher
    ..DHMEQ ameliorated experimental colitis in mice. These results indicate that DHMEQ appears to be an attractive therapeutic agent for IBD. ..
  25. Qin H, Xiao H, Wu J, Berman B, Sung J, Bian Z. Key factors in developing the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome model in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:2481-92 pubmed publisher
    ..TNBS dosage, concentration, intracolonic administration position, and ethanol percentage play important roles in developing visceral hyperalgesia and EC cell hyperplasia of TNBS-induced PI-IBS rats. ..
  26. Hoshino S, Inaba M, Iwai H, Ito T, Li M, Gershwin M, et al. The role of dendritic cell subsets in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis. J Autoimmun. 2010;34:380-9 pubmed publisher
  27. Mariman R, Kremer B, van Erk M, Lagerweij T, Koning F, Nagelkerken L. Gene expression profiling identifies mechanisms of protection to recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis mediated by probiotics. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18:1424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are in favor of a model in which probiotics downregulate expression of chemokines in the colon, thereby decreasing influx of inflammatory cells and rendering mice resistant to the induction of colitis. ..
  28. Ando Y, Inaba M, Sakaguchi Y, Tsuda M, Quan G, Omae M, et al. Subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived stem cells facilitate colonic mucosal recovery from 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008;14:826-38 pubmed publisher
    ..ADSCs can accelerate the regeneration of injured regions in experimental colitis. HGF, VEGF, and adiponectin might be responsible for the regeneration of injured regions in the colon. ..
  29. Wirtz S, Neufert C, Weigmann B, Neurath M. Chemically induced mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Nat Protoc. 2007;2:541-6 pubmed
    ..The procedures for the hapten models of colitis and acute DSS colitis can be accomplished in about 2 weeks but the protocol for chronic DSS colitis takes about 2 months. ..
  30. Beck P, Li Y, Wong J, Chen C, Keenan C, Sharkey K, et al. Inducible nitric oxide synthase from bone marrow-derived cells plays a critical role in regulating colonic inflammation. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:1778-90 pubmed
    ..iNOS produced by BM-derived cells plays a critical role in mediating the inflammatory response during colitis. Cell-specific regulation of iNOS may represent a novel form of therapy for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  31. Li X, Cai Y, Qin H, Wu Y. Therapeutic effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds in rats with TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86:841-9 pubmed publisher
  32. Zhang Z, Zheng M, Bindas J, Schwarzenberger P, Kolls J. Critical role of IL-17 receptor signaling in acute TNBS-induced colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006;12:382-8 pubmed
    ..Using a model of acute trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, we found that IL-17 was produced in colon tissue at 24 and 48 hours and that IL-..
  33. Kim I, Kong H, Lee Y, Hong S, Han J, Jung S, et al. Dexamethasone 21-sulfate improves the therapeutic properties of dexamethasone against experimental rat colitis by specifically delivering the steroid to the large intestine. Pharm Res. 2009;26:415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..DS is a promising colon specific prodrug that improves therapeutic properties of D. ..
  34. Alex P, Zachos N, Nguyen T, Gonzales L, Chen T, Conklin L, et al. Distinct cytokine patterns identified from multiplex profiles of murine DSS and TNBS-induced colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:341-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide insight into disease immunopathogenesis and illustrate the significant potential of utilizing multiplex cytokine profiles and bioinformatics as diagnostic tools in IBD. ..
  35. Martinez Augustin O, Merlos M, Zarzuelo A, Suárez M, de Medina F. Disturbances in metabolic, transport and structural genes in experimental colonic inflammation in the rat: a longitudinal genomic analysis. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:490 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes observed correlate with pathophysiological disturbances such as tissue remodelling and alterations in ion transport, which are characteristic of both this model and IBD. ..
  36. De Schepper H, de Winter B, van Nassauw L, Timmermans J, Herman A, Pelckmans P, et al. TRPV1 receptors on unmyelinated C-fibres mediate colitis-induced sensitization of pelvic afferent nerve fibres in rats. J Physiol. 2008;586:5247-58 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPV1 signalling mediates the colitis-induced sensitization of pelvic afferent C-fibres to CRD, while Adelta-fibres are neither sensitized by colitis nor affected by TRPV1 inhibition. ..
  37. Rivera E, Flores I, Rivera E, Appleyard C. Molecular profiling of a rat model of colitis: validation of known inflammatory genes and identification of novel disease-associated targets. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006;12:950-66 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence supporting the TNBS colitis model as an appropriate tool to study the pathology of IBD and identify molecular targets with clinical relevance. ..
  38. te Velde A, de Kort F, Sterrenburg E, Pronk I, ten Kate F, Hommes D, et al. Comparative analysis of colonic gene expression of three experimental colitis models mimicking inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007;13:325-30 pubmed
    ..The pattern of gene expression in the CD45RB transfer model most closely reflects altered gene expression in IBD. ..
  39. Zhou Q, Caudle R, Price D, Del Valle Pinero A, Verne G. Selective up-regulation of NMDA-NR1 receptor expression in myenteric plexus after TNBS induced colitis in rats. Mol Pain. 2006;2:3 pubmed
    ..Up-regulation of NMDA receptor subunits may reflect part of the basis for chronic visceral hypersensitivity in conditions such as post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. ..
  40. Malamut G, Cabane C, Dubuquoy L, Malapel M, Derijard B, Gay J, et al. No evidence for an involvement of the p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein in inflammatory bowel diseases. Dig Dis Sci. 2006;51:1443-53 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results minimize the role of p38 and JNK in inflammatory colitis and the interest of p38 as a therapeutic target in IBD. ..
  41. O Hara J, Lomax A, Mawe G, Sharkey K. Ileitis alters neuronal and enteroendocrine signalling in guinea pig distal colon. Gut. 2007;56:186-94 pubmed
    ..These changes underlie altered function in non-involved regions during episodes of intestinal inflammation. ..
  42. Gonzalez Rey E, Delgado M. Therapeutic treatment of experimental colitis with regulatory dendritic cells generated with vasoactive intestinal peptide. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:1799-811 pubmed
  43. Kawada M, Arihiro A, Mizoguchi E. Insights from advances in research of chemically induced experimental models of human inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:5581-93 pubmed
    ..We also summarize some regulatory and pathogenic factors demonstrated by these models that can, hopefully, be exploited to develop future therapeutic strategies against IBD. ..
  44. Mudter J, Amoussina L, Schenk M, Yu J, Brüstle A, Weigmann B, et al. The transcription factor IFN regulatory factor-4 controls experimental colitis in mice via T cell-derived IL-6. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2415-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data identify IRF4 as a key regulator of mucosal IL-6 production in T cell-dependent experimental colitis and suggest that IRF4 might provide a therapeutic target for IBDs. ..
  45. Cheng H, Xia B, Guo Q, Zhang L, Wang F, Jiang L, et al. Sinomenine attenuates 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007;7:604-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that sinomenine attenuates TNBS-induced colitis in mice and the therapeutic mechanism might be related to the reduction of up-regulated colonic TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma production caused by TNBS. ..
  46. De Schepper H, de Man J, Ruyssers N, Deiteren A, van Nassauw L, Timmermans J, et al. TRPV1 receptor signaling mediates afferent nerve sensitization during colitis-induced motility disorders in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G245-53 pubmed
    ..We provided pharmacological, immunocytochemical, and molecular biological evidence that this sensitization is mediated by TRPV1 receptors and involves CGRP release. ..
  47. Gay J, Kokkotou E, O Brien M, Pothoulakis C, Karalis K. Interleukin-6 genetic ablation protects from trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Putative effect of antiinflammatory cytokines. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2006;13:114-21 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that Il-6(-/-)are partially protected from the development of TNBS-induced acute experimental colitis, most likely via their significantly elevated baseline levels of antiinflammatory cytokines. ..
  48. Qiao L, Gulick M, Bowers J, Kuemmerle J, Grider J. Differential changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat primary afferent pathways with colitis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:928-38 pubmed publisher
  49. Ustinova E, Gutkin D, Pezzone M. Sensitization of pelvic nerve afferents and mast cell infiltration in the urinary bladder following chronic colonic irritation is mediated by neuropeptides. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F123-30 pubmed
    ..Female Sprague-Dawley rats received intrarectal trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) or vehicle 3 days following either systemic capsaicin (CP) pretreatment or vehicle...
  50. Lamb K, Zhong F, Gebhart G, Bielefeldt K. Experimental colitis in mice and sensitization of converging visceral and somatic afferent pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;290:G451-7 pubmed
    ..We induced colitis in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); control animals were treated with equal volumes of vehicle (50% ethanol) only...
  51. Ohashi K, Sato Y, Iwata H, Kawai M, Kurebayashi Y. Colonic mast cell infiltration in rats with TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:1223-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that prominent colonic mast cell infiltration associated with an enhanced spontaneous mediator release is responsible, at least partly, for development of visceral hypersensitivity induced by TNBS in rats. ..
  52. Ohashi K, Sato Y, Kawai M, Kurebayashi Y. Abolishment of TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity in mast cell deficient rats. Life Sci. 2008;82:419-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results support the view that mucosal mast cells play key roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. ..
  53. Pohlmann A, Tilling L, Robinson A, Woolmer O, McCleary S, Kruidenier L, et al. Progression and variability of TNBS colitis-associated inflammation in rats assessed by contrast-enhanced and T2-weighted MRI. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:534-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This methodology provides unique and objective in vivo measures of inflammation that can guide dosing strategies, enhancing colitis research effectiveness and the assessment of potential IBD therapeutics. ..