Summary: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.

Top Publications

  1. Abdel Razak O, Belal S, Bedair M, Barakat N, Haggag R. Spectrophotometric and polarographic determination of enalapril and lisinopril using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003;31:701-11 pubmed
    The reaction of enalapril maleate and lisinopril with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene has been used to form colored products and polarographically active derivatives. The different experimental conditions have been optimized...
  2. Yuan X, Liu W, Zhang P, Wang R, Guo J. Effects and mechanisms of aloperine on 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced allergic contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;629:147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aloperine on 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice and the possible underlying mechanisms...
  3. Sakai S, Sugawara T, Kishi T, Yanagimoto K, Hirata T. Effect of glucosamine and related compounds on the degranulation of mast cells and ear swelling induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice. Life Sci. 2010;86:337-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) sensitized BALB/c mice were administrated orally with 1 or 0.1mg GlcN-HCl or GlcNAc for 6 days...
  4. Nojima H, Carstens E. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2 receptor involvement in acute 5-HT-evoked scratching but not in allergic pruritus induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;306:245-52 pubmed
    ..To produce a model of allergic pruritus, skin was sensitized by topical application of 5% dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). One month later, repeated challenge of the skin with 0...
  5. Nam D, Lee J, Heo J, Lee S. Mitigation of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-related symptoms by Terminalia chebula Retzius. Int J Mol Med. 2011;28:1013-8 pubmed publisher
    ..an aqueous seed extract of Terminalia chebula Retzius inhibited development of atopy in vivo, we used a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced animal model of atopic symptoms to investigate the effects of the extract...
  6. Kim T, Kim G, Jin Y, Park Y, Park C. Omega-3 fatty acid-derived mediator, Resolvin E1, ameliorates 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;14:384-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, RvE1 may suppress the development of AD-like skin lesions in DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice by reducing IL-4 and IFN-? of activated CD4(+) T cells and serum IgE levels and infiltration of immune cells to skin lesion. ..
  7. Liu Y, Gotte G, Libonati M, Eisenberg D. Structures of the two 3D domain-swapped RNase A trimers. Protein Sci. 2002;11:371-80 pubmed
    ..These structures permit interpretation of the enzymatic activities of the RNase A oligomers on double-stranded RNA. ..
  8. Dahlstedt A, Westerblad H. Inhibition of creatine kinase reduces the rate of fatigue-induced decrease in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) in mouse skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2001;533:639-49 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the results suggest that the rate of P(i) transport into the SR critically depends on the myoplasmic Mg(2+)/ATP concentration. ..
  9. Perez A, Narayan S, Sansom J. Occupational contact dermatitis from 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. Contact Dermatitis. 2004;51:314 pubmed

More Information


  1. Kim T, Jung J, Kim G, Jang A, Cho J, Park Y, et al. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, inhibits the development of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:1310-5 pubmed publisher
    Repetitive skin contact with a chemical hapten like 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) evokes an atopic dermatitis (AD)-like dermatitis reaction in NC/Nga mice maintained under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions...
  2. Kim T, Jung J, Kim G, Jang A, Ahn H, Park Y, et al. Melatonin inhibits the development of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. J Pineal Res. 2009;47:324-9 pubmed publisher
    ..AD) is a common disease in children, and epicutaneous treatment with a chemical hapten such as 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) evokes an AD-like reaction in NC/Nga mice under specific pathogen-free conditions...
  3. Yuan X, Ma H, Li R, Wang R, Liu W, Guo J. Topical application of aloperine improves 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;658:263-9 pubmed publisher
    Aloperine has been shown to inhibit 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induced allergic contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice...
  4. Xiao W, Liu Y. Changes of CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rat model of colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:2528-32 pubmed
    ..CD8+ T subsets especially CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rat model of experimental colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). The rat model of experimental colitis was induced by enema with DNFB...
  5. Pae H, Ae Ha Y, Chai K, Chung H. Heme oxygenase-1 attenuates contact hypersensitivity induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene in mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2008;30:207-16 pubmed
    ..HO-1 in the pathogenesis of skin inflammation, using a mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)...
  6. Cruz M, Duarte C, Goncalo M, Figueiredo A, Carvalho A, Lopes M. Differential activation of nuclear factor kappa B subunits in a skin dendritic cell line in response to the strong sensitizer 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. Arch Dermatol Res. 2002;294:419-25 pubmed
    ..p52, p65, RelB and cRel, in a mouse skin DC line in response to stimulation with the strong sensitizer, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)...
  7. Feng Y, Zhou W, Wu Q, Li X, Zhao W, Zou J. Low dose of resveratrol enhanced immune response of mice. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002;23:893-7 pubmed
    ..Cytokine production was detected by ELISA method. Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was used to induce mice delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH, delayed hypersensitivity) response and ..
  8. Antonopoulos C, Cumberbatch M, Dearman R, Daniel R, Kimber I, Groves R. Functional caspase-1 is required for Langerhans cell migration and optimal contact sensitization in mice. J Immunol. 2001;166:3672-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that caspase-1 may play a central role in the regulation of LC migration and suggest that the activity of this enzyme is amenable to control by specific inhibitors both in vivo and in vitro. ..
  9. Arrighi J, Rebsamen M, Rousset F, Kindler V, Hauser C. A critical role for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the maturation of human blood-derived dendritic cells induced by lipopolysaccharide, TNF-alpha, and contact sensitizers. J Immunol. 2001;166:3837-45 pubmed
    ..DC maturation induced by the contact sensitizers 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene and NiSO(4), as seen by the up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD83, was also coupled to the phosphorylation ..
  10. Kim H, Kim M, Kim H, Lee G, An W, Cho S. Anti-inflammatory activities of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., root bark on allergic contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;149:471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. is widely used as a medicinal herb for treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, pruritus and urticaria in China, Japan and Korea...
  11. Ghia J, Blennerhassett P, Kumar Ondiveeran H, Verdu E, Collins S. The vagus nerve: a tonic inhibitory influence associated with inflammatory bowel disease in a murine model. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:1122-30 pubmed
    ..The identification of a counterinflammatory neural pathway would open new therapeutic avenues for treating acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  12. Yamashita H, Ito T, Kato H, Asai S, Tanaka H, Nagai H, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in a murine model of dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;645:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Cys A suppressed scratching behavior induced by application of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, as did tacrolimus...
  13. Zhou R, Zhang F, He P, Zhou W, Wu Q, Xu J, et al. (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8), a novel triptolide analog mediates immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5:1895-903 pubmed
    ..4 microg/kg, i.p.; 40 microg/kg, p.o.) intensively suppressed 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. Treatment with LLDT-8 (40 microg/kg, i.p...
  14. Wu G, Li L, Sung G, Kim T, Byeon S, Cho J, et al. Inhibition of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis by topical application of the butanol extract of Cordyceps bassiana in NC/Nga mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134:504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Dermatitis was induced by repeated application of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) in NC/Nga mice...
  15. Christensen A, Skov S, Haase C. Local and systemic effects of co-stimulatory blockade using cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4-immunoglobulin in dinitrofluorobenzene- and oxazolone-induced contact hypersensitivity in mice. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013;171:220-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed a dose-dependent suppression of the ear swelling in both dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)- and oxazolone-induced CHS...
  16. Kim M, Hur Y, Kim W, Park B, Ahn K, Kim J, et al. Inhibitory effect of Platycodon grandiflorum on T(H)1 and T(H)2 immune responses in a murine model of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106:54-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Platycodon grandiflorum is a traditional Asian medicine that is used to treat pulmonary and respiratory allergic disorders...
  17. Manetz T, Pettit D, Meade B. The determination of draining lymph node cell cytokine mRNA levels in BALB/c mice following dermal sodium lauryl sulfate, dinitrofluorobenzene, and toluene diisocyanate exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001;171:174-83 pubmed
    ..lauryl sulfate), respiratory sensitization (toluene diisocyanate), or T cell-mediated hypersensitivity (dinitrofluorobenzene) responses...
  18. Gotte G, Libonati M. Oligomerization of ribonuclease A: two novel three-dimensional domain-swapped tetramers. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36670-9 pubmed
    ..and Eisenberg, D. (2002) Protein Sci. 11, 1285-1299). ..
  19. Sakai S, Sugawara T, Hirata T. Inhibitory effect of dietary carotenoids on dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75:1013-5 pubmed
    We evaluated the effect of carotenoids on the dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact hypersensitivity in mice...
  20. Cruz M, Duarte C, Goncalo M, Figueiredo A, Carvalho A, Lopes M. The sensitizer 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene activates caspase-3 and induces cell death in a skin dendritic cell line. Int J Toxicol. 2003;22:43-8 pubmed
    ..experimental model, to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of two chemical sensitizers, a strong sensitizer (2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, DNFB) and a weak sensitizer (2,4-dichloronitrobenzene, DCNB)...
  21. Cannarile L, Cuzzocrea S, Santucci L, Agostini M, Mazzon E, Esposito E, et al. Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper is protective in Th1-mediated models of colitis. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:530-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results demonstrate that GILZ mimics the effects of glucocorticoids, suggesting a contribution of this protein to the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids in Th1-induced colitis. ..
  22. Olivier I, Theodorou V, Valet P, Castan Laurell I, Ferrier L, Eutamene H. Modifications of mesenteric adipose tissue during moderate experimental colitis in mice. Life Sci. 2014;94:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that these pro-inflammatory modifications of MAT have to be taken into account in the pathophysiology of IBD. ..
  23. Prendergast B, Pyter L. Photoperiod history differentially impacts reproduction and immune function in adult Siberian hamsters. J Biol Rhythms. 2009;24:509-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior photoperiod exposure has an enduring impact on the ability of the immune system to respond to subsequent changes in day length. ..
  24. Dubois B, Joubert G, Gomez de Agüero M, Gouanvic M, Goubier A, Kaiserlian D. Sequential role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in oral tolerance. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:1019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Biotherapies able to increase the susceptibility of effector T cells to the suppressive function of Treg may be valuable for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. ..
  25. Weil Z, Workman J, Nelson R. Housing condition alters immunological and reproductive responses to day length in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Horm Behav. 2007;52:261-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that short day enhancement of immune function is independent of photoperiod-mediated changes in the reproductive system. ..
  26. Ko J, Lam F, Cheung A. Amelioration of experimental colitis by Astragalus membranaceus through anti-oxidation and inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:5787-94 pubmed
    ..To investigate the protective effects of Astragalus membranaceus (Am) against hapten-induced colitis in male Sprague-Dawley rats as well as its underlying mechanism...
  27. Houtman R, Krijgsveld J, Kool M, Romijn E, Redegeld F, Nijkamp F, et al. Lung proteome alterations in a mouse model for nonallergic asthma. Proteomics. 2003;3:2008-18 pubmed
  28. Li T, Chen H, Yang Z, Liu X, Zhang L, Wang H. Evaluation of the immunosuppressive activity of artesunate in vitro and in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;16:306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations exhibit the potential of developing AST as a novel safe remedy for the treatment of T cell-mediated immune disorders. ..
  29. Workman J, DeWitt S, Fonken L, Nelson R. Environmental enrichment enhances delayed-type hypersensitivity in both short- and long-day Siberian hamsters. Physiol Behav. 2010;99:638-43 pubmed publisher
  30. Olson R, Headley M, Hodzic A, Walsh G, Wingett D. In vitro and in vivo immunosuppressive activity of a novel anthracycline, 13-deoxy, 5-iminodoxorubicin. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007;7:734-43 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that DIDOX has important immunosuppressive activities that may warrant the development of this new and improved anthracycline for the treatment of T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. ..
  31. Wang D, Sun M, Liu G. Substituent diversity-directed synthesis of indole derivatives. J Comb Chem. 2009;11:556-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The synthetic products possessed the maximum six diversity points. ..
  32. Kimber I, Pichowski J, Betts C, Cumberbatch M, Basketter D, Dearman R. Alternative approaches to the identification and characterization of chemical allergens. Toxicol In Vitro. 2001;15:307-12 pubmed
  33. Sturniolo G, Fries W, Mazzon E, Di Leo V, Barollo M, D Incà R. Effect of zinc supplementation on intestinal permeability in experimental colitis. J Lab Clin Med. 2002;139:311-5 pubmed
    ..Zinc may regulate tight-junction permeability, with possible implications for healing processes in inflammatory bowel diseases. ..
  34. Grimm M, Newman R, Hassim Z, Cuan N, Connor S, Le Y, et al. Cutting edge: vasoactive intestinal peptide acts as a potent suppressor of inflammation in vivo by trans-deactivating chemokine receptors. J Immunol. 2003;171:4990-4 pubmed
    ..Circulating mononuclear cells from VIP-infused mice were unable to respond to chemokines. VIP may provide a novel approach to treatment of inflammatory diseases through inhibition of chemokine-dependent leukocyte recruitment. ..
  35. Wang H, Babic A, Mitchell H, Liu K, Wagner D. Elevated soluble ICAM-1 levels induce immune deficiency and increase adiposity in mice. FASEB J. 2005;19:1018-20 pubmed
  36. Ueda Y, Miyagawa N, Matsui T, Kaya T, Iwamura H. Involvement of cannabinoid CB(2) receptor-mediated response and efficacy of cannabinoid CB(2) receptor inverse agonist, JTE-907, in cutaneous inflammation in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;520:164-71 pubmed
    ..Orally administered JTE-907 (0.1-10 mg/kg) and SR 144528 (1 mg/kg) also produced significant inhibition of dinitrofluorobenzene-induced ear swelling, with increased cannabinoid CB(2) receptor mRNA expression observed in the inflamed ..
  37. Naftalin R. Evidence from studies of temperature-dependent changes of D-glucose, D-mannose and L-sorbose permeability that different states of activation of the human erythrocyte hexose transporter exist for good and bad substrates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1328:13-29 pubmed
    ..This view is inconsistent with the alternating carrier model of sugar transport in which net flux is considered to be rate-limited by return of the empty carrier, but is consistent with fixed two-site models. ..
  38. Kish D, Gorbachev A, Parameswaran N, Gupta N, Fairchild R. Neutrophil expression of Fas ligand and perforin directs effector CD8 T cell infiltration into antigen-challenged skin. J Immunol. 2012;189:2191-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate FasL/perforin-independent functions of hapten-primed CD8 T cells in CHS and identify new functions for neutrophils in regulating effector CD8 T cell recruitment and immune responses in the skin. ..
  39. Matsuda H, Tomohiro N, Ido Y, Kubo M. Anti-allergic effects of cnidii monnieri fructus (dried fruits of Cnidium monnieri) and its major component, osthol. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25:809-12 pubmed
    ..fruits of Cnidium monnieri) were investigated on 48 h homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis and picryl chloride (PC)-induced contact dermatitis in experimental ..
  40. Giustarini D, Dalle Donne I, Colombo R, Milzani A, Rossi R. An improved HPLC measurement for GSH and GSSG in human blood. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;35:1365-72 pubmed
    ..Among the proposed methods for GSH/GSSG detection, the amino group derivatization with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene followed by HPLC separation has the advantage of allowing evaluation of both parameters within a single run ..
  41. Inoue K, Yamada J, Ueno S, Fukuda A. Brain-type creatine kinase activates neuron-specific K+-Cl- co-transporter KCC2. J Neurochem. 2006;96:598-608 pubmed
    ..Moreover, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), an inhibitor of CKs, shifted Egly in the depolarizing direction...
  42. Millis R, Offiah G. Dietary protein deficiency in pregnant mice and offspring. Life Sci. 2007;80:1184-8 pubmed
    ..We measured dermal contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) by the increment in ear skin thickness (swelling) 72 h after immunization and parity by the number ..
  43. Graifer D, Babkina G, Matasova N, Vladimirov S, Karpova G, Vlassov V. Structural arrangement of tRNA binding sites on Escherichia coli ribosomes, as revealed from data on affinity labelling with photoactivatable tRNA derivatives. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;1008:146-56 pubmed
  44. Xie Q, Yan H, Li Y, Wang J, Wang J. [Effect of etoposide on allergic contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene and its action mechanism in mice]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007;42:1050-3 pubmed
    ..b>Dinitrofluorobenzene was used to induce the allergic contact dermatitis in mouse ear...
  45. Martin L, Weil Z, Bowers S, Nelson R. Sex-specific effects of glucose deprivation on cell-mediated immunity and reproduction in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). J Comp Physiol B. 2008;178:623-8 pubmed publisher
  46. Motegi S, Okazawa H, Murata Y, Kanazawa Y, Saito Y, Kobayashi H, et al. Essential roles of SHPS-1 in induction of contact hypersensitivity of skin. Immunol Lett. 2008;121:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, such regulation by SHPS-1 does not appear to require its interaction with CD47. ..
  47. Kish D, Li X, Fairchild R. CD8 T cells producing IL-17 and IFN-gamma initiate the innate immune response required for responses to antigen skin challenge. J Immunol. 2009;182:5949-59 pubmed publisher
  48. Roy S, Biswas S, Ray M, Ray S. Protective effect of creatine against inhibition by methylglyoxal of mitochondrial respiration of cardiac cells. Biochem J. 2003;372:661-9 pubmed
    ..The differential effect of creatine on mitochondria of cardiac and malignant cells has been discussed with reference to the therapeutic potential of methylglyoxal. ..
  49. Sahu R, Petrache I, Van Demark M, Rashid B, Ocana J, Tang Y, et al. Cigarette smoke exposure inhibits contact hypersensitivity via the generation of platelet-activating factor agonists. J Immunol. 2013;190:2447-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that the pro-oxidative stressor CS can modulate cutaneous immunity via the generation of PAF-R agonists produced through lipid oxidation. ..
  50. Shifrin H, Nadler Milbauer M, Shoham S, Weinstock M. Rivastigmine alleviates experimentally induced colitis in mice and rats by acting at central and peripheral sites to modulate immune responses. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57668 pubmed publisher
    ..These include ACh released from vagal nerve endings that activates alpha7 nicotinic receptors on circulating macrophages and in brainstem neurons. ..
  51. Pichowski J, Cumberbatch M, Dearman -, Basketter D, Kimber I. Investigation of induced changes in interleukin 1beta mRNA expression by cultured human dendritic cells as an in vitro approach to skin sensitization testing. Toxicol In Vitro. 2000;14:351-60 pubmed
    ..These blood-derived DC were cultured in the presence of the contact allergen 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), SLS or vehicle alone and mRNA expression for IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-18 was analysed by ..
  52. Horiuchi H, Ota M, Nishimura S, Kaneko H, Kasahara Y, Ohta T, et al. Allopurinol induces renal toxicity by impairing pyrimidine metabolism in mice. Life Sci. 2000;66:2051-70 pubmed
    ..Allopurinol-induced increases in plasma transaminase levels in dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-sensitized mice were not affected by uridine...
  53. Kim D, Jung J, Kim T, Seo S, Jung S, Park C. Oral administration of Uncariae rhynchophylla inhibits the development of DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions via IFN-gamma down-regulation in NC/Nga mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122:567-72 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined whether UR suppress Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice treated with 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) under SPF conditions...