Summary: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.

Top Publications

  1. Ahmad H, Tijerina M, Tobola A. Preferential overexpression of a class MU glutathione S-transferase subunit in mouse liver by myristicin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;236:825-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that myristicin could be an effective chemopreventive agent, particularly for carcinogens that are detoxified by the mu class GST. ..
  2. Warbrick E, Dearman R, Kimber I. Induced changes in total serum IgE concentration in the Brown Norway rat: potential for identification of chemical respiratory allergens. J Appl Toxicol. 2002;22:1-11 pubmed
    ..Contact allergens such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), which apparently lack respiratory sensitizing potential, fail to provoke similar changes...
  3. Dearman R, Warbrick E, Skinner R, Kimber I. Cytokine fingerprinting of chemical allergens: species comparisons and statistical analyses. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:1881-92 pubmed
    ..to the reference respiratory allergen trimellitic anhydride (TMA), or to the reference contact allergen 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)...
  4. Kuper C, Stierum R, Boorsma A, Schijf M, Prinsen M, Bruijntjes J, et al. The contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and respiratory allergy in the Th2-prone Brown Norway rat. Toxicology. 2008;246:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..allergy was tested in Th2-prone Brown Norway (BN) rats by dermal sensitization with the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB; 1%, day 0; 0...
  5. Fujii Y, Takeuchi H, Sakuma S, Sengoku T, Takakura S. Characterization of a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced chronic dermatitis model in rats. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;22:240-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Prominent ear thickening and scratching were induced after the application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the right ear of Brown Norway rats 3 times per week for 3 weeks...
  6. Christopoulos A, Diamantopoulos A, Dimopoulos P, Gumenos D, Barbalias G. Risk of tuberculosis in dialysis patients: association of tuberculin and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene reactivity with risk of tuberculosis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2006;38:745-51 pubmed
    ..Entering the study, participants had Mantoux and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene skin tests and their cell-mediated immunity (CMI)-index was estimated...
  7. Udomsinprasert R, Bogoyevitch M, Ketterman A. Reciprocal regulation of glutathione S-transferase spliceforms and the Drosophila c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway components. Biochem J. 2004;383:483-90 pubmed
    ..These results emphasize that different GST spliceforms possess different properties, both in their catalytic function and in their regulation of signalling through the JNK pathway. ..
  8. Choi E, Lee S, Hwang J, Im S, Jun C, Lee H, et al. DA-9601 suppresses 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene and dust mite extract-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:1260-4 pubmed publisher
    ..application of DA-9601 suppressed house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice model...
  9. von Nida J, Quirk C. Successful treatment of in-transit melanoma metastases using topical 2-4 dinitrochlorobenzene. Australas J Dermatol. 2003;44:277-80 pubmed
    ..As further lesions began to develop, daily topical application of 2% 2-4 dinitrochlorobenzene to the lesions was commenced...

More Information


  1. Aiba S, Manome H, Nakagawa S, Mollah Z, Mizuashi M, Ohtani T, et al. p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases play distinct roles in the activation of dendritic cells by two representative haptens, NiCl2 and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:390-9 pubmed
    ..e., NiCl2 and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells stimulated with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene induced the ..
  2. Dearman R, Filby A, Humphreys I, Kimber I. Interleukins 5 and 13 characterize immune responses to respiratory sensitizing acid anhydrides. J Appl Toxicol. 2002;22:317-25 pubmed
    ..Responses were compared with those induced by exposure to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), a contact allergen that lacks respiratory sensitizing potential...
  3. Yoshizawa Y, Izaki S, Kitamura K, Kawana S. Systemic immunotherapy with topical dinitrochlorobenzene as additional treatment of alopecia areata. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82:136-8 pubmed
  4. Belij S, Popov A, Zolotarevski L, Mirkov I, Djokic J, Kataranovski D, et al. Systemic immunomodulatory effects of topical dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in rats. Activity of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;33:168-80 pubmed publisher
    Topical application of dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) is employed in the immunotherapy of skin diseases...
  5. Madsen J, Vogel S, Johansen J, Andersen K. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2011;30:116-23 pubmed publisher
    ..However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± ..
  6. Farraj A, Harkema J, Kaminski N. Allergic rhinitis induced by intranasal sensitization and challenge with trimellitic anhydride but not with dinitrochlorobenzene or oxazolone in A/J mice. Toxicol Sci. 2004;79:315-25 pubmed
    ..and challenge with the known chemical respiratory allergen TMA, but not the nonrespiratory sensitizers dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and oxazolone (OXA), will induce characteristic features of LMW chemical-induced allergic airway ..
  7. Wack C, Becker J, Brocker E, Lutz W, Fischer W. Chemoimmunotherapy for melanoma with dacarbazine and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene: results from a murine tumour model. Melanoma Res. 2001;11:247-53 pubmed
    ..empirically established chemoimmunotherapy that combines the epifocal application of the contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to cutaneous metastases with the systemic administration of dacarbazine (DTIC) yields high response ..
  8. Vanoirbeek J, Tarkowski M, Vanhooren H, De Vooght V, Nemery B, Hoet P. Validation of a mouse model of chemical-induced asthma using trimellitic anhydride, a respiratory sensitizer, and dinitrochlorobenzene, a dermal sensitizer. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:1090-7 pubmed
    ..Both compounds induce a mixed T(H)1-T(H)2 response, but only TMA induced ventilatory changes. In the workplace avoiding skin contact with chemical sensitizers might be advised to prevent chemical-induced asthma. ..
  9. Wack C, Kirst A, Becker J, Lutz W, Brocker E, Fischer W. Chemoimmunotherapy for melanoma with dacarbazine and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene elicits a specific T cell-dependent immune response. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2002;51:431-9 pubmed
    ..the chemotherapeutic agent dacarbazine (DTIC) with the epifocal application of the contact sensitizer 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) on cutaneous metastases...
  10. Choi J, Park B, Kim H, Hwang Y, Han E, Jin S, et al. Inhibitory effect of Psidium guajava water extract in the development of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:2923-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of P. guajava water extract (PGW) on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice...
  11. Kondamudi P, Kovelamudi H, Mathew G, Nayak P, Rao C, Shenoy R. Modulatory effects of sesamol in dinitrochlorobenzene-induced inflammatory bowel disorder in albino rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2013;65:658-65 pubmed
    ..in the dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced model for IBD in rats...
  12. Lecart S, Boulay V, Raison Peyron N, Bousquet J, Meunier L, Yssel H, et al. Phenotypic characterization of human CD4+ regulatory T cells obtained from cutaneous dinitrochlorobenzene-induced delayed type hypersensitivity reactions. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117:318-25 pubmed
    ..characterization of cloned human CD4+ T lymphocyte populations that have infiltrated into cutaneous, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in healthy human subjects...
  13. Zhang E, Chen A, Zhu B. Mechanism of dinitrochlorobenzene-induced dermatitis in mice: role of specific antibodies in pathogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7703 pubmed publisher
    b>Dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity is widely considered as a cell-mediated rather than antibody-mediated immune response...
  14. Choi E, Lee S, Kim H, Singh T, Choi J, Choi H, et al. Suppression of dust mite extract and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis by the water extract of Lindera obtusiloba. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we investigated the effect of topical application of Lindera obtusiloba water extract (LOWE) on the house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD).
  15. Dearman R, Warbrick E, Humphreys I, Kimber I. Characterization in mice of the immunological properties of five allergenic acid anhydrides. J Appl Toxicol. 2000;20:221-30 pubmed
    ..HHPA and MTHPA with those provoked by concurrent exposure to TMA or to the reference contact allergen 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)...
  16. Choi J, Kim H, Jin S, Han E, Khanal T, Do M, et al. Topical application of Pleurotus eryngii extracts inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice by the regulation of Th1/Th2 balance. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;53:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..extracts (PEE) on the progress of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)...
  17. Madsen J, Vogel S, Johansen J, Sørensen J, Andersen K, Nielsen J. Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2011;30:38-44 pubmed publisher
    Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens...
  18. Goto I, Agar N, Maede Y. Relation between reduced glutathione content and Heinz body formation in sheep erythrocytes. Am J Vet Res. 1993;54:622-6 pubmed
  19. Watkins J, LaFollette J, Sanders R. Biotransformation in Egyptian spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1995;110:101-7 pubmed
    ..No consistent relation appeared to exist between biotransformation activities in spiny mouse and those in other related rodent species. ..
  20. Newell L, Polak M, Perera J, Owen C, Boyd P, Pickard C, et al. Sensitization via healthy skin programs Th2 responses in individuals with atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:2372-2380 pubmed publisher
    ..ADFM), and AD individuals without FLG mutations (ADWT)) were sensitized by cutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), a small, highly lipophilic chemical sensitizer...
  21. Wille J, Kydonieus A, Kalish R. Several different ion channel modulators abrogate contact hypersensitivity in mice. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 1999;12:12-7 pubmed
    ..Mice were sensitized to several contact sensitizing chemicals including dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and a sensitizing drug, nadolol...
  22. Zihnioglu F. Immobilization of glutathione-s-transferase within cross-linked gelatin cylindrical molds. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 2003;31:47-57 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, for studying the detoxification by conjugation in vitro, immobilized GST was tested using stirred batch reactor system and found suitable with a high yield of 2,4-dinitrophenyl-GSH conjugate formation. ..
  23. Zhai Z, Jiao P, Mei J, Xiao S. Glutathione inhibits the antischistosomal activity of artemether. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2002;20:212-5 pubmed
    ..In vivo, Art led to a slight decrease followed by a significant increase in the parasite GSH levels. GSH might play an important role in the defense of the worms against Art-generated toxic peroxides and free radicals. ..
  24. Buckley D, Du Vivier A. The therapeutic use of topical contact sensitizers in benign dermatoses. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145:385-405 pubmed
    ..b>Dinitrochlorobenzene, squaric acid dibutyl ester and diphencyprone are most commonly employed in the therapy of alopecia areata ..
  25. Heo J, Cho Y, Cheon H. Topical effects of roflumilast on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Pharmazie. 2010;65:906-12 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, no effect on IgE and IL-4 was observed upon roflumilast treatment. Taken together, roflumilast showed beneficial effects against DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis. ..
  26. Lee C, Yi E, Kim H, Huh S, Sung S, Chung M, et al. Anti-dermatitis effects of oak wood vinegar on the DNCB-induced contact hypersensitivity via STAT3 suppression. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;135:747-53 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-dermatitis effects of oak wood vinegar (OWV) in a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced contact dermatitis mice model...
  27. Kim T, Choi J, Kim M, Son H, Lim J. Topical application of Scutellaria baicalensis suppresses 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis. Nat Prod Res. 2016;30:705-9 pubmed publisher
    ..anti-allergic effect of topically applied Scutellaria bacalensis aqueous extract (WSBE) in suppressing 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced ACD in BALB/c mice...
  28. Kang N, Han S, Kang H, Ko G, Yoon W, Kang H, et al. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 3-Bromo-4,5-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde, a Component of Polysiphonia morrowii, In Vivo and In Vitro. Toxicol Res. 2017;33:325-332 pubmed publisher
    ..to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of BDB on atopic dermatitis (AD) in mice induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages...
  29. Kong K, Inoue H, Takahashi K. Site-directed mutagenesis study on the roles of evolutionally conserved aspartic acid residues in human glutathione S-transferase P1-1. Protein Eng. 1993;6:93-9 pubmed
    ..However, the thermostabilities of D57A and D152A were significantly lower than that of the wild-type. Asp57 and Asp152 seem to be important for maintaining the proper conformation of the enzyme. ..
  30. Krishnakumar V, Prabavathi N. Analysis of vibrational spectra of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene based on density functional theory calculations. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2009;72:738-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the calculations were applied to simulated infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound, which showed excellent agreement with the observed spectra. ..
  31. Arts J, Kuper C, Spoor S, Bloksma N. Airway morphology and function of rats following dermal sensitization and respiratory challenge with low molecular weight chemicals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998;152:66-76 pubmed
    ..sensitization potential in humans: trimellitic anhydride (TMA), a dermal and respiratory sensitizer; dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), a dermal sensitizer with no known potential to cause respiratory allergy; and methyl salicylate, a ..
  32. Rhee J, Lee Y, Hwang D, Won E, Raisuddin S, Shin K, et al. Molecular cloning, expression, biochemical characteristics, and biomarker potential of theta class glutathione S-transferase (GST-T) from the polychaete Neanthes succinea. Aquat Toxicol. 2007;83:104-15 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide a better understanding of the biochemical characteristics of N. succinea GST-T, and elucidate the potential role of GST-T in heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and as a biomarker for environmental contamination. ..
  33. Raftos J, Dwarte T, Luty A, Willcock C. Direct measurement of the rate of glutathione synthesis in 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene treated human erythrocytes. Redox Rep. 2006;11:9-14 pubmed
    ..Application of this direct method for measuring glutathione synthesis will increase understanding of the interactions of effectors that determine glutathione levels in RBCs under various physiological and pathological conditions. ..
  34. Dhar K, Dhar A, Rosazza J. Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes from Streptomyces griseus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:707-10 pubmed
    ..GST isoenzymes with pI values of 6.8 and 7.9 used standard GST substrates including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. GST had subunit and native M(r)s of 24 and 48, respectively, and the N-terminal sequence SMILXYWDIIRGLPAH. ..
  35. Ishigai M, Langridge J, Bordoli R. A new approach for dynamics of enzyme-catalyzed glutathione conjugation by electrospray quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2001;298:83-92 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that electrospray Q-TOF mass spectrometry is a powerful approach for studying the dynamics of the enzyme reaction as well as the structure of enzyme complexes at high sensitivity. ..
  36. Migdal C, Foggia L, Tailhardat M, Courtellemont P, Haftek M, Serres M. Sensitization effect of thimerosal is mediated in vitro via reactive oxygen species and calcium signaling. Toxicology. 2010;274:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A cross-talk between ROS and Ca2+ influx was demonstrated. ..
  37. Burns C, Geraghty R, Neville C, Murphy A, Kavanagh K, Doyle S. Identification, cloning, and functional expression of three glutathione transferase genes from Aspergillus fumigatus. Fungal Genet Biol. 2005;42:319-27 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time the existence of three functional GSTs in A. fumigatus and strongly suggest a role for these enzymes in the response of the organism to both oxidative stress and xenobiotic presence. ..
  38. Tetlow N, Board P. Functional polymorphism of human glutathione transferase A2. Pharmacogenetics. 2004;14:111-6 pubmed
    ..The position of this polymorphism in the active site and its effects on model substrates suggest that further investigation of its capacity to conjugate alkylating drugs is warranted. ..
  39. Jones D, Hutchinson M, Middelberg A. Screening protein refolding using surface plasmon resonance. Proteomics. 2004;4:1007-13 pubmed
    ..The combination of such advantages with the high-throughput automated SPR systems currently available may be a valuable approach to determine conditions suitable for protein refolding following insoluble expression in a bacterial host. ..
  40. Aleksic M, Pease C, Basketter D, Panico M, Morris H, Dell A. Mass spectrometric identification of covalent adducts of the skin allergen 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene and model skin proteins. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008;22:1169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..It is envisaged that the data from such assays will be integrated with outputs from other in vitro assays in the future to give a prediction of the sensitisation potential of novel chemicals. ..
  41. Broo K, Larsson A, Jemth P, Mannervik B. An ensemble of theta class glutathione transferases with novel catalytic properties generated by stochastic recombination of fragments of two mammalian enzymes. J Mol Biol. 2002;318:59-70 pubmed
    ..Such sequential design is combinatorial protein chemistry based on remodeling of existing structural scaffolds and has similarities to evolutionary processes in nature. ..
  42. Vandebriel R, De Jong W, Hendriks J, Van Loveren H. Impact of exposure duration by low molecular weight compounds on interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 mRNA expression and production in the draining lymph nodes of mice. Toxicology. 2003;188:1-13 pubmed
    ..resulted in a approximately 10-fold higher Con A induced IL-4 production compared with the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), while exposure to both allergens resulted in a similar Con A induced IFN-gamma production...
  43. Hoensch H, Roelofs H, Edler L, Kirch W, Peters W. Disparities of conjugating protective enzyme activities in the colon of patients with adenomas and carcinomas. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:6020-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to patients with adenomatous colon polyps those with colorectal carcinoma exhibited a lower capacity of detoxifying enzyme metabolism and their activities clustered over a smaller range. ..
  44. Bunderson B, Kim J, Croasdell A, Mendoza K, Reed K, Coulombe R. Heterologous expression and functional characterization of avian mu-class glutathione S-transferases. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;158:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, our data indicate that although turkey hepatic GSTMs may contribute to xenobiotic detoxification, they probably play no role in detoxification of AFBO in the liver. ..
  45. Hevko J, Murphy R. Formation of murine macrophage-derived 5-oxo-7-glutathionyl-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (FOG7) is catalyzed by leukotriene C4 synthase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7037-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that LTC(4) synthase, thought to be specific for the conjugation of GSH to LTA(4), can also recognize 5-oxoETE as an electrophilic substrate. ..
  46. Kitteringham N, Palmer L, Owen A, Lian L, Jenkins R, Dowdall S, et al. Detection and biochemical characterisation of a novel polymorphism in the human GSTP1 gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:1240-7 pubmed
    ..e. alcoholic liver disease, was not significantly different from healthy controls. In conclusion, we have detected and characterised a novel SNP in GSTP1 that may play a role in modulating the activity of GSTP1-1. ..
  47. Holden N, Bedford P, McCarthy N, Marks N, Ind P, Jowsey I, et al. Dendritic cells from control but not atopic donors respond to contact and respiratory sensitizer treatment in vitro with differential cytokine production and altered stimulatory capacity. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:1148-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Objective We sought to determine the effect of atopic status on the ability of DC to respond to contact and respiratory sensitizer treatment in vitro as DC from atopic donors are believed to promote Th2-type responses...
  48. Udomsinprasert R, Ketterman A. Expression and characterization of a novel class of glutathione S-transferase from Anopheles dirus. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;32:425-33 pubmed
    ..dirus GSTs because of low enzyme activity for customary GST substrates including 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). However, this enzyme has a greater affinity of interaction with pyrethroids compared to the other An. dirus GSTs. ..
  49. Bousova I, Hajek J, Drsata J, Skalova L. Naturally occurring flavonoids as inhibitors of purified cytosolic glutathione S-transferase. Xenobiotica. 2012;42:872-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Especially, pyrogallol-type catechins with 3-OH group esterified with gallic acid showed strong potential to inhibit GST in vitro. ..
  50. Hirota M, Moro O. MIP-1beta, a novel biomarker for in vitro sensitization test using human monocytic cell line. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006;20:736-42 pubmed
    ..for predicting skin sensitization, changes in the gene expression profile of THP-1 cells on exposure to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), p-phenylenediamine (pPD) and nickel sulfate (Ni) were assessed using oligo-DNA microarrays...
  51. Fujimoto K, Arakawa S, Watanabe T, Yasumo H, Ando Y, Takasaki W, et al. Generation and functional characterization of mice with a disrupted glutathione S-transferase, theta 1 gene. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:2196-202 pubmed
    ..30 times; female, 2.28 times, versus the wild-type controls) based on the results. In conclusion, Gstt1-null mice would be useful as an animal model of humans with the GSTT1-null genotype. ..
  52. Arias A, Rigalli J, Villanueva S, Ruiz M, Luquita M, Perdomo V, et al. Regulation of expression and activity of multidrug resistance proteins MRP2 and MDR1 by estrogenic compounds in Caco-2 cells. Role in prevention of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. Toxicology. 2014;320:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Although extrapolation of these results to the in vivo situation must be cautiously done, the data could explain tentatively the cytoprotective role of estrogens against chemical injury in intestine. ..
  53. Satoh T, Yokozeki H, Nishioka K. Pathogenic roles of eosinophils in guinea-pig contact sensitivity: regulation of dermal eosinophilia with remotely administered IL-5. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000;122:300-7 pubmed
    ..Guinea-pigs were sensitized with 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene and challenged on the dorsal skin or on the right ear lobe...