Summary: Aromatic organic compounds with the chemical formula C6H5Cln.

Top Publications

  1. Procopiou P, Barrett V, Bevan N, Biggadike K, Box P, Butchers P, et al. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of long-acting beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists incorporating metabolic inactivation: an antedrug approach. J Med Chem. 2010;53:4522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Crystalline salts of 13f (vilanterol) were identified that had suitable properties for inhaled administration. A proposed binding mode for 13f to the beta(2)-receptor is presented...
  2. Kempsford R, Norris V, Siederer S. Vilanterol trifenatate, a novel inhaled long-acting beta2 adrenoceptor agonist, is well tolerated in healthy subjects and demonstrates prolonged bronchodilation in subjects with asthma and COPD. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2013;26:256-64 pubmed publisher
    ..VI produced a rapid and prolonged bronchodilation over 24 h suggesting the potential for once daily administration...
  3. Valkusz Z, Nagyeri G, Radacs M, Ocskó T, Hausinger P, Laszlo M, et al. Further analysis of behavioral and endocrine consequences of chronic exposure of male Wistar rats to subtoxic doses of endocrine disruptor chlorobenzenes. Physiol Behav. 2011;103:421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Chlorobenzenes were applied to model ambient mixtures of endocrine disruptors...
  4. Slack R, Barrett V, Morrison V, Sturton R, Emmons A, Ford A, et al. In vitro pharmacological characterization of vilanterol, a novel long-acting ?2-adrenoceptor agonist with 24-hour duration of action. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013;344:218-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This pharmacological profile combined with clinical data is consistent with once a day dosing of vilanterol in the treatment of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  5. Hanania N, Feldman G, Zachgo W, Shim J, Crim C, Sanford L, et al. The efficacy and safety of the novel long-acting ?2 agonist vilanterol in patients with COPD: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Chest. 2012;142:119-127 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed the dose response, efficacy, and safety of VI at doses of 3 to 50 ?g in patients with moderate to severe COPD...
  6. Boscia J, Pudi K, Zvarich M, Sanford L, Siederer S, Crim C. Effect of once-daily fluticasone furoate/vilanterol on 24-hour pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized, three-way, incomplete block, crossover study. Clin Ther. 2012;34:1655-66.e5 pubmed publisher
  7. Yan R, Chiung Y, Pan C, Liu J, Liu P. Effects of dichlorobenzene on acetylcholine receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Toxicology. 2008;253:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that DCB interferes with the functional activities of AChR, including its coupling influx currents and cytosolic calcium elevations. ..
  8. Finley S, Broadbelt L, Hatzimanikatis V. Computational framework for predictive biodegradation. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;104:1086-97 pubmed publisher
  9. Feldman G, Walker R, Brooks J, Mehta R, Crater G. 28-Day safety and tolerability of umeclidinium in combination with vilanterol in COPD: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2012;25:465-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of repeat dosing of UMEC and VI in combination once daily for 28 days in patients with COPD...

More Information


  1. Harrell A, Siederer S, Bal J, Patel N, Young G, Felgate C, et al. Metabolism and disposition of vilanterol, a long-acting ?(2)-adrenoceptor agonist for inhalation use in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2013;41:89-100 pubmed publisher
  2. Hsiao P, Lin Y, Shih T, Chiung Y. Effects of occupational exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene on hematologic, kidney, and liver functions. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2009;82:1077-85 pubmed publisher
    ..08 ?g/L) workers suggests that 1,4-DCB exposure may increase the 2,5-DCP concentration in urine. Moreover, exposure to 1,4-DCB may also increase WBC count and ALT activity, and PPE may protect workers from 1,4-DCB exposure. ..
  3. Kelleher D, Mehta R, Jean Francois B, Preece A, Blowers J, Crater G, et al. Safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium and vilanterol alone and in combination: a randomized crossover trial. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50716 pubmed publisher
  4. Sterling R, Lim J, Frith L, Snowise N, Jacques L, Haumann B. Efficacy and optimal dosing interval of the long-acting beta? agonist, vilanterol, in persistent asthma: a randomised trial. Respir Med. 2012;106:1110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three once-daily doses and one twice-daily dose of VI used concurrently with ICS in adult patients (?18 years) with persistent asthma. Safety was also assessed...
  5. Shu Y, Li L, Zhang Q, Wu H. Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies for sorption of chlorobenzenes on CTMAB modified bentonite and kaolinite. J Hazard Mater. 2010;173:47-53 pubmed publisher
    The sorption of chlorobenzenes (CBs) by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) modified bentonite and kaolinite was investigated...
  6. Lotvall J, Bateman E, Bleecker E, Busse W, Woodcock A, Follows R, et al. 24-h duration of the novel LABA vilanterol trifenatate in asthma patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Eur Respir J. 2012;40:570-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5-50 ?g resulted in prolonged bronchodilation of at least 24 h with good tolerability in asthma patients receiving ICS. Based on the overall efficacy and adverse event profile from this study, the optimum dose of VI appears to be 25 ?g...
  7. Monferran M, Echenique J, Wunderlin D. Degradation of chlorobenzenes by a strain of Acidovorax avenae isolated from a polluted aquifer. Chemosphere. 2005;61:98-106 pubmed
    ..avenae could use a catabolic pathway, via ARHDO system, leading to the formation of chlorocatecols during the first steps of biodegradation, with further chloride release and subsequent paths that showed complete substrate consumption. ..
  8. Zhang J, Zhao W, Pan J, Qiu L, Zhu Y. Tissue-dependent distribution and accumulation of chlorobenzenes by vegetables in urban area. Environ Int. 2005;31:855-60 pubmed
    ..vegetables from three growing sites in Hangzhou city, Zhejiang Province, were studied for the levels of four chlorobenzenes(CBs): o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB), p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), m-dichlorobenzene (m-DCB), and 1,2,4-..
  9. Schroll R, Brahushi F, Dorfler U, Kuhn S, Fekete J, Munch J. Biomineralisation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in soils by an adapted microbial population. Environ Pollut. 2004;127:395-401 pubmed
    ..Additional nutrition sources ((NH4)2HPO4) increased the mineralisation rates in the first days significantly in the contaminated soil. In the soil from the contaminated site high amounts of non extractable 14C-residues were formed. ..
  10. Shen G, Lee H. Headspace liquid-phase microextraction of chlorobenzenes in soil with gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Anal Chem. 2003;75:98-103 pubmed
    ..microsyringe barrel was used as an extraction interface in headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) of chlorobenzenes. Some common organic solvents with different vapor pressures (9.33-12 918.9 Pa) were studied as extractants...
  11. Wu Q, Milliken C, Meier G, Watts J, Sowers K, May H. Dechlorination of chlorobenzenes by a culture containing bacterium DF-1, a PCB dechlorinating microorganism. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:3290-4 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of a bacterium that reductively dechlorinates both PCBs and CBs and the first identification of an organism that can dechlorinate a CB with more than four chlorines. ..
  12. Ivanciuc T, Ivanciuc O, Klein D. Posetic quantitative superstructure/activity relationships (QSSARs) for chlorobenzenes. J Chem Inf Model. 2005;45:870-9 pubmed
    ..These differences show that more reliable predictions can be obtained by using a consensus prediction that combines data from the three posetic models. ..
  13. Vidal L, Canals A, Kalogerakis N, Psillakis E. Headspace single-drop microextraction for the analysis of chlorobenzenes in water samples. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1089:25-30 pubmed
    ..Overall, headspace SDME proved to be a rapid, simple and sensitive technique for the analysis of chlorobenzenes in water samples, representing an excellent alternative to traditional and other, recently introduced, methods. ..
  14. Liu P, Zheng M, Zhang B, Xu X. Mechanism of PCBs formation from the pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes. Chemosphere. 2001;43:783-5 pubmed
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were formed by pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes in a HCl atmosphere. Varieties of substituted chlorobenzenes were used as model compounds to optimize the condensation reaction...
  15. Yan M, Li X, Chen T, Lu S, Yan J, Cen K. Effect of temperature and oxygen on the formation of chlorobenzene as the indicator of PCDD/Fs. J Environ Sci (China). 2010;22:1637-42 pubmed
    ..This study is useful for confirming the de novo mechanism and defining correlations between CBz and PCDD/Fs. ..
  16. Leong M, Huang S. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic drop combined with gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1211:8-12 pubmed publisher
    ..01 to 500 microgL(-1) with a coefficient of estimation (r2)>0.996 for GC/ECD and was from 0.02 to 500 microgL(-1) with a coefficient of estimation (r2)>0.996 for GC/MS...
  17. Lee C, Jou C, Wang H. Enhanced degradation of chlorobenzene in aqueous solution using microwave-induced zero-valent iron and copper particles. Water Environ Res. 2010;82:642-7 pubmed
    ..8% versus 72.1%). Using the microwave-induced nano-scale iron or copper particle is effective in treating toxic organic substances, as demonstrated in this study. ..
  18. Bakkialakshmi S, Shanthi B, Shanthi M. Spectroscopic characterization studies of 1-methyl indole with benzene derivatives. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2010;77:179-83 pubmed
    ..Molar extinction co-efficient, stoke's shift are also calculated. The NMR study is used to conform if there is any complex formation between 1-methylindole with the benzene derivatives. ..
  19. Okutman Tas D, Prytula M, Mulholland J, Pavlostathis S. Theoretical investigation of the sequential reductive dechlorination pathways of chlorobenzenes and chloroanilines. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010;105:574-87 pubmed publisher
    ..considerations matched 78% and 67% of the experimental results for the sequential reductive dechlorination of chlorobenzenes (CBs) and chloroanilines (CAs), respectively...
  20. Kunze M, Zerlin K, Retzlaff A, Pohl J, Schmidt E, Janssen D, et al. Degradation of chloroaromatics by Pseudomonas putida GJ31: assembled route for chlorobenzene degradation encoded by clusters on plasmid pKW1 and the chromosome. Microbiology. 2009;155:4069-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A high level of transcription in response to chlorobenzene revealed it to be crucial for chlorobenzene degradation. The chlorobenzene degradation pathway in strain GJ31 is thus a mosaic encoded by four gene clusters...
  21. Miyake D, Hayakawa K, Nomura T. [Analytical method of volatile substances in styrene polymers by head-space gas chromatography using o-dichlorobenzene]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2013;54:374-8 pubmed
    ..quot; for general purpose polystyrene, high impact polystyrene, styrene/acrylonitrile resin and acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene resin. ..
  22. Sun F, Zhou Q. Interactive effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene and heavy metals on their sorption behaviors in two Chinese soils. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;58:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicated that the coexistence of metals can greatly affect sorption behaviors of hydrophobic organic compounds on soils and thus their fate, transportation, and bioavailability. ..
  23. Moncol J, Jomova K, Porubská M. Two centrosymmetric dinuclear phenanthroline-copper(II) complexes with 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzoic acid and 5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzoic acid. Acta Crystallogr C. 2012;68:m85-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The bridge completes a 4+1+1 axially elongated tetragonal-bipyramidal arrangement about each Cu(2+) cation. The complex molecules of both compounds are linked into one-dimensional supramolecular chains through O-H...O hydrogen bonds. ..
  24. Bateman E, O Byrne P, Busse W, Lotvall J, Bleecker E, Andersen L, et al. Once-daily fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol reduces risk of severe exacerbations in asthma versus FF alone. Thorax. 2014;69:312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Once-daily FF/VI reduced the risk of severe asthma exacerbations and improved lung function compared with FF alone, with good tolerability and safety profile in adolescents and adults with asthma currently receiving ICS. NCT01086384. ..
  25. Fujimori T, Tanino Y, Takaoka M. Role of zinc in MSW fly ash during formation of chlorinated aromatics. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:7678-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the surface or near-surface concentration of ZnCl(2) indicated weak reactivity between the catalysts and the carbon matrix. ..
  26. Anezaki K, Nakano T. Concentration levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in commercial pigments. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21:998-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..The study detected a certain level of PCB-11, which is not included in PCB technical mixtures, and revealed continuing PCB pollution originating from pigments in the ambient air. ..
  27. Wilson M, Patel J, Coleman A, McDade C, Stanford R, Earnshaw S. Cost-effectiveness analysis of umeclidinium/vilanterol for the management of patients with moderate to very severe COPD using an economic model. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:997-1008 pubmed publisher
  28. Ashauer R, Hintermeister A, Potthoff E, Escher B. Acute toxicity of organic chemicals to Gammarus pulex correlates with sensitivity of Daphnia magna across most modes of action. Aquat Toxicol. 2011;103:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, G. pulex is generally equally sensitive towards organic xenobiotics as D. magna...
  29. Faria I, Young T. Comparing linear free energy relationships for organic chemicals in soils: effects of soil and solute properties. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:6971-7 pubmed publisher
  30. Liu P, Zhu D, Zhang H, Shi X, Sun H, Dang F. Sorption of polar and nonpolar aromatic compounds to four surface soils of eastern China. Environ Pollut. 2008;156:1053-60 pubmed publisher
    ..electron-donor/acceptor ability and polarity), including two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, two chlorobenzenes, two nitroaromatic compounds, dichlobenil, carbaryl and 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous suspension of four ..
  31. Greenwood I, Yeung S, Tribe R, Ohya S. Loss of functional K+ channels encoded by ether-à-go-go-related genes in mouse myometrium prior to labour onset. J Physiol. 2009;587:2313-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first evidence for a regulation of ERG-encoded K(+) channels as a precursor to late pregnancy physiological activity. ..
  32. Shu Y, Huang X, Jia X. [Nonlinear sorption behaviors of chlorobenzenes on sediments]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2009;30:178-83 pubmed
    ..755, 0.788, 0.858, 0.949 respectively, indicating that the smaller CBs molecule may result in more significant sorption nonlinearity. ..
  33. Mitoma Y, Kakeda M, Simion A, Egashira N, Simion C. Metallic Ca-Rh/C-methanol, a high-performing system for the hydrodechlorination/ring reduction of mono- and poly chlorinated aromatic substrates. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:5952-8 pubmed
    We investigated the reduction of some substituted mono- and poly chlorobenzenes bearing functional groups such as methyl, methoxy, hydroxyl, and amino, under mild conditions (80 degrees C and magnetic stirring, for 2 h) using a system ..
  34. Kiesel B, Balcke G, Dietrich J, Vogt C, Geyer R. Microbial community shifts as a response to efficient degradation of chlorobenzene under hypoxic conditions. Biodegradation. 2008;19:435-46 pubmed
    ..Vice versa, increasing abundance of P. veronii induced intermediary 3-chlorocatechol accumulation, which was reduced by growth of A. facilis. Thus, reduced oxygen availability caused syntrophic rather than competitive interactions. ..
  35. Farahani H, Norouzi P, Dinarvand R, Ganjali M. Development of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a simple, rapid and highly sensitive method for the determination of phthalate esters in water samples. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1172:105-12 pubmed
    ..Finally, the proposed method was successfully utilized for the preconcentration and determination of the phthalate esters in different real water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. ..
  36. Bag B, Sai M, Kaushik M, Sekhar K, Bahttacharya C. Pretreatment of wastewater containing a mixture of organic pollutants obtained from a CC2 plant by coagulation. Water Sci Technol. 2008;58:1071-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0. After coagulation the concentration of pyridine in wastewater was found to be reduced by 10.0% and that of DPU 40-45% with a dosage of 500 mg L(-1) alum. ..
  37. Liu M, Han M, Yu W. Hydrogenation of chlorobenzene to cyclohexane over colloidal Pt nanocatalysts under ambient conditions. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:2519-24 pubmed
    ..The polymer-stabilized noble metal nanoparticles could be suitable to be hydrodehalogenation and reduction catalysts forthe remediation of various chloroaromatic compounds in the environment. ..
  38. Liu G, Zheng M, Liu W, Wang C, Zhang B, Gao L, et al. Atmospheric emission of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, and pentachlorobenzene from the coking industry. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:9196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..With regard to the characteristics of dl-PCBs, the most abundant congener was CB-118, and the most dominant contributor to the total WHO-TEQ of dl-PCBs was CB-126. ..
  39. Zhang T, Li X, Min X, Fang T, Zhang Z, Yang L, et al. Acute toxicity of chlorobenzenes in tetrahymena: estimated by microcalorimetry and mechanism. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;33:377-85 pubmed publisher
    The toxicity of chlorobenzenes to Tetrahymena growth metabolism was studied by microcalorimetry. The growth constant (k), peak time (T) and generation times (T(G)) were calculated...
  40. Tang K, Chan C, Lau F. Dextrose 50% as a better substitute for saturated salt solution in mothball float test. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010;48:750-1 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the use of dextrose 50% solution to differentiate naphthalene and paradichlorobenzene in the mothball float test. Its advantages over saturated salt solution are discussed. ..
  41. Balcke G, Hahn M, Oswald S. Nitrogen as an indicator of mass transfer during in-situ gas sparging. J Contam Hydrol. 2011;126:8-18 pubmed publisher
    ..By applying a novel gas sampling method for dissolved gases in groundwater it was shown that dissolved nitrogen can be used as a partitioning tracer to indicate complete gas dissolution in porous media. ..
  42. Zhou Q, Zhu R, Hu J, Zhang L, Chen J. [BTF performance treating a chlorobenzene-contaminated gas stream]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2011;32:3673-9 pubmed
    ..The stability and complexity of microbial community could contribute to the degradation and mineralization of chlorobenzene in BTF. ..
  43. Ivanova M, Lamprecht C, Loureiro M, Huzil J, Foldvari M. Pharmaceutical characterization of solid and dispersed carbon nanotubes as nanoexcipients. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:403-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This applies especially to the determination of CNT purity, structure, and concentration. The results presented here clearly demonstrate that extinction coefficients must be determined for individual CNT preparations prior to their use. ..
  44. Huang S, Shao M, Lu S. [Identification of air toxics from indoor and outdoor measurements of volatile organic compounds in one elementary school in Beijing]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2008;29:3326-30 pubmed
    ..Acrolein was the only non-carcinogenic hazardous species which exceeded its benchmark concentration by 13-72 times in all sites. ..
  45. Saleh F, Rahman M. Oxidative destruction of o-DCB on supported manganese oxide catalyst. J Hazard Mater. 2009;162:1574-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility of supporting MnO(2) on clay materials may be explored and very cheap catalysts are likely to be obtained by depositing MnO(2) from colloidal solutions. ..
  46. Marin P, Periago J, Prado C. A new approach for diffusive sampling based on SPME for occupational exposure assessment. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2013;10:132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are promising for using this new SPME device for diffusive monitoring for occupational exposure assessment. ..
  47. Kamarei F, Ebrahimzadeh H, Yamini Y. Optimization of temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography for analysis of chlorobenzenes in water samples. Talanta. 2010;83:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was applied for preconcentration and determination of chlorobenzenes in well water samples...
  48. Arnoldi A, Dallavalle S, Merlini L, Musso L, Farina G, Moretti M, et al. Synthesis and antifungal activity of a series of N-substituted [2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)]propylamines. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:8187-92 pubmed
    ..Although these compounds have some structural similarities with terbinafine and naftifine, which act as squalene epoxidase inhibitors, they maintain the usual mechanism of action of the other triazoles. ..
  49. Wang H, Liang H, Chang M. Chlorobenzene oxidation using ozone over iron oxide and manganese oxide catalysts. J Hazard Mater. 2011;186:1781-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Slight deactivation might be attributed to a small amount of reaction byproducts (carboxylic acid species) and residual chloride (MnCl(2)) being deposited on the active sites of the catalysts. ..
  50. Nof E, Burashnikov A, Antzelevitch C. Cellular basis for atrial fibrillation in an experimental model of short QT1: implications for a pharmacological approach to therapy. Heart Rhythm. 2010;7:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Abbreviation of APD and ERP and amplification of SDR predispose to the development of AF by creating the substrate for reentry. Quinidine, but not E-4031 or lidocaine, was effective in preventing AF in this setting. ..
  51. Cheng Z, Lin W, Jiang Y, Chen J, Zhang L, Zhang H. [Using UV pretreatment to enhance biofiltration of chlorobenzene]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2010;31:1160-6 pubmed
    ..Meanwhile, the ozone produced during the UV photolysis could control the microorganism growth in the BTF, keeping the whole system in optimal operation. ..
  52. Alam S, Kole R, Bhattacharyya A. Residual fate of the fungicide tetraconazole (4% EW) in mango. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;87:444-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The half-life values of tetraconazole in mango were in the range of 4-5 days. The harvest samples of mango and soil were free from tetraconazole residues. ..
  53. Woodcock A, Bleecker E, Lotvall J, O Byrne P, Bateman E, Medley H, et al. Efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol compared with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination in adult and adolescent patients with persistent asthma: a randomized trial. Chest. 2013;144:1222-1229 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of once-daily FF/VI was similar to bid FP/SAL in improving lung function in patients with persistent asthma. No safety issues were identified. ..