Summary: A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.

Top Publications

  1. Du W, Hong J, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Wang P, Su W, et al. Inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signalling induces colorectal cancer cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1878-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, JAK2/STAT3 signalling may be a potential target for therapy of CRC. ..
  2. Perez A, Ojeda P, Ojeda L, Salas M, Rivas C, Vera J, et al. Hexose transporter GLUT1 harbors several distinct regulatory binding sites for flavones and tyrphostins. Biochemistry. 2011;50:8834-45 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitors that include natural products such as flavones and isoflavones and synthetic compounds such as tyrphostins, molecules that are structurally unrelated to the transported substrates [Vera, et al...
  3. Ting A, Chen Y, Wen L, Yin D, Shen C, Tao Y, et al. Neuregulin 1 promotes excitatory synapse development and function in GABAergic interneurons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of the association of the genes of both NRG1 and ErbB4 with schizophrenia and dysfunction of GABAergic system in this disorder, these results provide insight into its potential pathological mechanism. ..
  4. Kim U, Nam S, Jung S, Kim S, Lee J. Effects of AG490 on lens epithelial cell death induced by H(2)O(2). Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2010;54:151-5 pubmed publisher
    ..05% after pretreatment with 40 microM AG490. AG490 may prevent H(2)O(2)-induced LEC death by blocking an unknown necrosis pathway. Further investigation is required to characterize that pathway. ..
  5. Ahmed Z, Jacques S, Berry M, Logan A. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors promote CNS axon growth through off-target effects on glia. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;36:142-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, we suggest that chemical EGFR inhibitors act independently of EGFR, inducing glia and neurons to secrete NT and raising cAMP levels in DRG cultures, leading to Trk-dependent disinhibited DRGN neurite outgrowth. ..
  6. Bouallegue A, Vardatsikos G, Srivastava A. Role of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and c-Src in endothelin-1- and angiotensin II-induced PKB phosphorylation, and hypertrophic and proliferative responses in vascular smooth muscle cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;87:1009-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data suggest that IGF-1R PTK and c-Src PTK play a critical role in mediating PKB phosphorylation as well as hypertrophic and proliferative responses induced by ET-1 and Ang II in A10 VSMC. ..
  7. Heusch G, Musiolik J, Gedik N, Skyschally A. Mitochondrial STAT3 activation and cardioprotection by ischemic postconditioning in pigs with regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Circ Res. 2011;109:1302-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a causal role for mitochondrial STAT3 activation to mediate cardioprotection through better mitochondrial function...
  8. Ohnishi Y, Inoue H, Furukawa M, Kakudo K, Nozaki M. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor is a potent regulator of invasion activity in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:954-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that HB-EGF released from HSC3 cells by TACE stimulates EGFR in an autocrine manner, which in turn activates invasion activity via MMP-9 upregulation. ..
  9. Wiedon A, Tölle M, Bastine J, Schuchardt M, Huang T, Jankowski V, et al. Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) is a strong inductor of smooth muscle cell migration via activation of the P2Y2 receptor and cross-communication to the PDGF receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:1035-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We further suggest that the initiation of the migration process occurs predominant through direct activation of the P2Y(2) by Up(4)A and via transactivation of the PDGFR. ..

More Information


  1. Bojko A, Reichert K, Adamczyk A, Ligęza J, Ligeza J, Klein A. The effect of tyrphostins AG494 and AG1478 on the autocrine growth regulation of A549 and DU145 cells. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2012;50:186-95 pubmed
    ..Both tested tyrphostins significantly inhibited autocrine growth of the investigated cell lines...
  2. Goncalves S, Fernandez Sanchez R, Sanchez Niño M, Tejedor A, Neria F, Egido J, et al. Tyrphostins as potential therapeutic agents for acute kidney injury. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17:974-86 pubmed
    ..b>Tyrphostins are a family of compounds originally designed as protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors...
  3. Lacerda L, Somers S, Opie L, Lecour S. Ischaemic postconditioning protects against reperfusion injury via the SAFE pathway. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This signalling cascade is activated independently of the well-known Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinases (RISK) pathway, which involves the kinases Akt and Erk1/2. ..
  4. Lolli G, Cozza G, Mazzorana M, Tibaldi E, Cesaro L, Donella Deana A, et al. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by flavonoids and tyrphostins. A structural insight. Biochemistry. 2012;51:6097-107 pubmed
    ..As in the case of luteolin, the pyrocatechol group of AG99 is critical for binding, interacting with the positive area in the deepest part of the CK2 active site. ..
  5. Goodman M, Koch S, Fuller Bicer G, Butler K. Regulating RISK: a role for JAK-STAT signaling in postconditioning?. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H1649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..POC induces myocardial functional protection by activating the RISK pathway. JAK-STAT signaling, however, is insufficient for effective POC without PI3K-Akt activation. ..
  6. Bharadwaj U, Li M, Zhang R, Chen C, Yao Q. Elevated interleukin-6 and G-CSF in human pancreatic cancer cell conditioned medium suppress dendritic cell differentiation and activation. Cancer Res. 2007;67:5479-88 pubmed
  7. Gorina R, Sanfeliu C, Galitó A, Messeguer A, Planas A. Exposure of glia to pro-oxidant agents revealed selective Stat1 activation by H2O2 and Jak2-independent antioxidant features of the Jak2 inhibitor AG490. Glia. 2007;55:1313-24 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal previously unrecognized Jak2-independent antioxidant properties of AG490, and show that Jak2-dependent Stat1 activation by peroxide is dissociated from ROS generation. ..
  8. Jane E, Premkumar D, Pollack I. AG490 influences UCN-01-induced cytotoxicity in glioma cells in a p53-dependent fashion, correlating with effects on BAX cleavage and BAD phosphorylation. Cancer Lett. 2007;257:36-46 pubmed
  9. Hussain S, Kong L, Jordan J, Conrad C, Madden T, Fokt I, et al. A novel small molecule inhibitor of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 reverses immune tolerance in malignant glioma patients. Cancer Res. 2007;67:9630-6 pubmed
  10. Ferrajoli A, Faderl S, Van Q, Koch P, Harris D, Liu Z, et al. WP1066 disrupts Janus kinase-2 and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:11291-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, WP1066 is a potent JAK2 inhibitor whose effects in AML and other hematologic malignancies merit further investigation. ..
  11. Verstovsek S, Manshouri T, Quintas Cardama A, Harris D, Cortes J, Giles F, et al. WP1066, a novel JAK2 inhibitor, suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in erythroid human cells carrying the JAK2 V617F mutation. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:788-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that WP1066 is active both in vitro and ex vivo and should be further developed for the treatment of neoplasms expressing the JAK2 V617F mutation. ..
  12. Saxena N, Vertino P, Anania F, Sharma D. leptin-induced growth stimulation of breast cancer cells involves recruitment of histone acetyltransferases and mediator complex to CYCLIN D1 promoter via activation of Stat3. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13316-25 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that CYCLIN D1 may be a target gene for leptin mediated growth stimulation of breast cancer cells and molecular mechanisms involve activated Stat3-mediated recruitment of distinct coactivator complexes. ..
  13. Kong A, Calleja V, Leboucher P, Harris A, Parker P, Larijani B. HER2 oncogenic function escapes EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors via activation of alternative HER receptors in breast cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2881 pubmed publisher
  14. Kong L, Abou Ghazal M, Wei J, Chakraborty A, Sun W, Qiao W, et al. A novel inhibitor of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 activation is efficacious against established central nervous system melanoma and inhibits regulatory T cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:5759-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The antitumor cytotoxic effects of WP1066 and its ability to induce antitumor immune responses suggest that this compound has potential for the effective treatment of melanoma metastatic to brain. ..
  15. Samanta A, Chakraborty S, Wang Y, Kantarjian H, Sun X, Hood J, et al. Jak2 inhibition deactivates Lyn kinase through the SET-PP2A-SHP1 pathway, causing apoptosis in drug-resistant cells from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Oncogene. 2009;28:1669-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Lyn is downstream of Jak2, and Jak2 maintains activated Lyn kinase in CML through the SET-PP2A-Shp1 pathway. ..
  16. Chen X, Zhou B, Yan J, Xu B, Tai P, Li J, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation by protein kinase C is necessary for FSH-induced meiotic resumption in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes. J Endocrinol. 2008;197:409-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These data together suggested that EGFR activation, by PKC signal pathway, participates in FSH-induced porcine oocyte meiotic resumption. ..
  17. Yu L, Wu M, Li H, Chen X, Wang Q, Sun Y, et al. Inhibition of STAT3 expression and signaling in resveratrol-differentiated medulloblastoma cells. Neoplasia. 2008;10:736-44 pubmed
    ..This signaling may be the major target of resveratrol. Enhanced leukemia inhibitory factor and Bcl-2 expressions in resveratrol-treated cells might reflect a compensatory response to the loss of STAT3 function...
  18. Huang Y, Cen L, Choy K, Van Rooijen N, Wang N, Pang C, et al. JAK/STAT pathway mediates retinal ganglion cell survival after acute ocular hypertension but not under normal conditions. Exp Eye Res. 2007;85:684-95 pubmed
    ..This study thus shows that (1) acute IOP elevation activates JAK/STAT pathway in RGCs, and (2) JAK/STAT pathway mediates RGC survival following IOP elevation but not under normal condition. ..
  19. Xiong H, Zhang Z, Tian X, Sun D, Liang Q, Zhang Y, et al. Inhibition of JAK1, 2/STAT3 signaling induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and reduces tumor cell invasion in colorectal cancer cells. Neoplasia. 2008;10:287-97 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our findings illustrate the biologic significance of JAK1, 2/STAT3 signaling in CRC progression and provide novel evidence that the JAK/STAT3 pathway may be a new potential target for therapy of CRC. ..
  20. Yamashita Y, Kawashima I, Yanai Y, Nishibori M, Richards J, Shimada M. Hormone-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme/A disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 impacts porcine cumulus cell oocyte complex expansion and meiotic maturation via ligand activation of the epidermal growth factor recepto. Endocrinology. 2007;148:6164-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, TACE/ADAM17 is induced and the activity is involved in porcine COC expansion as well as oocyte meiotic maturation through the activation of EGF receptor in cumulus cells. ..
  21. Kim B, Tran H, Shin E, Lee C, Chung Y, Jeong J, et al. IL-6 attenuates trimethyltin-induced cognitive dysfunction via activation of JAK2/STAT3, M1 mAChR and ERK signaling network. Cell Signal. 2013;25:1348-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling and upregulation of the M1 mAChR are essential components of IL-6-mediated memory improvement against TMT toxicity. ..
  22. Dufour A, Zucker S, Sampson N, Kuscu C, Cao J. Role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 dimers in cell migration: design of inhibitory peptides. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35944-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we dissected the mechanism of pro-MMP-9-enhanced cell migration and developed structure-based inhibitory peptides targeting MMP-9-mediated cell migration. ..
  23. Amin A, Abd Elmageed Z, Partyka M, Matrougui K. Mechanisms of myogenic tone of coronary arteriole: Role of down stream signaling of the EGFR tyrosine kinase. Microvasc Res. 2011;81:135-42 pubmed publisher
  24. Lanuti P, Bertagnolo V, Pierdomenico L, Bascelli A, Santavenere E, Alinari L, et al. Enhancement of TRAIL cytotoxicity by AG-490 in human ALL cells is characterized by downregulation of cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 through inhibition of Jak2/Stat3. Cell Res. 2009;19:1079-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may help to open new routes for the development of less toxic pharmacological strategies in the treatment of patients affected by TRAIL-sensitive leukemias. ..
  25. Tsai P, Hsieh C, Chiu C, Wang C, Chang L, Lin S. Cardiotoxin III suppresses MDA-MB-231 cell metastasis through the inhibition of EGF/EGFR-mediated signaling pathway. Toxicon. 2012;60:734-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a novel mechanism to explain the role of CTX III as a potent anti-metastatic agent in MDA-MB-231 cells. ..
  26. Deng H, Hu H, Fang Y. Tyrphostin analogs are GPR35 agonists. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:1957-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These agonists provide pharmacological tools to study the biology and function of GPR35. ..
  27. Yan F, Cao H, Cover T, Washington M, Shi Y, Liu L, et al. Colon-specific delivery of a probiotic-derived soluble protein ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice through an EGFR-dependent mechanism. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These data define what we believe to be a previously unrecognized mechanism of probiotic-derived soluble proteins in protecting the intestine from injury and inflammation. ..
  28. Filosto S, Khan E, Tognon E, Becker C, Ashfaq M, Ravid T, et al. EGF receptor exposed to oxidative stress acquires abnormal phosphorylation and aberrant activated conformation that impairs canonical dimerization. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23240 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the EGFR unprecedented and activated conformation could be sustained by simultaneous alterations in membrane structure under ox-stress. ..
  29. Nigri J, Gironella M, Bressy C, Vila Navarro E, Roques J, Lac S, et al. PAP/REG3A favors perineural invasion in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and serves as a prognostic marker. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017;74:4231-4243 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a rationale for using the PAP/REG3A level as a biomarker to improve pancreatic cancer prognosis. It also suggests that therapeutic targeting of PAP/REG3A activity in PDA could limit tumor cell aggressiveness and PNI. ..
  30. Yang Y, Duan W, Jin Z, Yi W, Yan J, Zhang S, et al. JAK2/STAT3 activation by melatonin attenuates the mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Pineal Res. 2013;55:275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results demonstrate that melatonin pretreatment can attenuate IRI by reducing IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage via the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. ..
  31. Fernandez Sanchez R, Berzal S, Sanchez Nino M, Neria F, Goncalves S, Calabia O, et al. AG490 promotes HIF-1? accumulation by inhibiting its hydroxylation. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19:4014-23 pubmed
    ..This action may contribute to the cell and tissue protective effects of AG490. ..
  32. Barosso I, Zucchetti A, Miszczuk G, Boaglio A, Taborda D, Roma M, et al. EGFR participates downstream of ERα in estradiol-17β-D-glucuronide-induced impairment of Abcc2 function in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets. Arch Toxicol. 2016;90:891-903 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, activation of EGFR is a key factor in the alteration of canalicular transporter function and localization induced by E17G and it occurs before that of Src and after that of ERα. ..
  33. Mei Teh B, Redmond S, Shen Y, Atlas M, Marano R, Dilley R. TGF-?/HA complex promotes tympanic membrane keratinocyte migration and proliferation via ErbB1 receptor. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:790-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest factors that may be incorporated into a tissue-engineered membrane or directly as topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations and hence reduce the need for a surgery. ..
  34. Wu W, Sun H, Deng X, Li G. EGFR tyrosine kinase regulates human small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (hSKCa1) channels expressed in HEK-293 cells. Biochem J. 2013;452:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect may affect electrical activity and cellular functions in brain, pancreatic islets and myocardium. ..
  35. Li Y, Yan J, Xu W, Wang H, Xia Y. Lentivirus-mediated ADAM17 RNA interference inhibited interleukin-8 expression via EGFR signaling in lung epithelial cells. Inflammation. 2012;35:850-8 pubmed publisher
  36. Seike M, Goto A, Okano T, Bowman E, Schetter A, Horikawa I, et al. MiR-21 is an EGFR-regulated anti-apoptotic factor in lung cancer in never-smokers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12085-90 pubmed publisher
  37. Flynn R, Mahavadi S, Murthy K, Kellum J, Kuemmerle J. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 stimulates growth of human intestinal muscle cells by activation of G{alpha}i3. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G1232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that endogenous IGFBP-5 activates Gi3 and regulates smooth muscle growth, IGF-I production, and collagen production via the alpha-subunit of Gi3, independently of IGF-I, in normal human intestinal muscle cells. ..
  38. Siejka A, Schally A, Block N, Barabutis N. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone inhibit the proliferation of human benign prostatic hyperplasia cells. Prostate. 2010;70:1087-93 pubmed publisher
    ..New observations are provided on the mechanism of action of GHRH antagonists in BPH. Our findings support the merit of further work on the development of GHRH antagonists for therapy of BPH. ..
  39. Lin H, Kuo L, Chuu C. Combined treatment of curcumin and small molecule inhibitors suppresses proliferation of A549 and H1299 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Phytother Res. 2012;26:122-6 pubmed publisher
  40. Geng S, Zhou S, Glowacki J. Age-related decline in osteoblastogenesis and 1?-hydroxylase/CYP27B1 in human mesenchymal stem cells: stimulation by parathyroid hormone. Aging Cell. 2011;10:962-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PTH stimulated hMSCs from elders with responsiveness to 25OHD(3) by upregulating expression/activity of CYP27B1 and did so through CREB and IGF-I pathways. ..
  41. Yang L, Li J, Ran L, Pan F, Zhao X, Ding Z, et al. Phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor is implicated in resistance to the cytostatic effect of gefitinib in colorectal cancer cells. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15:942-57 pubmed publisher
  42. Hosseinzadeh Z, Bhavsar S, Shojaiefard M, Saxena A, Merches K, Sopjani M, et al. Stimulation of the glucose carrier SGLT1 by JAK2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, JAK2 fosters insertion rather than inhibiting retrieval of carrier protein into the cell membrane. In conclusion, JAK2 upregulates SGLT1 activity which may play a role in the effect of JAK2 during ischemia and malignancy. ..
  43. Hsu F, Yang M, Lin E, Tseng C, Lin H. The significance of Her2 on androgen receptor protein stability in the transition of androgen requirement in prostate cancer cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E902-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We hope these findings will provide novel insight into the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. ..
  44. Fu Y, Nergard J, Barnette N, Wang Y, Chai K, Chen L. Proteasome inhibition augments cigarette smoke-induced GM-CSF expression in trophoblast cells via the epidermal growth factor receptor. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43042 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested that cigarette smoking and proteasome inhibition synergistically up-regulate GM-CSF cytokine expression by activating the EGFR signaling pathway. ..
  45. Balla A, Erdélyi L, Soltész Katona E, Balla T, Varnai P, Hunyady L. Demonstration of angiotensin II-induced Ras activation in the trans-Golgi network and endoplasmic reticulum using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensors. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:5319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that AngII can stimulate Ras activity in the TGN and ER with a G protein-dependent mechanism, which does not require ?-arrestin-mediated signaling, receptor internalization, and EGF receptor transactivation. ..
  46. Senft C, Priester M, Polacin M, Schröder K, Seifert V, Kogel D, et al. Inhibition of the JAK-2/STAT3 signaling pathway impedes the migratory and invasive potential of human glioblastoma cells. J Neurooncol. 2011;101:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..e. migration and invasion pertinent to invariable tumor recurrence and high morbidity, our findings support the idea that STAT3 is a suitable target in the treatment of brain tumors. ..
  47. Ishiguro Y, Ishiguro H, Miyamoto H. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition up-regulates interleukin-6 in cancer cells and induces subsequent development of interstitial pneumonia. Oncotarget. 2013;4:550-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, blocking of IL-6 signaling could be beneficial to cancer patients undergoing EGFR-TKI treatment for reducing the risk of its unfavorable effects. ..
  48. Callaghan C, Kelly A. Neurotrophins play differential roles in short and long-term recognition memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2013;104:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are consistent with a pivotal role for neurotrophic factors in the expression of recognition memory. ..
  49. Oh K, Joo K, Jung Y, Lee J, Kang H, Lee H, et al. A receptor-independent, cell-based JAK activation assay for screening for JAK3-specific inhibitors. J Immunol Methods. 2010;354:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we generated a receptor-independent, cell-based selective screening system for specific JAK3 inhibitors, which is easily convertible to a high-throughput screening platform. ..
  50. Ota I, Higashiyama S, Masui T, Yane K, Hosoi H, Matsuura N. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor enhances the activity of invasion and metastasis in thyroid cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:1593-600 pubmed publisher
    ..These data may aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for thyroid cancer. ..
  51. Agbeci M, Grangeon R, Nelson R, Zheng H, Laliberté J. Contribution of host intracellular transport machineries to intercellular movement of turnip mosaic virus. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003683 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this dual gene cassette expression system and transport inhibitors, components of the secretory and actomyosin machinery were shown to be important for TuMV intercellular spread...
  52. Wang F, Wang X, Wang C, Wang X, Zhang Y, Wu J, et al. Suppression of Mcl-1 induces apoptosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbiol Immunol. 2016;60:215-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that specific downregulation of Mcl-1 significantly increases apoptosis of peritoneal macrophages and that the MAPK signaling pathway is the primary mediator of Mcl-1 expression. ..
  53. Li K, Lu Y, Xu Z, Zhang J, Zhu J, Zhang J, et al. Neuregulin 1 regulates excitability of fast-spiking neurons through Kv1.1 and acts in epilepsy. Nat Neurosci. 2011;15:267-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings suggest that NRG1-ErbB4 signaling contributes to human epilepsy through regulating the excitability of FS-PV interneurons. ErbB4 may be a new target for anticonvulsant drugs in epilepsy. ..