Summary: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.

Top Publications

  1. Gao K, Yoshikai N. Regioselectivity-switchable hydroarylation of styrenes. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:400-2 pubmed publisher
    Cobalt-phosphine and cobalt-carbene catalysts have been developed for the hydroarylation of styrenes via chelation-assisted C-H bond activation, to afford branched and linear addition products, respectively, in a highly regioselective ..
  2. Kuznetsov A, Gevorgyan V. General and practical one-pot synthesis of dihydrobenzosiloles from styrenes. Org Lett. 2012;14:914-7 pubmed publisher
    A one-pot synthesis of dihydrobenzosiloles from styrenes has been developed. The reaction involves the nickel-catalyzed hydrosilylation of styrene with diphenylsilane, followed by the iridium-catalyzed dehydrogenative cyclization...
  3. Ball L, Lloyd Jones G, Russell C. Gold-catalysed oxyarylation of styrenes and mono- and gem-disubstituted olefins facilitated by an iodine(III) oxidant. Chemistry. 2012;18:2931-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of this iodine(III) reagent expands the scope of oxyarylation to include styrenes and gem-disubstituted olefins, substrates that are incompatible with the previously reported Selectfluor-based ..
  4. Williams C, Johnson J, Rovis T. Nickel-catalyzed reductive carboxylation of styrenes using CO2. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:14936-7 pubmed publisher
    A nickel-catalyzed reductive carboxylation of styrenes using CO2 has been developed. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions using diethylzinc as the reductant...
  5. Luo W, Liu J, Li J, Zhang D, Liu M, Addo J, et al. Anti-cancer effects of JKA97 are associated with its induction of cell apoptosis via a Bax-dependent and p53-independent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:8624-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a molecular basis for the therapeutic application of JKA97 against human cancers with p53 mutations. ..
  6. Audouin F, Larragy R, Fox M, O Connor B, Heise A. Protein immobilization onto poly(acrylic acid) functional macroporous polyHIPE obtained by surface-initiated ARGET ATRP. Biomacromolecules. 2012;13:3787-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The materials and methodologies presented here are simple and robust, thus, opening new possibilities for the bioconjugation of highly porous polyHIPE for bioseparation applications...
  7. Ilchenko N, Janson P, Szabó K. Copper-mediated cyanotrifluoromethylation of styrenes using the Togni reagent. J Org Chem. 2013;78:11087-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Styrenes with an electron-deficient double bond undergo cyanotrifluoromethylation with a trifluoromethylated hypervalent iodine reagent in the presence of CuCN...
  8. Ostroumova O, Kaulin Y, Gurnev P, Schagina L. Effect of agents modifying the membrane dipole potential on properties of syringomycin E channels. Langmuir. 2007;23:6889-92 pubmed
    ..Overall, the results support the model of the small SRE channel synchronization in the cluster as voltage-dependent orientation of the lipid dipoles associated with the channel pores. ..
  9. Schmidt M, Schuck T, Sheridan S, Kung M, Kung H, Zhuang Z, et al. The fluorescent Congo red derivative, (trans, trans)-1-bromo-2,5-bis-(3-hydroxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy)styrylbenzene (BSB), labels diverse beta-pleated sheet structures in postmortem human neurodegenerative disease brains. Am J Pathol. 2001;159:937-43 pubmed

More Information


  1. Bokhari M, Akay G, Zhang S, Birch M. The enhancement of osteoblast growth and differentiation in vitro on a peptide hydrogel-polyHIPE polymer hybrid material. Biomaterials. 2005;26:5198-208 pubmed
    ..We have developed a microcellular polymer containing a nanoscale environment to enhance cell: biomaterial interactions and promote osteoblast growth in vitro. ..
  2. Buhler R, Stürmer W, Apell H, Läuger P. Charge translocation by the Na,K-pump: I. Kinetics of local field changes studied by time-resolved fluorescence measurements. J Membr Biol. 1991;121:141-61 pubmed
    ..In particular, electrochromic dyes can be used for studying electrogenic processes in microsomal membrane preparations which are not amenable to electrophysiological techniques. ..
  3. Malkov D, Sokolov V. Fluorescent styryl dyes of the RH series affect a potential drop on the membrane/solution boundary. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1278:197-204 pubmed
    ..It also appeared that RH dyes could have but a minor effect on the electrogenic transport performed by the sodium pump in the examined range of dye concentrations. ..
  4. Sato K, Higuchi M, Iwata N, Saido T, Sasamoto K. Fluoro-substituted and 13C-labeled styrylbenzene derivatives for detecting brain amyloid plaques. Eur J Med Chem. 2004;39:573-8 pubmed
    ..Because of the possession of a nuclide with a quantized angular momentum, both FSB and [(13)C]BSB are also potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging to locate AD pathologies in vivo. ..
  5. Akay G, Birch M, Bokhari M. Microcellular polyHIPE polymer supports osteoblast growth and bone formation in vitro. Biomaterials. 2004;25:3991-4000 pubmed
    ..Therefore this highly porous scaffold has a potential for bone tissue engineering. ..
  6. Pedersen M, Roudna M, Beutner S, Birmes M, Reifers B, Martin H, et al. Detection of charge movements in ion pumps by a family of styryl dyes. J Membr Biol. 2002;185:221-36 pubmed
  7. Takemoto M, Achiwa K. Synthesis of styrenes through the biocatalytic decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acids by plant cell cultures. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001;49:639-41 pubmed
    A novel method for producing styrenes from trans-cinnamic acids was developed. When trans-cinnamic acid was incubated with plant cell cultures at room temperature, styrene was obtained...
  8. Marchiani A, Mammi S, Siligardi G, Hussain R, Tessari I, Bubacco L, et al. Small molecules interacting with ?-synuclein: antiaggregating and cytoprotective properties. Amino Acids. 2013;45:327-38 pubmed publisher
  9. Shi D, Han L, Sun J, Yuan Z, Yang Y, Shi J, et al. [Studies on chemical constitutes of Acantophora spicifera]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1035-7 pubmed
    ..The compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time. Compound 6 was firstly obtained from marine organisms. ..
  10. Lebel H, Lectard S, Parmentier M. Copper-catalyzed alkene aziridination with N-tosyloxycarbamates. Org Lett. 2007;9:4797-800 pubmed
    ..for the intramolecular aziridination of allylic N-tosyloxycarbamates and the intermolecular aziridination of styrenes with trichloroethyl N-tosyloxycarbamates...
  11. Amoroso S, Clarke R, Larkum A, Quinnell R. Electrogenic plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity using voltage sensitive dyes. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2010;42:387-93 pubmed publisher
  12. Rinaldi R, Meine N, vom Stein J, Palkovits R, Schüth F. Which controls the depolymerization of cellulose in ionic liquids: the solid acid catalyst or cellulose?. ChemSusChem. 2010;3:266-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of impurities present in the imidazolium-based ionic liquids on the reaction performance, the suitability of different ionic liquids as solvents, and the recyclability of Amberlyst 15DRY and BMIMCl are also presented. ..
  13. Zhou G, Zhu J, Xie Z, Li Y. An efficient synthesis of highly functionalized [5,6] aromatic spiroketals by hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. Org Lett. 2008;10:721-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The two functional groups (ketone and olefin) can be further subjected to many synthetic transformations. ..
  14. Siyad M, Kumar G. SPED-(styrene-polyethyleneglycol diacrylate-9-decen-1-ol): a novel resin for solid phase peptide synthesis; synthesis and characterization of biologically potent endothelin classes of peptides. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2012;15:386-94 pubmed
    ..The efficiency of SPED was further confirmed by synthesizing biologically important endothelin family of peptides in high yield and purity. The purity of all peptides was checked by RP-HPLC and mass by MALDI-TOF MS. ..
  15. Matsumoto K, Takahashi N, Suzuki A, Morii T, Saito Y, Saito I. Design and synthesis of highly solvatochromic fluorescent 2'-deoxyguanosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine analogs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:1275-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Such environmentally sensitive solvatochromic fluorescent guanosine analogs may be useful as a sensor for investigating interactions of DNA with DNA binding proteins. ..
  16. Landelle G, Turcotte Savard M, Angers L, Paquin J. Stereoselective synthesis of both stereoisomers of ?-fluorostyrene derivatives from a common intermediate. Org Lett. 2011;13:1568-71 pubmed publisher
    ..A stereoselective transformation of both stereoisomers of ?-fluorostyrene is also presented. ..
  17. Du P, Brosmer J, Peters D. Electrosynthesis of substituted 1H-indoles from o-nitrostyrenes. Org Lett. 2011;13:4072-5 pubmed publisher
  18. Schumacher S, Katterle M, Hettrich C, Paulke B, Hall D, Scheller F, et al. Label-free detection of enhanced saccharide binding at pH 7.4 to nanoparticulate benzoboroxole based receptor units. J Mol Recognit. 2011;24:953-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the binding of fructose to free boronic acids, which is an enthalpically driven process, the binding of fructose to the modified nanoparticles is dominated by the positive entropy term. ..
  19. Ray D, Kurková R, Hovorková I, Klán P. Determination of the specific surface area of snow using ozonation of 1,1-diphenylethylene. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:10061-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For typical atmospheric ozone concentrations in polar areas (20 ppbv), we estimated that half-life of DPE on the surface of snow grains is ?5 days at submonolayer coverages and -15 °C. ..
  20. Yang H, Wong M. (S)-Proline-catalyzed nitro-Michael reactions: towards a better understanding of the catalytic mechanism and enantioselectivity. Org Biomol Chem. 2012;10:3229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..When both hydrogen bonded and non-hydrogen bonded types of TSs are considered, the calculated enantioselectivities for Michael additions of aldehyde and ketone substrates are in good agreement with experimental findings. ..
  21. Loska R, Szachowicz K, Szydlik D. Synthesis of alkyl aryl(heteroaryl)acetates from N-oxides, 1,1-difluorostyrenes, and alcohols. Org Lett. 2013;15:5706-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The whole process is a novel method for functionalization of a heterocyclic ring in a position originally occupied by hydrogen. Preliminary experiments show that it occurs for 6-membered N-oxides as well. ..
  22. Ruffino B, Fiore S, Zanetti M. Environmental-sanitary risk analysis procedure applied to artificial turf sports fields. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:4980-92 pubmed publisher
    ..For both classes of substances and for both receptors, the inhalation of atmospheric dusts and gases from vehicular traffic gave risk values of one order of magnitude higher than those due to playing soccer on an artificial field. ..
  23. Schmidt B, Elizarov N, Berger R, Hölter F. Scope and limitations of the Heck-Matsuda-coupling of phenol diazonium salts and styrenes: a protecting-group economic synthesis of phenolic stilbenes. Org Biomol Chem. 2013;11:3674-91 pubmed publisher
    4-Phenol diazonium salts undergo Pd-catalyzed Heck reactions with various styrenes to 4'-hydroxy stilbenes...
  24. Ryu E, Choe Y, Lee K, Choi Y, Kim B. Curcumin and dehydrozingerone derivatives: synthesis, radiolabeling, and evaluation for beta-amyloid plaque imaging. J Med Chem. 2006;49:6111-9 pubmed
    ..Metabolism studies also indicated that [18F]8 is metabolically stable in the brain. These results suggest that [18F]8 is a suitable radioligand for Abeta plaque imaging. ..
  25. Hwang J, Yu J, Jang Y, Kim B, Hwang K, Jeon Y, et al. A phenolic acid phenethyl urea compound inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines in cell culture. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:526-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that DSHP-U blocks NO and inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-stimulated macrophages and that these effects are mainly mediated through the inhibition of the ERK/p38- and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. ..
  26. Zhou W, Yan P, Wuskell J, Loew L, Antic S. Intracellular long-wavelength voltage-sensitive dyes for studying the dynamics of action potentials in axons and thin dendrites. J Neurosci Methods. 2007;164:225-39 pubmed
    ..Using these dyes and a spot laser illumination technique, we demonstrate the first recording of action potentials in the oblique dendrite and distal axonal segment of the same pyramidal cell. ..
  27. Lindh J, Sävmarker J, Nilsson P, Sjöberg P, Larhed M. Synthesis of styrenes by palladium(II)-catalyzed vinylation of arylboronic acids and aryltrifluoroborates by using vinyl acetate. Chemistry. 2009;15:4630-6 pubmed publisher
    ..acids or aryltrifluoroborates with vinyl acetate by using a palladium(II) catalyst gives the corresponding styrenes (see scheme)...
  28. Akai S, Ikawa T, Takayanagi S, Morikawa Y, Mohri S, Tsubakiyama M, et al. Synthesis of biaryl compounds through three-component assembly: ambidentate effect of the tert-butyldimethylsilyl group for regioselective Diels-Alder and Hiyama coupling reactions. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47:7673-6 pubmed publisher
  29. Zhao X, Yu Z, Xu T, Wu P, Yu H. Novel Brønsted acid catalyzed three-component alkylations of indoles with N-phenylselenophthalimide and styrenes. Org Lett. 2007;9:5263-6 pubmed
    ..Chemical removal of the phenylseleno moiety was investigated, and the reaction mechanisms were discussed. ..
  30. Lindberg D, de la Fuente Revenga M, Widersten M. Temperature and pH dependence of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of trans-methylstyrene oxide. A unifying kinetic model for observed hysteresis, cooperativity, and regioselectivity. Biochemistry. 2010;49:2297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..From the collected data, we propose that hysteresis, regioselectivity, and, when applicable, hysteretic cooperativity are closely linked properties, explained by the kinetic mechanism earlier introduced by our group. ..
  31. Kiryutin A, Ivanov K, Yurkovskaya A, Vieth H, Lukzen N. Manipulating spin hyper-polarization by means of adiabatic switching of a spin-locking RF-field. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013;15:14248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The net hyper-polarized molecules can then be used in NMR spectroscopy or imaging for strong signal enhancement. ..
  32. Cai J, Sheng P, Zhou L, Shi L, Wang N, Cai Q. Label-free photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on CdTe/CdS co-sensitized TiO2 nanotube array structure for octachlorostyrene detection. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013;50:66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..58 pM, and a linear range from 5 pM to 50 nM. The testing time is 4 min. The analysis of river water reveals that the proposed sensor can be applied in the analysis of OCS in real water samples without complicated pre-treatments. ..
  33. McDermott M, Kim C, Saylor D, Patwardhan D. Impact of copolymer ratio on drug distribution in styrene-isobutylene-styrene block copolymers. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2013;101:1191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The MD results show that the solubility parameter of TC is much closer to that of PS than PIB, which demonstrates a higher thermodynamic stability of TC-PS mixtures. ..
  34. Chen H, Han X, Qin N, Wei L, Yang Y, Rao L, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel inhibitors against 1,3,8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase from Magnaporthe grisea. Bioorg Med Chem. 2016;24:1225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive results suggest that β-nitrostyrene derivatives are most likely to be promising leads toward the discovery of novel agent of rice blast. ..
  35. Hu X, Gunawan R, Mourant D, Wang Y, Lievens C, Chaiwat W, et al. Esterification of bio-oil from mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves with a solid acid catalyst: Conversion of the cyclic ether and terpenoids into hydrocarbons. Bioresour Technol. 2012;123:249-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The terpenoids in bio-oil could also be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons that can serve as starting materials for the synthesis of fine chemicals, via the similar processes. ..
  36. Osman B, Kara A, Demirbel E, Kök S, Beşirli N. Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of ?-amylase on poly(DVB-VIM)-Cu(+2) magnetic metal-chelate affinity sorbent. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;168:279-94 pubmed
    ..The study of temperature effect was quantified by calculating various thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes. ..
  37. Singh K, Singh P, Singh P, Lal N, Sharma S. Pyrrolidine based chiral organocatalyst for efficient asymmetric Michael addition of cyclic ketones to ?-nitrostyrenes. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:4225-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This pyrrolidine based catalyst 1 was found to be very effective to synthesize various ?-nitrocarbonyl compounds in good yield (up to 81%) with excellent stereoselectivity (up to >99:1 dr and >99% ee). ..
  38. Gomes A, Fernandes E, Silva A, Pinto D, Santos C, Cavaleiro J, et al. Anti-inflammatory potential of 2-styrylchromones regarding their interference with arachidonic acid metabolic pathways. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:171-7 pubmed publisher
  39. Cheng P, Chen J, Huang N, Wang R, Zheng Y, Liang Y. Synthesis and anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity of (E)-N-phenylstyryl-N-alkylacetamide derivatives. Molecules. 2009;14:3176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..89% inhibitory ratio against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase at the tested concentration. Further cell-based anti-HIV-1 assays showed that compound 5i exhibited a SI value of 29 with an EC(50) value of 4 microM in C8166 cells. ..
  40. McDermott M, Saylor D, Casas R, Dair B, Guo J, Kim C, et al. Microstructure and elution of tetracycline from block copolymer coatings. J Pharm Sci. 2010;99:2777-85 pubmed publisher
  41. Maurin M, Stephan O, Vial J, Marder S, van der Sanden B. Deep in vivo two-photon imaging of blood vessels with a new dye encapsulated in pluronic nanomicelles. J Biomed Opt. 2011;16:036001 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of Pluronic block copolymers is a valuable approach for encapsulating two-photon fluorescent dyes that are hydrophobic and not suitable for intravenous injection. ..
  42. Li G, Yang X. Facile synthesis of hollow polymer microspheres with movable cores with the aid of hydrogen-bonding interaction. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111:12781-6 pubmed
  43. Yamamoto T, Yamakawa T. Pd-catalyzed arylation of chlorotrifluoroethylene using arylboronic acids. Org Lett. 2012;14:3454-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of chlorotrifluoroethylene and arylboronic acids proceeds in the presence of a base and H(2)O to provide ?,?,?-trifluorostyrene derivatives in satisfactory yields. ..
  44. Deans J, Powell A, Jefferys J. Sensitivity of coherent oscillations in rat hippocampus to AC electric fields. J Physiol. 2007;583:555-65 pubmed
  45. Robinson J, McEnery M, Pearce H, Whitely M, Munoz Pinto D, Hahn M, et al. Osteoinductive PolyHIPE Foams as Injectable Bone Grafts. Tissue Eng Part A. 2016;22:403-14 pubmed publisher
  46. Prasad K, Gholap S. Stereoselective total synthesis of bioactive styryllactones (+)-goniofufurone, (+)7-epi-goniofufurone, (+)-goniopypyrone, (+)-goniotriol, (+)-altholactone, and (-)-etharvensin. J Org Chem. 2008;73:2-11 pubmed
  47. Damnjanović B, Weber A, Potschies M, Greie J, Apell H. Mechanistic analysis of the pump cycle of the KdpFABC P-type ATPase. Biochemistry. 2013;52:5563-76 pubmed publisher
  48. Hayward A, Sano N, Przyborski S, Cameron N. Acrylic-acid-functionalized PolyHIPE scaffolds for use in 3D cell culture. Macromol Rapid Commun. 2013;34:1844-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore believed that this material can be a useful precursor scaffold towards 3D substrates that offer tailored surface functionality for enhanced cell adhesion. ..
  49. Wang Y, Chen Y, Hsu Y, Chiu W, Tsai C, Hu S, et al. Synthetic β-nitrostyrene derivative CYT-Rx20 as inhibitor of oral cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth through glutathione suppression and reactive oxygen species induction. Head Neck. 2017;39:1055-1064 pubmed publisher
    ..CYT-Rx20 has the potential to be further developed into an antioral cancer drug clinically. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1055-1064, 2017. ..
  50. Richard J, Williams K. A Marcus treatment of rate constants for protonation of ring-substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes: intrinsic reaction barriers and the shape of the reaction coordinate. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:6952-61 pubmed
    ..This elevated value of beta may be due to an asymmetry in the reaction coordinate that arises from the difference in the intrinsic barriers for proton transfer at the oxygen acid reactant and resonance-stabilized carbon acid product. ..
  51. Yang F, Sun S, Zhong S, Li S, Wang Y, Wu J. Performance of the heavy fraction of pyrolysis oil derived from waste printed circuit boards in modifying asphalt. J Environ Manage. 2013;126:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The DS was much larger than for the HFPO + SBR and SBR modified asphalt mixtures. These results indicate that using HFPO as an asphalt modifier has significant benefits not only for road engineering but also for resource recycling. ..
  52. Turcotte Savard M, Paquin J. Efficient synthesis of silylated 2,2-difluorostyrene derivatives through Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 2,2-difluoro-1-iodo-1-silylethenes. Org Biomol Chem. 2013;11:1367-75 pubmed publisher
    ..An unexpected transformation of a silylated 2,2-difluorostyrene derivative is also presented. ..
  53. Saha D, Chatterjee T, Mukherjee M, Ranu B. Copper(I) hydroxyapatite catalyzed Sonogashira reaction of alkynes with styrenyl bromides. Reaction of cis-styrenyl bromides forming unsymmetric diynes. J Org Chem. 2012;77:9379-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A series of trans-enynes and unsymmetric 1,3-diynes have been synthesized by this protocol. ..