diethylstilbestrol

Summary

Summary: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Kawaguchi H, Miyoshi N, Miyamoto Y, Souda M, Umekita Y, Yasuda N, et al. Effects of exposure period and dose of diethylstilbestrol on pregnancy in rats. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:1309-15 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure period and dose of diethylstilbestrol (DES), which has strong estrogenic activity, on pregnancy in rats...
  2. Bromer J, Wu J, Zhou Y, Taylor H. Hypermethylation of homeobox A10 by in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: an epigenetic mechanism for altered developmental programming. Endocrinology. 2009;150:3376-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal estrogen that induces developmental anomalies of the female reproductive tract. The homeobox gene HOXA10 controls uterine organogenesis, and its expression is altered after in utero DES exposure...
  3. Saeed M, Rogan E, Cavalieri E. Mechanism of metabolic activation and DNA adduct formation by the human carcinogen diethylstilbestrol: the defining link to natural estrogens. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:1276-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a human carcinogen, based on sufficient epidemiological evidence. DES is mainly metabolized to its catechol, 3'-hydroxyDES (3'-OH-DES), which can further oxidize to DES-3',4'-quinone (DES-3',4'-Q)...
  4. Ikeda Y, Tanaka H, Esaki M. Effects of gestational diethylstilbestrol treatment on male and female gonads during early embryonic development. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3970-9 pubmed publisher
    ..exposure to estrogen on early gonadal differentiation, pregnant mice were treated by sc injection of diethylstilbestrol (DES) or vehicle from embryonic day (E) 8.5 to E14.5, and gonads at E11.5, E12.5, and E14.5 were examined...
  5. Hoover R, Hyer M, Pfeiffer R, Adam E, Bond B, Cheville A, et al. Adverse health outcomes in women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1304-14 pubmed publisher
    Before 1971, several million women were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) given to their mothers to prevent pregnancy complications...
  6. Song G, Seo H, Choi J, Rengaraj D, Kim T, Lee B, et al. Discovery of candidate genes and pathways regulating oviduct development in chickens. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..A pellet containing the synthetic estrogen analog diethylstilbestrol (DES) was implanted subcutaneously in 1-wk-old female chicks for 10 days...
  7. Warita K, Mitsuhashi T, Sugawara T, Tabuchi Y, Tanida T, Wang Z, et al. Direct effects of diethylstilbestrol on the gene expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in testicular Leydig cells. Life Sci. 2010;87:281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the action of estrogenic endocrine disruptors, we evaluated the direct effects of synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells, with particular emphasis on the expression of the cholesterol side-..
  8. O Reilly E, Mirzaei F, Forman M, Ascherio A. Diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero and depression in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171:876-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor with long-term health effects, possibly including depression, following exposure in utero...
  9. Dobrydneva Y, Williams R, Blackmore P. Diethylstilbestrol and other nonsteroidal estrogens: novel class of store-operated calcium channel modulators. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010;55:522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The additional compounds that were examined in the present study were analogs of diethylstilbestrol (DES), namely trans-resveratrol, hexestrol, tetrahydrochrysene (THC), indenestrol, isoflavones, flavones, ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Jian D, Jiang D, Su J, Chen W, Hu X, Kuang Y, et al. Diethylstilbestrol enhances melanogenesis via cAMP-PKA-mediating up-regulation of tyrosinase and MITF in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Steroids. 2011;76:1297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the influence and mechanism of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells...
  2. Fischer T, Schomacker K, Schicha H. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) labeled with Auger emitters: potential radiopharmaceutical for therapy of estrogen receptor-positive tumors and their metastases?. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008;84:1112-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a well-known, non-steroidal estrogen with high affinity to the estrogen receptor (ER). Labeled DES would be a useful tool for therapy of ER-positive mammary carcinomas and their metastases...
  3. Greathouse K, Cook J, Lin K, Davis B, Berry T, Bredfeldt T, et al. Identification of uterine leiomyoma genes developmentally reprogrammed by neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol. Reprod Sci. 2008;15:765-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to identify genes developmentally reprogrammed by diethylstilbestrol (DES) and aberrantly expressed in leiomyomas...
  4. LaRocca J, Boyajian A, Brown C, Smith S, Hixon M. Effects of in utero exposure to Bisphenol A or diethylstilbestrol on the adult male reproductive system. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2011;92:526-33 pubmed publisher
    ..in adult males exposed in utero via oral gavage to sesame oil, 50?µg/kg BPA, 1000?µg/kg BPA, or 2?µg/kg diethylstilbestrol (DES) as a positive control from gestational days 10 to 16...
  5. Wilkins A, Shahidi M, Parker C, Gunapala R, Thomas K, Huddart R, et al. Diethylstilbestrol in castration-resistant prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2012;110:E727-35 pubmed publisher
    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was the first hormone treatment used for prostate cancer and has also shown effectiveness in castration-resistant disease in small studies; however, ..
  6. Bhan A, Hussain I, Ansari K, Bobzean S, Perrotti L, Mandal S. Bisphenol-A and diethylstilbestrol exposure induces the expression of breast cancer associated long noncoding RNA HOTAIR in vitro and in vivo. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;141:160-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have investigated if HOTAIR expression is misregulated by bisphenol-A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES)...
  7. Besteman E, Zimmerman K, Huckle W, Prater M, Gogal R, Holladay S. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) cause similar hematopoietic hypocellularity and hepatocellular changes in murine fetal liver, but differentially affect gene expression. Toxicol Pathol. 2007;35:788-94 pubmed
    ..Both agents decreased PKCalpha expression, which may suggest shared decreased phosphorylation of substrates required for normal cell cycle progression. ..
  8. Singh K, Roy D. Allelic loss and mutations in a new ETRG-1 gene are early events in diethylstilbestrol-induced renal carcinogenesis in Syrian hamsters. Gene. 2008;408:18-26 pubmed
    b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen and well known human carcinogen, but the mechanism by which DES causes cancer is not clear...
  9. Kalfa N, Paris F, Soyer Gobillard M, Daures J, Sultan C. Prevalence of hypospadias in grandsons of women exposed to diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy: a multigenerational national cohort study. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2574-7 pubmed publisher
    Prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES)-exposed mice have raised the suspicion of a transgenerational effect in the occurrence of genital malformation in males...
  10. Hatch E, Troisi R, Wise L, Titus Ernstoff L, Hyer M, Palmer J, et al. Preterm birth, fetal growth, and age at menarche among women exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31:151-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen used in pregnancy during the 1950s and 1960s, provides a model for potential health effects of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment...
  11. Titus Ernstoff L, Troisi R, Hatch E, Wise L, Palmer J, Hyer M, et al. Menstrual and reproductive characteristics of women whose mothers were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:862-8 pubmed
    In women, prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is associated with adult reproductive dysfunction...
  12. Yang L, Lin L, Weng S, Feng Z, Luan T. Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp (Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2008;71:400-11 pubmed publisher
    ..disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES)...
  13. Zhao W, Shen H, Yuan F, Li G, Sun Y, Shi Z, et al. Induction stage-dependent expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and aquaporin-1 in diethylstilbestrol-treated rat pituitary. Eur J Histochem. 2009;53:53-60 pubmed
    ..We administered diethylstilbestrol (DES) to female Wistar rats and assessed whether the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ..
  14. Parker S, Troisi R, Wise L, Palmer J, Titus Ernstoff L, Strohsnitter W, et al. Menarche, menopause, years of menstruation, and the incidence of osteoporosis: the influence of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:594-601 pubmed publisher
    ..and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations...
  15. Newbold R, Padilla Banks E, Snyder R, Phillips T, Jefferson W. Developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors and the obesity epidemic. Reprod Toxicol. 2007;23:290-6 pubmed
    ..We describe an animal model of developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a potent perinatal endocrine disruptor with estrogenic activity, to study mechanisms involved in ..
  16. Newbold R, Jefferson W, Grissom S, Padilla Banks E, Snyder R, Lobenhofer E. Developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters uterine gene expression that may be associated with uterine neoplasia later in life. Mol Carcinog. 2007;46:783-96 pubmed
    Previously, we described a mouse model where the well-known reproductive carcinogen with estrogenic activity, diethylstilbestrol (DES), caused uterine adenocarcinoma following neonatal treatment...
  17. Montgomery R, Nelson P, Lin D, Ryan C, Garzotto M, Beer T. Diethylstilbestrol and docetaxel: a Phase II study of tubulin active agents in patients with metastatic, androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cancer. 2007;110:996-1002 pubmed
    The addition of diethylstilbestrol to docetaxel modified tubulin composition and improved the response of prostate cancer to chemotherapy in preclinical models. An attempt was made to recapitulate the observations in a clinical trial...
  18. Titus Ernstoff L, Troisi R, Hatch E, Hyer M, Wise L, Palmer J, et al. Offspring of women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES): a preliminary report of benign and malignant pathology in the third generation. Epidemiology. 2008;19:251-7 pubmed publisher
    Animal studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes epigenetic changes that may be transmitted to the next generation...
  19. Tokumoto T, Tokumoto M, Thomas P. Interactions of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and DES analogs with membrane progestin receptor-alpha and the correlation with their nongenomic progestin activities. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3459-67 pubmed
    ..Although diethylstilbestrol (DES) analogs have been shown to mimic the actions of progestins to induce meiotic maturation of goldfish ..
  20. Bosset P, Albiges L, Seisen T, de La Motte Rouge T, Phé V, Bitker M, et al. Current role of diethylstilbestrol in the management of advanced prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2012;110:E826-9 pubmed publisher
    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been found to have anti-tumour properties and clinical effectiveness in prostate cancer that is resistant to the first-line hormonal therapy...
  21. Yin Y, Huang W, Lin C, Chen H, MacKenzie A, Ma L. Estrogen suppresses uterine epithelial apoptosis by inducing birc1 expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:113-25 pubmed
    ..In neonatal mice, both 17beta-estradiol and the potent synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol strongly suppress uterine epithelial apoptosis while markedly elevating Birc1 transcript level in an ..
  22. Frank S, Deavers M, Jhingran A, Bodurka D, Eifel P. Primary adenocarcinoma of the vagina not associated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105:470-4 pubmed
    Primary non-diethylstilbestrol (DES)-associated adenocarcinoma of the vagina (NDAV) is a rare entity that has not been well described...
  23. Geier R, Adler S, Rashid G, Klein A. The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) inhibits the telomerase activity and gene expression of prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2010;70:1307-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Human prostate cancer is androgen dependent. Estrogens, including the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), are used in prostate cancer treatment to reduce androgen levels via feedback inhibition of the ..
  24. Ma L. Endocrine disruptors in female reproductive tract development and carcinogenesis. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2009;20:357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This review primarily uses diethylstilbestrol (DES) as a model agent for EDCs and discusses the recent progress elucidating how DES and other EDCs affect ..
  25. Mathews E, Braden T, Williams C, Williams J, Bolden Tiller O, Goyal H. Mal-development of the penis and loss of fertility in male rats treated neonatally with female contraceptive 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol: a dose-response study and a comparative study with a known estrogenic teratogen diethylstilbestrol. Toxicol Sci. 2009;112:331-43 pubmed publisher
    ..that is detrimental to the developing penis and fertility and to compare estrogenic effects between EE and diethylstilbestrol (DES)...
  26. Rivera O, Varayoud J, Rodríguez H, Muñoz de Toro M, Luque E. Neonatal exposure to bisphenol A or diethylstilbestrol alters the ovarian follicular dynamics in the lamb. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;32:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Female lambs were exposed from postnatal day (PND) 1-14 to low doses of diethylstilbestrol (DES) or bisphenol A (BPA)...
  27. Palmer J, Wise L, Hatch E, Troisi R, Titus Ernstoff L, Strohsnitter W, et al. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1509-14 pubmed
    It has been hypothesized that breast cancer risk is influenced by prenatal hormone levels. Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, was widely used by pregnant women in the 1950s and 1960s...
  28. Koh K, Toyama Y, Komiyama M, Adachi T, Fukata H, Mori C. Neonatal administration of diethylstilbestrol has adverse effects on somatic cells rather than germ cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2006;22:746-53 pubmed
    Neonatal administration of diethylstilbestrol (DES) to rodents has adverse effects on spermatogenesis. However, not many studies have been conducted to determine which type of cell - germ or somatic - is the major target of DES...
  29. Strohsnitter W, Noller K, Troisi R, Robboy S, Hatch E, Titus Ernstoff L, et al. Autoimmune disease incidence among women prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:2167-73 pubmed publisher
    Animal studies have suggested that prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure may alter immune system development and function including antigen self-recognition...
  30. Heng K, Anand Ivell R, Teerds K, Ivell R. The endocrine disruptors dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) influence Leydig cell regeneration following ethane dimethane sulphonate treatment of adult male rats. Int J Androl. 2012;35:353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..from resident stem cells, as a novel system to investigate the effects of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adult-type Leydig cell differentiation...
  31. Morgado I, Campinho M, Costa R, Jacinto R, Power D. Disruption of the thyroid system by diethylstilbestrol and ioxynil in the sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquat Toxicol. 2009;92:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Such chemicals may affect synthesis, transport and metabolism of thyroid hormones (THs). Ioxynil (IOX) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) are potential EDCs with strong affinity in vitro for sea bream transthyretin (TTR), a TH distributor ..
  32. Song M, Park J, Kim T. Diethylstilbestrol induces arrest of rat vascular smooth muscle cell cycle progression through downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;360:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was previously prescribed for at-risk pregnancies to prevent abortion, miscarriage, and premature ..
  33. Palmer J, Herbst A, Noller K, Boggs D, Troisi R, Titus Ernstoff L, et al. Urogenital abnormalities in men exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero: a cohort study. Environ Health. 2009;8:37 pubmed publisher
    b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women during the 1940s70s, has been shown to cause reproductive problems in the daughters. Studies of prenatally-exposed males have yielded conflicting results.
  34. Clemons J, Glode L, Gao D, Flaig T. Low-dose diethylstilbestrol for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2013;31:198-204 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose (1 mg) daily diethylstilbestrol (DES) for the treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)...
  35. Ohta R, Ohmukai H, Marumo H, Shindo T, Nagata T, Ono H. Delayed reproductive dysfunction in female rats induced by early life exposure to low-dose diethylstilbestrol. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;34:323-30 pubmed publisher
    A one-lifespan test was carried out to establish a test protocol for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Diethylstilbestrol was administered by oral gavage to neonatal rats at doses of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 ?g/kg/day for 5 days after birth...
  36. Walker V, Jefferson W, Couse J, Korach K. Estrogen receptor-? mediates diethylstilbestrol-induced feminization of the seminal vesicle in male mice. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:560-5 pubmed publisher
    Studies have shown that perinatal exposure to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) leads to feminization of the seminal vesicle (SV) in male mice, as illustrated by tissue hyperplasia, ectopic expression of the major estrogen-..
  37. Kirigaya A, Kim H, Hayashi S, Chambon P, Watanabe H, Lguchi T, et al. Involvement of estrogen receptor beta in the induction of polyovular follicles in mouse ovaries exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol. Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:704-12 pubmed publisher
    Natural and synthetic estrogens, Including diethylstilbestrol (DES), given during the critical period of newborn life Induce abnormalities in ovaries of mice...
  38. Sato K, Fukata H, Kogo Y, Ohgane J, Shiota K, Mori C. Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters the expression of DNA methyltransferases and methylation of genomic DNA in the epididymis of mice. Endocr J. 2006;53:331-7 pubmed
    Fetal and neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause many abnormalities, such as cancer, in the male and female reproductive tracts later in life, and epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, may be involved in ..
  39. Larson P, Ungarelli R, de las Morenas A, Cupples L, Rowlings K, Palmer J, et al. In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) does not increase genomic instability in normal or neoplastic breast epithelium. Cancer. 2006;107:2122-6 pubmed
    ..the Continuation of Follow-Up of DES-Exposed Cohorts to study the long-term health effects of exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Genetic effects on human breast tissue have not been examined...
  40. Shamash J, Davies A, Ansell W, McFaul S, Wilson P, Oliver T, et al. A phase II study investigating the re-induction of endocrine sensitivity following chemotherapy in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:22-4 pubmed publisher
    ..chemotherapy, patients were given maximum androgen blockade until failure when treatment was switched to diethylstilbestrol and dexamethasone...
  41. Sato K, Fukata H, Kogo Y, Ohgane J, Shiota K, Mori C. Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters expression of DNA methyltransferases and methylation of genomic DNA in the mouse uterus. Endocr J. 2009;56:131-9 pubmed
    Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) can have numerous adverse effects on the reproductive organs later in life, such as vaginal clear-cell adenocarcinoma...
  42. Waalkes M, Liu J, Ward J, Diwan B. Enhanced urinary bladder and liver carcinogenesis in male CD1 mice exposed to transplacental inorganic arsenic and postnatal diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;215:295-305 pubmed
    ..8 to 18, groups (n = 35) of male offspring were subsequently injected on postpartum days 1 through 5 with diethylstilbestrol (DES; 2 microg/pup/day) or tamoxifen (TAM; 10 microg/pup/day), and tumor formation was assessed over 90 ..
  43. Verloop J, van Leeuwen F, Helmerhorst T, van Boven H, Rookus M. Cancer risk in DES daughters. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21:999-1007 pubmed publisher
    We examined long-term risk of cancer in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero.
  44. Hinrichs B, Zahid M, Saeed M, Ali M, Cavalieri E, Rogan E. Formation of diethylstilbestrol-DNA adducts in human breast epithelial cells and inhibition by resveratrol. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;127:276-81 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen analogue known to increase the risk of breast cancer in women exposed in utero, is ..
  45. Tang W, Newbold R, Mardilovich K, Jefferson W, Cheng R, Medvedovic M, et al. Persistent hypomethylation in the promoter of nucleosomal binding protein 1 (Nsbp1) correlates with overexpression of Nsbp1 in mouse uteri neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol or genistein. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5922-31 pubmed publisher
    Neonatal exposure of CD-1 mice to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or genistein (GEN) induces uterine adenocarcinoma in aging animals...
  46. Tokumoto T, Ishikawa K, Furusawa T, Ii S, Hachisuka K, Tokumoto M, et al. Sonophotocatalysis of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Mar Environ Res. 2008;66:372-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), possesses inducing activity of fish oocyte maturation, and a widely used biocide, pentachlorophenol (..
  47. Newbold R. Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Fertil Steril. 2008;89:e55-6 pubmed publisher
  48. Wise L, Palmer J, Hatch E, Troisi R, Titus Ernstoff L, Herbst A, et al. Secondary sex ratio among women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1314-9 pubmed
    b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women during the mid-1900s, is a potent endocrine disruptor...
  49. Cederroth C, Schaad O, Descombes P, Chambon P, Vassalli J, Nef S. Estrogen receptor alpha is a major contributor to estrogen-mediated fetal testis dysgenesis and cryptorchidism. Endocrinology. 2007;148:5507-19 pubmed
    ..In utero exposure to estrogens, such as 17beta-estradiol (E2) or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), down-regulates insulin-like 3 (Insl3) expression in embryonic Leydig cells, which in turn results in ..
  50. Lim W, Jeong W, Kim J, Ka H, Bazer F, Han J, et al. Differential expression of secreted phosphoprotein 1 in response to estradiol-17? and in ovarian tumors in chickens. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;422:494-500 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined that DES (diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen) decreases SPP1 expression in the oviduct and that SPP1 mRNA and protein ..
  51. Green M, Newell O, Aboyade Cole A, Darling Reed S, Thomas R. Diallyl sulfide induces the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes in the presence and/or absence of diethylstilbestrol in the breast of female ACI rats. Toxicol Lett. 2007;168:7-12 pubmed
    b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES) induces mammary tumors in female ACI rats and is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer in humans. Diallyl sulfide (DAS) has been shown to prevent cancer in animals...
  52. Lim W, Jeong W, Kim J, Yoshimura Y, Bazer F, Han J, et al. Expression and regulation of beta-defensin 11 in the oviduct in response to estrogen and in ovarian tumors of chickens. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;366:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we found the avian homolog of human beta-defensin 11 to be highly expressed in chicks treated with the diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen agonist), little is known about the hormonal and transcriptional regulation of ..
  53. Doherty L, Bromer J, Zhou Y, Aldad T, Taylor H. In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or bisphenol-A (BPA) increases EZH2 expression in the mammary gland: an epigenetic mechanism linking endocrine disruptors to breast cancer. Horm Cancer. 2010;1:146-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and bisphenol-A (BPA) are estrogen-like endocrine-disrupting chemicals that induce persistent epigenetic changes in the developing uterus...