clomiphene

Summary

Summary: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.

Top Publications

  1. Neveu N, Granger L, St Michel P, Lavoie H. Comparison of clomiphene citrate, metformin, or the combination of both for first-line ovulation induction and achievement of pregnancy in 154 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:113-20 pubmed
    ..One hundred fifty-four infertile women with oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenism. Group 1 (56 patients) received clomiphene citrate (CC) 50 mg from days 5-9 of the cycle. Group 2 (57 patients) received 500 mg of metformin 3 times a day...
  2. Badawy A, Abdel Aal I, Abulatta M. Clomiphene citrate or letrozole for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a prospective randomized trial. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:849-52 pubmed
    To compare the effects of letrozole (5 mg) and clomiphene citrate (100 mg) for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective randomized trial. University teaching hospital and private practice setting...
  3. He D, Jiang F. Meta-analysis of letrozole versus clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovary syndrome. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011;23:91-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to systematically compare the clinical efficacy and safety of letrozole with clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  4. Ganesh A, Goswami S, Chattopadhyay R, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty B. Comparison of letrozole with continuous gonadotropins and clomiphene-gonadotropin combination for ovulation induction in 1387 PCOS women after clomiphene citrate failure: a randomized prospective clinical trial. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2009;26:19-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of letrozole with that of rFSH and clomiphene citrate(CC)/rFSH for ovarian stimulation in IUI cycles. Randomized, prospective, single-blinded clinical trial...
  5. Jungheim E, Odibo A. Fertility treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a decision analysis of different oral ovulation induction agents. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2659-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Outpatient reproductive medicine and gynecology practices. Infertile women with PCOS. Metformin, clomiphene citrate, or metformin with clomiphene citrate. Live birth...
  6. Cevher E, Taha M, Orlu M, Araman A. Evaluation of mechanical and mucoadhesive properties of clomiphene citrate gel formulations containing carbomers and their thiolated derivatives. Drug Deliv. 2008;15:57-67 pubmed
    The aim of our study was to prepare clomiphene citrate gel formulations that possess appropriate mechanical properties, stay on the vaginal mucosa for a long period of time, and provide sustained drug release for the local treatment of ..
  7. Reefhuis J, Honein M, Schieve L, Rasmussen S. Use of clomiphene citrate and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2005. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:451-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first line drug for subfertility treatment. Studies assessing the association between CC and birth defects have been inconclusive...
  8. Casper R. Letrozole versus clomiphene citrate: which is better for ovulation induction?. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:858-9 pubmed
    Letrozole is at least as effective as clomiphene for inducing ovulation and achieving pregnancy in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome...
  9. Wu H, Wang N, Cheng M, Hsieh J. A randomized comparison of ovulation induction and hormone profile between the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole and clomiphene citrate in women with infertility. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007;23:76-81 pubmed
    ..study we evaluated and compared the effects of ovulation and hormonal dynamics induced by anastrozole and clomiphene citrate in women with infertility. Thirty-three infertile patients, aged 25-41 years, were enrolled...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Dankert T, Kremer J, Cohlen B, Hamilton C, Pasker de Jong P, Straatman H, et al. A randomized clinical trial of clomiphene citrate versus low dose recombinant FSH for ovarian hyperstimulation in intrauterine insemination cycles for unexplained and male subfertility. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:792-7 pubmed
    ..This randomized multicentre trial using a parallel design compares the efficacy of clomiphene citrate (CC) with that of recombinant FSH (rFSH)...
  2. Verit F, Erel O, Kocyigit A. Association of increased total antioxidant capacity and anovulation in nonobese infertile patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:418-24 pubmed
    To investigate whether total antioxidant capacity (TAC) could predict the response to ovulation induction to clomiphene citrate (CC) in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
  3. . Use of clomiphene citrate in infertile women: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2013;100:341-8 pubmed publisher
    This committee opinion describes the use of clomiphene citrate, including indications, use, monitoring, and side effects. There is also a discussion of adjuvants and alternatives to clomiphene citrate therapy.
  4. Palomba S, Falbo A, Battista L, Russo T, Venturella R, Tolino A, et al. Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy vs clomiphene citrate plus metformin as second-line strategy for infertile anovulatory patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:577.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) vs clomiphene citrate (CC) plus metformin in infertile patients with CC-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  5. Sh Tehrani Nejad E, Abediasl Z, Rashidi B, Azimi Nekoo E, Shariat M, Amirchaghmaghi E. Comparison of the efficacy of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and clomiphen citrate gonadotropins in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: a prospective, simply randomized, clinical trial. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2008;25:187-90 pubmed publisher
    ..infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) therapy were randomized to receive either letrozole or clomiphene citrate (CC)-gonadotropin...
  6. Topipat C, Choktanasiri W, Jultanmas R, Weerakiet S, Wongkularb A, Rojanasakul A. A comparison of the effects of clomiphene citrate and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on superovulation in Asian women with normal ovulatory cycles. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2008;24:145-50 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effect of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC) on superovulation in women with normal ovulation...
  7. Kyrou D, Fatemi H, Blockeel C, Stoop D, Albuarki H, Verheyen G, et al. Transfer of cryopreserved - thawed embryos in hCG induced natural or clomiphene citrate cycles yields similar live birth rates in normo-ovulatory women. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2010;27:683-9 pubmed publisher
    the purpose of this retrospective analysis is to compare the efficiency of hCG-induced natural and Clomiphene citrate (CC) cycles in normovulatory patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer (FET)...
  8. See C, McCulloch M, Smikle C, Gao J. Chinese herbal medicine and clomiphene citrate for anovulation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17:397-405 pubmed publisher
    ..The study objective was to investigate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for improving standard infertility treatments...
  9. Tripathi A, Premkumar K, Pandey A, Khatun S, Mishra S, Shrivastav T, et al. Melatonin protects against clomiphene citrate-induced generation of hydrogen peroxide and morphological apoptotic changes in rat eggs. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;667:419-24 pubmed publisher
    The present study was aimed to determine whether clomiphene citrate-induces generation of hydrogen peroxide in ovary, if so, whether melatonin could scavenge hydrogen peroxide and protect against clomiphene citrate-induced morphological ..
  10. Begum M, Akhter S, Ehsan M, Begum M, Khan F. Pretreatment and co-administration of oral anti-diabetic agent with clomiphene citrate or rFSH for ovulation induction in clomiphene-citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013;39:966-73 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to explore the result of pretreatment and concomitant use of metformin with clomiphene citrate (CC) and rFSH for ovulation induction in clomiphene-citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
  11. Badawy A, Mosbah A, Shady M. Anastrozole or letrozole for ovulation induction in clomiphene-resistant women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a prospective randomized trial. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:1209-12 pubmed
    To compare the effects of letrozole (2.5 mg) and anastrozole (1 mg) meant for ovulation induction in clomiphene (CC)-resistant women with PCOS. Prospective randomized trial. University teaching hospital and private practice setting...
  12. Gregoriou O, Vlahos N, Konidaris S, Papadias K, Botsis D, Creatsas G. Randomized controlled trial comparing superovulation with letrozole versus recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone combined with intrauterine insemination for couples with unexplained infertility who had failed clomiphene citrate stimulation and int. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:678-83 pubmed
    ..FSH for ovarian stimulation combined with IUI in a group of patients that had failed to conceive after clomiphene citrate (CC) and IUI. Prospective randomized trial with human subjects. University-based fertility center...
  13. Sipe C, Davis W, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis B. A prospective randomized trial comparing anastrozole and clomiphene citrate in an ovulation induction protocol using gonadotropins. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1676-81 pubmed
    To compare the ovarian and endometrial effects of anastrozole and clomiphene when used with gonadotropins in a combination protocol. Prospective randomized trial. Academic infertility center. Fifty infertile women...
  14. Bao S, Sheng S, Peng Y, Lin Q. Effects of letrozole and clomiphene citrate on the expression of HOXA10 and integrin alpha v beta 3 in uterine epithelium of rats. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:244-8 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effects of letrozole and clomiphene citrate on the expression of HOXA10 and integrin alpha(v)beta(3) in the uterine epithelium in rats. Controlled prospective study. Teaching hospital and university research laboratory...
  15. Nyboe Andersen A, Balen A, Platteau P, Devroey P, Helmgaard L, Arce J. Predicting the FSH threshold dose in women with WHO Group II anovulatory infertility failing to ovulate or conceive on clomiphene citrate. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1424-30 pubmed publisher
    ..One hundred and fifty-one patients with WHO Group II anovulatory infertility failing to ovulate or conceive on clomiphene citrate underwent ovarian stimulation with FSH-only preparations following a low-dose step-up protocol...
  16. Legro R, Kunselman A, Brzyski R, Casson P, Diamond M, Schlaff W, et al. The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOS II) trial: rationale and design of a double-blind randomized trial of clomiphene citrate and letrozole for the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Contemp Clin Trials. 2012;33:470-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of female infertility and first line treatment is currently oral clomiphene citrate, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, which results in both a high nonresponse rate and multiple ..
  17. Palomba S, Falbo A, Orio F, Tolino A, Zullo F. Efficacy predictors for metformin and clomiphene citrate treatment in anovulatory infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:2557-67 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate ovulation and pregnancy predictors in infertile polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients who received clomiphene citrate (CC) and metformin as first-line ovulation inductors. Prospective controlled study...
  18. Guzick D. Ovulation induction management of PCOS. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2007;50:255-67 pubmed
    ..For women in whom weight loss is not possible, or for lean women with PCOS, clomiphene citrate is an effective first-line method of ovulation induction...
  19. Badawy A, Elnashar A, Totongy M. Clomiphene citrate or aromatase inhibitors for superovulation in women with unexplained infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination: a prospective randomized trial. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:1355-9 pubmed publisher
    To compare clomiphene citrate (CC) and letrozole used for superovulation before intrauterine insemination (IUI) in unexplained infertility. Prospective randomized trial. A university teaching hospital and a private practice setting...
  20. Polyzos N, Tzioras S, Badawy A, Valachis A, Dritsas C, Mauri D. Aromatase inhibitors for female infertility: a systematic review of the literature. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;19:456-71 pubmed
    Ovulation induction remains a milestone in the treatment of women with anovulatory infertility. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is considered the first line treatment for induction of ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), ..
  21. Zeinalzadeh M, Basirat Z, Esmailpour M. Efficacy of letrozole in ovulation induction compared to that of clomiphene citrate in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Reprod Med. 2010;55:36-40 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy of letrozole with clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)...
  22. Legro R, Brzyski R, Diamond M, Coutifaris C, Schlaff W, Casson P, et al. Letrozole versus clomiphene for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:119-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Clomiphene is the current first-line infertility treatment in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, but aromatase inhibitors, including letrozole, might result in better pregnancy outcomes.
  23. Kamath M, Aleyamma T, Chandy A, George K. Aromatase inhibitors in women with clomiphene citrate resistance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2857-9 pubmed publisher
    In 36 women with polycystic ovary syndrome and clomiphene citrate resistance, letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, statistically significantly increased the ovulation rate by 33...
  24. Cheng J, Lv J, Li C, Xue Y, Huang Z, Zheng W. Clinical outcomes of ovulation induction with metformin, clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotrophin in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Int Med Res. 2010;38:1250-8 pubmed
    This pilot study evaluated the effects of coadministration of metformin with clomiphene citrate (CC) and human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) in women with CC-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  25. Quintero R, Urban R, Lathi R, Westphal L, Dahan M. A comparison of letrozole to gonadotropins for ovulation induction, in subjects who failed to conceive with clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:879-85 pubmed
    To compare pregnancy rates (PR) for letrozole and gonadotropins in individuals who failed to conceive with clomiphene citrate (CC). Retrospective cohort study. University reproductive center...
  26. Begum M, Quadir E, Begum A, Begum R, Begum M. Role of aromatase inhibitor in ovulation induction in patients with poor response to clomiphene citrate. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2006;32:502-6 pubmed
    ..This prospective clinical trial in patients with infertility and poor response to clomiphene citrate (CC) was undertaken in a tertiary referral infertility clinic...
  27. Ahmed M, Duleba A, El Shahat O, Ibrahim M, Salem A. Naltrexone treatment in clomiphene resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:2564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated long-term inhibition of the opioid system using naltrexone in clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant women with PCOS...
  28. Polyzos N, Tzioras S, Mauri D, Tsappi M, Cortinovis I, Tsali L, et al. Treatment of unexplained infertility with aromatase inhibitors or clomiphene citrate: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2008;63:472-9 pubmed publisher
    Treatment of unexplained infertility is empiric and different regimens or protocols have been used so far. Clomiphene can be used alone or combined with gonadotrophins...
  29. Badawy A, Allam A, Abulatta M. Extending clomiphene treatment in clomiphene-resistant women with PCOS: a randomized controlled trial. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;16:825-9 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of extended clomiphene citrate treatment compared with gonadotrophin therapy for the management of clomiphene-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  30. Racette L, Casson P, Claman P, Zackon D, Casson E. An investigation of the visual disturbances experienced by patients on clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1169-72 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the impact of clomiphene citrate on vision. Observational study...
  31. Moskovic D, Katz D, Akhavan A, Park K, Mulhall J. Clomiphene citrate is safe and effective for long-term management of hypogonadism. BJU Int. 2012;110:1524-8 pubmed publisher
    To assess the efficacy and safety of long-term clomiphene citrate (CC) therapy in symptomatic patients with hypogonadism (HG)...
  32. Balen A, Platteau P, Andersen A, Devroey P, Helmgaard L, Arce J. Highly purified FSH is as efficacious as recombinant FSH for ovulation induction in women with WHO Group II anovulatory infertility: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:1816-23 pubmed
    ..Women with anovulatory infertility WHO Group II and resistant to clomiphene citrate were randomized (computer-generated list) to stimulation with HP-FSH (n=73) or rFSH (n=78) using a low-..
  33. Katz D, Nabulsi O, Tal R, Mulhall J. Outcomes of clomiphene citrate treatment in young hypogonadal men. BJU Int. 2012;110:573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Clomiphene citrate (CC) may be used as an alternative treatment in these patients with hypogonadism when maintenance of ..
  34. Viola M, Meyer D, Kruger T. Association between clomiphene citrate and visual disturbances with special emphasis on central retinal vein occlusion: a review. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2011;71:73-6 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether clomiphene citrate (CC) can be implicated as a cause for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and other visual disturbances...
  35. Abu Hashim H, El Lakany N, Sherief L. Combined metformin and clomiphene citrate versus laparoscopic ovarian diathermy for ovulation induction in clomiphene-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011;37:169-77 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effect of combined metformin and clomiphene citrate (CC) with laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) meant for ovulation induction in CC-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  36. Palomba S, Orio F, Falbo A, Russo T, Tolino A, Zullo F. Effects of metformin and clomiphene citrate on ovarian vascularity in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1694-701 pubmed
    To evaluate the effects of metformin and of clomiphene citrate (CC) on the ovarian blood perfusion and on perifollicular and peri-corpus luteum (CL) vascularity in anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  37. Abu Hashim H, Shokeir T, Badawy A. Letrozole versus combined metformin and clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in clomiphene-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1405-9 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effect of letrozole with combined metformin and clomiphene citrate (CC) for ovulation induction in CC-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A randomized controlled trial...
  38. Esin S, Yildirim H, Tanzer F. Laparoscopic management of a primary omental pregnancy after clomiphene induction. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:392.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..She was undergoing clomiphene (CC) induction for infertility and had a positive urine pregnancy test at home...
  39. . Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:462-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The recommended first-line treatment for ovulation induction remains the anti-estrogen clomiphene citrate (CC)...
  40. . Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:505-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The recommended first-line treatment for ovulation induction remains the anti-estrogen clomiphene citrate (CC)...
  41. Badawy A, Elnashar A, Totongy M. Clomiphene citrate or aromatase inhibitors combined with gonadotropins for superovulation in women undergoing intrauterine insemination: a prospective randomised trial. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;30:617-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to test the use of letrozole in combination with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) vs clomiphene citrate (CC) with FSH for ovarian hyperstimulation prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI)...
  42. Zain M, Jamaluddin R, Ibrahim A, Norman R. Comparison of clomiphene citrate, metformin, or the combination of both for first-line ovulation induction, achievement of pregnancy, and live birth in Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:514-21 pubmed publisher
    ..groups: group 1 (38 patients) received 500 mg of metformin three times a day; group 2 (39 patients) received clomiphene citrate (CC) at an incremental dose; group 3 (38 patients) received both medications...
  43. Palatnik A, Strawn E, Szabo A, Robb P. What is the optimal follicular size before triggering ovulation in intrauterine insemination cycles with clomiphene citrate or letrozole? An analysis of 988 cycles. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:1089-94.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..the optimal size of the leading follicle before human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration in cycles with clomiphene citrate (CC) and letrozole, and to examine any differences in the optimal leading follicle size between cycles ..
  44. Teramoto S, Kato O. Minimal ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate: a large-scale retrospective study. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;15:134-48 pubmed
    Enclomiphene, an isomeric component of clomiphene citrate, acts antagonistically to the oestradiol receptor at the hypothalamus level, inhibiting both negative and positive feedback, and resulting in the induction of ovarian stimulation ..
  45. Palomba S, Orio F, Falbo A, Russo T, Tolino A, Zullo F. Clomiphene citrate versus metformin as first-line approach for the treatment of anovulation in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3498-503 pubmed
    b>Clomiphene citrate (CC) and metformin are two effective drugs used to induce ovulation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), even if it is still unclear which compound between them should be initially administered.
  46. Ghanem H, Shaeer O, El Segini A. Combination clomiphene citrate and antioxidant therapy for idiopathic male infertility: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2232-5 pubmed publisher
    To assess the effect of treatment with a combination of clomiphene citrate as an antiestrogen and vitamin E as an antioxidant on the incidence of pregnancy and sperm variables in men with idiopathic oligozoospermia and infertility...
  47. Kosmas I, Tatsioni A, Fatemi H, Kolibianakis E, Tournaye H, Devroey P. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration vs. luteinizing monitoring for intrauterine insemination timing, after administration of clomiphene citrate: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:607-12 pubmed
    ..Tertiary fertility and IVF center. One thousand four hundred sixty-one patients who received hCG after a clomiphene citrate regimen, compared with 1,162 patients who had an LH surge detection for IUI timing...
  48. Siebert T, Kruger T, Steyn D, Nosarka S. Is the addition of metformin efficacious in the treatment of clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome? A structured literature review. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1432-7 pubmed
    The aim of this literature search is to establish if metformin is efficacious when given to clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Medline database was searched from 1 January 1980 to 1 January 2005...
  49. Shao R, Nutu M, Weijdegård B, Egecioglu E, Fernandez Rodriguez J, Karlsson Lindahl L, et al. Clomiphene citrate causes aberrant tubal apoptosis and estrogen receptor activation in rat fallopian tube: implications for tubal ectopic pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:1262-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Clomiphene citrate (CC) therapy for disorders of anovulatory infertility has been linked to an increased frequency of tubal ectopic pregnancy...
  50. Savaris R, Groll J, Young S, Demayo F, Jeong J, Hamilton A, et al. Progesterone resistance in PCOS endometrium: a microarray analysis in clomiphene citrate-treated and artificial menstrual cycles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1737-46 pubmed publisher
    ..samples were obtained from normal fertile controls and from women with PCOS, either induced to ovulate with clomiphene citrate or from a modeled secretory phase using daily administration of progesterone...
  51. Begum M, Ferdous J, Begum A, Quadir E. Comparison of efficacy of aromatase inhibitor and clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:853-7 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effectiveness of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC) in induction of ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective, randomized, not blinded, controlled trial. A tertiary level infertility care center...
  52. Api M. Could transvaginal, ultrasound-guided ovarian interstitial laser treatment replace laparoscopic ovarian drilling in women with polycystic ovary syndrome resistant to clomiphene citrate?. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:2039-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these modalities were reported to have easy applicability and low cost with shorter hospital stay, the efficacy and safety concerns need to be discussed extensively. ..
  53. Abu Hashim H, Anwar K, El Fatah R. N-acetyl cysteine plus clomiphene citrate versus metformin and clomiphene citrate in treatment of clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010;19:2043-8 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effects of combined N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and clomiphene citrate (CC) and of combined metformin and CC on ovulation induction in anovulatory CC-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...