Summary: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.

Top Publications

  1. Gažák R, Valentova K, Fuksová K, Marhol P, Kuzma M, Medina M, et al. Synthesis and antiangiogenic activity of new silybin galloyl esters. J Med Chem. 2011;54:7397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..As with silybin itself, the B isomer of 7-O-galloylsilybin was more active than the A isomer. ..
  2. Loguercio C, Festi D. Silybin and the liver: from basic research to clinical practice. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:2288-301 pubmed publisher
    Herbal products are increasingly used, mainly in chronic liver disease. Extracts of milk thistle, Silymarin and silybin, are the most prescribed natural compounds, with different indications, but with no definitive results in terms of ..
  3. Wagoner J, Morishima C, Graf T, Oberlies N, Teissier E, Pécheur E, et al. Differential in vitro effects of intravenous versus oral formulations of silibinin on the HCV life cycle and inflammation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16464 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin prevents liver disease in many experimental rodent models, and is the most popular botanical medicine consumed by patients with hepatitis C...
  4. Zhan T, Digel M, Küch E, Stremmel W, Fullekrug J. Silybin and dehydrosilybin decrease glucose uptake by inhibiting GLUT proteins. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:849-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that silybin and dehydrosilybin inhibit cellular glucose uptake by directly interacting with GLUT transporters. Glucose starvation offers a novel explanation for the anti-cancer effects of silybin. ..
  5. Altaei T. The treatment of melasma by silymarin cream. BMC Dermatol. 2012;12:18 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Silymarin strongly prevents photocarcinogenesis, and significantly prevented melanin production...
  6. Deep G, Gangar S, Rajamanickam S, Raina K, Gu M, Agarwal C, et al. Angiopreventive efficacy of pure flavonolignans from milk thistle extract against prostate cancer: targeting VEGF-VEGFR signaling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34630 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these studies elucidated the comparative anti-angiogenic efficacy of pure flavonolignans from Milk Thistle and suggest their usefulness in PCA angioprevention. ..
  7. Singhal N, Srivastava G, Patel D, Jain S, Singh M. Melatonin or silymarin reduces maneb- and paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype in the mouse. J Pineal Res. 2011;50:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..The study investigated the effects of silymarin, an antioxidant of plant origin, and melatonin, an indoleamine produced in all species, in MB- and PQ-induced ..
  8. Chtourou Y, Fetoui H, Garoui E, Boudawara T, Zeghal N. Improvement of cerebellum redox states and cholinergic functions contribute to the beneficial effects of silymarin against manganese-induced neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res. 2012;37:469-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to explore the effects of silymarin, a natural antioxidant, in attenuating the toxicity induced by Mn in rat cerebellum...
  9. Duan W, Jin X, Li Q, Tashiro S, Onodera S, Ikejima T. Silibinin induced autophagic and apoptotic cell death in HT1080 cells through a reactive oxygen species pathway. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;113:48-56 pubmed
    ..O(2)*(-) also contributed to silibinin-induced cell death. ..

More Information


  1. Raina K, Agarwal C, Agarwal R. Effect of silibinin in human colorectal cancer cells: targeting the activation of NF-?B signaling. Mol Carcinog. 2013;52:195-206 pubmed publisher
  2. Malekinejad H, Rezabakhsh A, Rahmani F, Hobbenaghi R. Silymarin regulates the cytochrome P450 3A2 and glutathione peroxides in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:583-90 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to investigate the protective and regulatory effects of silymarin (SMN) and melatonin (MEL) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic changes in cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP 3A2) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) expression ..
  3. Abenavoli L, Capasso R, Milic N, Capasso F. Milk thistle in liver diseases: past, present, future. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1423-32 pubmed publisher
    ..and is composed of three isomer flavonolignans (silybin, silydianin, and silychristin) collectively known as silymarin. Silybin is a component with the greatest degree of biological activity and makes up 50% to 70% of silymarin...
  4. Ahmadi Ashtiani H, Allameh A, Rastegar H, Soleimani M, Barkhordari E. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase by silymarin in proliferating mesenchymal stem cells: comparison with glutathione modifiers. J Nat Med. 2012;66:85-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans, is extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and has a strong antioxidant activity and exhibits anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective effects...
  5. Katiyar S, Mantena S, Meeran S. Silymarin protects epidermal keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage by nucleotide excision repair mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21410 pubmed publisher
    ..Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of skin with silymarin, a plant flavanoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), inhibits photocarcinogenesis in mice; however it is ..
  6. Das S, Roy P, Auddy R, Mukherjee A. Silymarin nanoparticle prevents paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:1291-301 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin (Sm) is a polyphenolic component extracted from Silybum marianum. It is an antioxidant, traditionally used as an immunostimulant, hepatoprotectant, and dietary supplement...
  7. Becker Schiebe M, Mengs U, Schaefer M, Bulitta M, Hoffmann W. Topical use of a silymarin-based preparation to prevent radiodermatitis : results of a prospective study in breast cancer patients. Strahlenther Onkol. 2011;187:485-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, there is a high need for more effective prophylactic treatments. In this study, a silymarin-based cream (Leviaderm(®)) was tested in comparison to our standard of care (SOC) at the involved site...
  8. Wu C, Huang S, Yen G. Silymarin: a novel antioxidant with antiglycation and antiinflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;14:353-66 pubmed publisher
    The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of silymarin (SM) on advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation and monocyte activation induced by S100b, a specific ligand of receptor for AGEs...
  9. Wang K, Zhang H, Shen L, Du Q, Li J. Rapid separation and characterization of active flavonolignans of Silybum marianum by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;53:1053-7 pubmed publisher
    ..silydianin (3), silybins A (4) and B (5), and isosilybins A (6) and B (7), major bioactive flavonolignans in silymarin, a herbal remedy derived from the milk thistle Silybum marianum...
  10. Zhu Y, Yu J, Tong S, Wang L, Peng M, Cao X, et al. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of povidone-sodium cholate-phospholipid mixed micelles for the solubilization of poorly soluble drugs. Arch Pharm Res. 2010;33:911-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1 h. Our results suggest that these mixed micelles might have significant potential application to the biomedical field. ..
  11. Javed S, Kohli K, Ali M. Reassessing bioavailability of silymarin. Altern Med Rev. 2011;16:239-49 pubmed
    b>Silymarin, a flavonolignan derived from Silybum marianum, possesses diverse pharmacological activities, including hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective...
  12. Yu J, Zhu Y, Wang L, Peng M, Tong S, Cao X, et al. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug silybin by sodium cholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:759-64 pubmed publisher
    ..0%. Sodium cholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles are promising carriers in orally delivery of silybin, considering their capability of enhancing bioavailability and large-scale production. ..
  13. Feher J, Lengyel G. Silymarin in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases and primary liver cancer. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2012;13:210-7 pubmed
    ..fatty liver diseases, drug- and chemical-induced hepatic toxicity), the antioxidant medicines such as silymarin can have beneficial effect...
  14. Muley M, Thakare V, Patil R, Bafna P, Naik S. Amelioration of cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions with silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid in the cerebral global ischemic rat model. Life Sci. 2013;93:51-7 pubmed publisher
    The neuroprotective activities of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) on cerebral global ischemic/reperfusion were evaluated in a rat model.
  15. Yakoot M, Salem A. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:32 pubmed publisher
    ..with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and eligible for inclusion had been randomized to either Spirulina or Silymarin treated groups for a period of six months treatment...
  16. Wei F, Liu S, Liu X, Li Z, Li B, Zhou Y, et al. Meta-analysis: silymarin and its combination therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;32:657-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin is used by many patients with chronic hepatitis B, but its efficacy remains unknown...
  17. Adhikari M, Dhaker A, Adhikari J, Ivanov V, Singh V, Chawla R, et al. In vitro studies on radioprotective efficacy of silymarin against ?-irradiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 2013;89:200-11 pubmed publisher
    Abstract Purpose: Silymarin has been widely exploited for its hepatoprotective activities. This study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of silymarin against ?-radiation...
  18. Tong S, Chu C, Wei Y, Wang L, Gao X, Xu X, et al. Preparation and effects of 2,3-dehydrosilymarin, a promising and potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:238-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin or silybin has been effectively used for treating liver diseases and acute liver injury partly due to its antioxidant activity...
  19. Abdelmeguid N, Chmaisse H, Abou Zeinab N. Silymarin ameliorates cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats: histopathological and ultrastructural studies. Pak J Biol Sci. 2010;13:463-79 pubmed
    The benefit of silymarin, a plant extract with strong antioxidant activity against hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rats was investigated in this study...
  20. Kim M, Yang S, Kim J, Lee J, Kim Y, Lee J. Silymarin suppresses hepatic stellate cell activation in a dietary rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: analysis of isolated hepatic stellate cells. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30:473-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Silymarin was reported to improve carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis and reduce the activation of hepatic ..
  21. Kiruthiga P, Pandian S, Devi K. Silymarin protects PBMC against B(a)P induced toxicity by replenishing redox status and modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes--an in vitro study. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;247:116-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, a variety of antioxidants have been tested as possible protectors against B(a)P toxicity. Silymarin is one such compound, which has high human acceptance, used clinically and consumed as dietary supplement around ..
  22. Raskovic A, Stilinović N, Kolarovic J, Vasovic V, Vukmirovic S, Mikov M. The protective effects of silymarin against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats. Molecules. 2011;16:8601-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin is a complex of five major compounds, and silibinin is the most biologically active component of the complex...
  23. Kauntz H, Bousserouel S, Gosse F, Raul F. Silibinin triggers apoptotic signaling pathways and autophagic survival response in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and their derived metastatic cells. Apoptosis. 2011;16:1042-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show that silibinin initiated in SW480 and SW620 cells an autophagic-mediated survival response overwhelmed by the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. ..
  24. Ashfaq U, Javed T, Rehman S, Nawaz Z, Riazuddin S. Inhibition of HCV 3a core gene through Silymarin and its fractions. Virol J. 2011;8:153 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated that Silymarin (SM) dose dependently inhibit the expression or function of HCV core gene at a non toxic concentration while the ..
  25. Fallahzadeh M, Dormanesh B, Sagheb M, Roozbeh J, Vessal G, Pakfetrat M, et al. Effect of addition of silymarin to renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on proteinuria in type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60:896-903 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silymarin, an herbal drug with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, in preventing the progression of diabetic ..
  26. Hou Y, Liou K, Chern C, Wang Y, Liao J, Chang S, et al. Preventive effect of silymarin in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats possibly through impairing NF-?B and STAT-1 activation. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:963-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin and silibinin are bioactive components isolated from Silybum marianum. They have been reported to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects...
  27. Chtourou Y, Fetoui H, Sefi M, Trabelsi K, Barkallah M, Boudawara T, et al. Silymarin, a natural antioxidant, protects cerebral cortex against manganese-induced neurotoxicity in adult rats. Biometals. 2010;23:985-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of silymarin (SIL), an antioxidant flavonoid, against manganese chloride induced neurotoxicity both in vivo (cerebral cortex ..
  28. Parveen R, Baboota S, Ali J, Ahuja A, Vasudev S, Ahmad S. Effects of silymarin nanoemulsion against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:767-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin is a complex mixture of four flavonolignan isomers (silybin, isosilybin, silydianin and silychristin) obtained from 'milk thistle' (Silybum marianum). This plant compound is used almost exclusively for hepatoprotection...
  29. Yu H, Chen L, Cheng K, Li Y, Yeh C, Cheng J. Silymarin inhibits cervical cancer cell through an increase of phosphatase and tensin homolog. Phytother Res. 2012;26:709-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin is an active constituent contained in the seeds of the milk thistle plant and is widely used as a hepatic protection agent due to its antioxidant-like activity...
  30. Deep G, Gangar S, Agarwal C, Agarwal R. Role of E-cadherin in antimigratory and antiinvasive efficacy of silibinin in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:1222-32 pubmed publisher
  31. Adeyemo O, Doi H, Rajender Reddy K, Kaplan D. Impact of oral silymarin on virus- and non-virus-specific T-cell responses in chronic hepatitis C infection. J Viral Hepat. 2013;20:453-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin displays anti-inflammatory effects on T lymphocytes in vitro. The immunomodulatory properties of oral silymarin in vivo in humans with chronic hepatitis C have not previously been characterized...
  32. Rutter K, Scherzer T, Beinhardt S, Kerschner H, Stättermayer A, Hofer H, et al. Intravenous silibinin as 'rescue treatment' for on-treatment non-responders to pegylated interferon/ribavirin combination therapy. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:1327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Except for a slight increase in bilirubin (mean ±SD 0.98 ±0.35 to 2.12 ±0.99 mg/dl), treatment was well-tolerated. ivSIL is an effective 'rescue treatment' for on-treatment non-responders to full-dose of SOC. ..
  33. Muley M, Thakare V, Patil R, Kshirsagar A, Naik S. Silymarin improves the behavioural, biochemical and histoarchitecture alterations in focal ischemic rats: a comparative evaluation with piracetam and protocatachuic acid. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;102:286-93 pubmed publisher
    Comparative neuroprotective potential of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) was evaluated in focal ischemic rats...
  34. Fried M, Navarro V, Afdhal N, Belle S, Wahed A, Hawke R, et al. Effect of silymarin (milk thistle) on liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C unsuccessfully treated with interferon therapy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012;308:274-82 pubmed publisher
    The botanical product silymarin, an extract of milk thistle, is commonly used by patients to treat chronic liver disease, despite scant and conflicting evidence of its efficacy...
  35. Raza S, Khan M, Ashafaq M, Ahmad A, Khuwaja G, Khan A, et al. Silymarin protects neurons from oxidative stress associated damages in focal cerebral ischemia: a behavioral, biochemical and immunohistological study in Wistar rats. J Neurol Sci. 2011;309:45-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined whether silymarin, an antioxidant, present in the milk of thistle can prevent or slowdown neuronal injury in focal cerebral ..
  36. Mata Santos H, Lino F, Rocha C, Paiva C, Castelo Branco M, Pyrrho A. Silymarin treatment reduces granuloma and hepatic fibrosis in experimental schistosomiasis. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Silymarin, a complex compound isolated from Silybum marianum (L...
  37. Ninsontia C, Pongjit K, Chaotham C, Chanvorachote P. Silymarin selectively protects human renal cells from cisplatin-induced cell death. Pharm Biol. 2011;49:1082-90 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Silymarin from seeds of milk thistle [Silybum marianum L...
  38. Tzeng J, Chen M, Chung H, Cheng J. Silymarin decreases connective tissue growth factor to improve liver fibrosis in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride. Phytother Res. 2013;27:1023-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin is an herbal product showing potential as protection against hepatic disorders...
  39. Miroliaee A, Esmaily H, Vaziri Bami A, Baeeri M, Shahverdi A, Abdollahi M. Amelioration of experimental colitis by a novel nanoselenium-silymarin mixture. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011;21:200-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin has intracellular antioxidant property and inhibits activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in low concentrations and reduces tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6 levels, cyclooxygenase (COX), and ..
  40. Vaid M, Prasad R, Singh T, Elmets C, Xu H, Katiyar S. Silymarin inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced immune suppression through DNA repair-dependent activation of dendritic cells and stimulation of effector T cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;85:1066-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin inhibits UVB-induced immunosuppression in mouse skin...
  41. Kim J, Kang S, Kang M, Gong J, Lee E, Han S, et al. Osteoblastogenesis and osteoprotection enhanced by flavonolignan silibinin in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:247-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, the mixture of flavonolignans extracted from blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum)...
  42. Malekinejad H, Janbaz Acyabar H, Razi M, Varasteh S. Preventive and protective effects of silymarin on doxorubicin-induced testicular damages correlate with changes in c-myc gene expression. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:1077-84 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to investigate the preventive and protective effects of silymarin (SMN) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced damages in the testis...
  43. Sangeetha N, Aranganathan S, Panneerselvam J, Shanthi P, Rama G, Nalini N. Oral supplementation of silibinin prevents colon carcinogenesis in a long term preclinical model. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;643:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Since colon cancer is highly sensitive to dietary intervention adults who may have preneoplastic lesions in their colon may be benefited by silibinin. ..
  44. Payer B, Reiberger T, Rutter K, Beinhardt S, Staettermayer A, Peck Radosavljevic M, et al. Successful HCV eradication and inhibition of HIV replication by intravenous silibinin in an HIV-HCV coinfected patient. J Clin Virol. 2010;49:131-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations on the possible beneficial effects of ivSIL on CD4+ cell counts and HIV-RNA levels are necessary. ..
  45. Jain A, Yadav A, Bozhkov A, Padalko V, Flora S. Therapeutic efficacy of silymarin and naringenin in reducing arsenic-induced hepatic damage in young rats. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:607-14 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the effects of silymarin and naringenin in counteracting arsenic-induced hepatic oxidative stress post exposure...
  46. Li C, Hsiang C, Wu S, Ho T. Identification of novel mechanisms of silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice by nuclear factor-?B bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:1568-75 pubmed publisher
    ..transcriptomic analysis to evaluate and identify the therapeutic potentials and novel mechanisms of silymarin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis...
  47. El Lakkany N, Hammam O, El Maadawy W, Badawy A, Ain Shoka A, Ebeid F. Anti-inflammatory/anti-fibrotic effects of the hepatoprotective silymarin and the schistosomicide praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Silymarin, a standardized milk thistle extract, of which silibinin is the main component, is known for its ..
  48. Vidlar A, Vostalova J, Ulrichova J, Student V, Krajicek M, Vrbkova J, et al. The safety and efficacy of a silymarin and selenium combination in men after radical prostatectomy - a six month placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2010;154:239-44 pubmed
    b>Silymarin, a milk thistle flavonolignan mixture, has anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities in xenografts of human prostate cancer (PCa)...
  49. Vaid M, Prasad R, Sun Q, Katiyar S. Silymarin targets ?-catenin signaling in blocking migration/invasion of human melanoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23000 pubmed publisher
    ..We have examined the inhibitory effect of silymarin, a plant flavanoid from Silybum marianum, on cell migration of metastasis-specific human melanoma cell lines (..
  50. Sheela N, Jose M, Sathyamurthy D, Kumar B. Effect of silymarin on streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic nephropathy in rats. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2013;7:117-23 pubmed
    Diabetic nephropathy is the major cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Silymarin is a flavonoid mixture obtained from Silybum marianum. Various preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that it has antidiabetic activity...
  51. Ashkavand Z, Malekinejad H, Amniattalab A, Rezaei Golmisheh A, Vishwanath B. Silymarin potentiates the anti-inflammatory effects of Celecoxib on chemically induced osteoarthritis in rats. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:1200-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin (SMN) is used as an antioxidant complex to attenuate the pro-oxidant effects of toxic agents...
  52. Borah A, Paul R, Choudhury S, Choudhury A, Bhuyan B, Das Talukdar A, et al. Neuroprotective potential of silymarin against CNS disorders: insight into the pathways and molecular mechanisms of action. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2013;19:847-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin, a C25 containing flavonoid from the plant Silybum marianum, has been the gold standard drug to treat liver disorders associated with alcohol consumption, acute and chronic viral hepatitis, and toxin-induced hepatic failures ..
  53. Parveen R, Baboota S, Ali J, Ahuja A, Vasudev S, Ahmad S. Oil based nanocarrier for improved oral delivery of silymarin: In vitro and in vivo studies. Int J Pharm. 2011;413:245-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin, obtained from Silybum marianum is used for hepatoprotection and having poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability...
  54. Wagoner J, Negash A, Kane O, Martinez L, Nahmias Y, Bourne N, et al. Multiple effects of silymarin on the hepatitis C virus lifecycle. Hepatology. 2010;51:1912-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Silymarin, an extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), and its purified flavonolignans have been recently shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, both in vitro and in vivo...
  55. Kaur M, Velmurugan B, Tyagi A, Agarwal C, Singh R, Agarwal R. Silibinin suppresses growth of human colorectal carcinoma SW480 cells in culture and xenograft through down-regulation of beta-catenin-dependent signaling. Neoplasia. 2010;12:415-24 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that silibinin inhibits the growth of SW480 tumors carrying the mutant APC gene by down-regulating CDK8 and beta-catenin signaling and, therefore, could be an effective agent against CRC. ..
  56. Bakhshaee M, Jabbari F, Hoseini S, Farid R, Sadeghian M, Rajati M, et al. Effect of silymarin in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;145:904-9 pubmed publisher
    ..oxidative stresses has been confirmed in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and the protective effect of silymarin against oxidative stresses has been proven in different organs, no study has yet been conducted on the impact of ..
  57. Rho J, Choi Y, Jeon B, Choi S, Cheon G, Woo S, et al. Combined treatment with silibinin and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors overcomes drug resistance caused by T790M mutation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:3233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that the addition of silibinin to EGFR-TKIs is a promising strategy to overcome T790M-mediated drug resistance. ..
  58. Hau D, Wong R, Cheng G, Wong W, Tong S, Chan K, et al. Novel use of silymarin as delayed therapy for acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic injury. Forsch Komplementmed. 2010;17:209-13 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we have demonstrated that silymarin has a comparable pharmaceutical activity as Phyllanthus urinaria extract when used to rescue mice from acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury...
  59. Soto C, Perez J, Garcia V, Uría E, Vadillo M, Raya L. Effect of silymarin on kidneys of rats suffering from alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:1090-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore tested the effect of the flavonoid mixture silymarin, a free radical scavenger, on the activity and gene expression of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase ..
  60. Vessal G, Akmali M, Najafi P, Moein M, Sagheb M. Silymarin and milk thistle extract may prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Ren Fail. 2010;32:733-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of silymarin and milk thistle extract on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg)...
  61. Burczynski F, Wang G, Nguyen D, Chen Y, Smith H, Gong Y. Silymarin and hepatoprotection. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2012;37:6-10 pubmed publisher
    To determine the hepatoprotective effect of silymarin with Chang cell cultures. Specifically, to investigate the antioxidant properties of silymarin and its protective function in reducing pro-apoptotic markers...
  62. Ravichandran K, Velmurugan B, Gu M, Singh R, Agarwal R. Inhibitory effect of silibinin against azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis in A/J mice. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:4595-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, for the first time, we investigate in vivo the efficacy of silibinin against azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis in A/J mice...
  63. Deep G, Agarwal R. Antimetastatic efficacy of silibinin: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential against cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2010;29:447-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the long history of human use, remarkable nontoxicity, and preclinical efficacy strongly favor the clinical use of silibinin against advanced metastatic cancers. ..
  64. Haddadi R, Mohajjel Nayebi A, Brooshghalan S. Pre-treatment with silymarin reduces brain myeloperoxidase activity and inflammatory cytokines in 6-OHDA hemi-parkinsonian rats. Neurosci Lett. 2013;555:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we evaluated the anti-cataleptic effect of silymarin pre-treatment in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, striatum myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and ..