aromatic hydrocarbons


Summary: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.

Top Publications

  1. Aguilera I, Sunyer J, Fernandez Patier R, Hoek G, Aguirre Alfaro A, Meliefste K, et al. Estimation of outdoor NO(x), NO(2), and BTEX exposure in a cohort of pregnant women using land use regression modeling. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:815-21 pubmed
    ..In the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Study, ambient nitrogen oxides (NO(x) and NO(2)) and aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) were measured at 57 sampling sites in Sabadell (northeast Spain)...
  2. Foght J. Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons: pathways and prospects. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;15:93-120 pubmed publisher
    b>Aromatic hydrocarbons contaminate many environments worldwide, and their removal often relies on microbial bioremediation...
  3. McGrath J, Di Toro D. Validation of the target lipid model for toxicity assessment of residual petroleum constituents: monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;28:1130-48 pubmed publisher
    ..defensible, numeric guidelines for residual petroleum-related constituents, specifically monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in the water column...
  4. Hearn E, Patel D, van den Berg B. Outer-membrane transport of aromatic hydrocarbons as a first step in biodegradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8601-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The TodX and TbuX structures support a mechanism for transport of hydrophobic substrates from the extracellular environment to the periplasm via a channel through the hatch domain. ..
  5. Ni Y, Kim D, Chung M, Lee S, Park H, Rhee Y. Biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) by volatile aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading Pseudomonas fulva TY16. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:8485-8 pubmed publisher
    ..7%), 3-hydroxydodecenoate (8.2%), and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (6.1%). The present results suggest that P. fulva TY16 is a promising candidate for the biotechnological conversion of toxic petrochemical wastes to valuable biopolymers. ..
  6. Frenzel M, Scarlett A, Rowland S, Galloway T, Burton S, Lappin Scott H, et al. Complications with remediation strategies involving the biodegradation and detoxification of recalcitrant contaminant aromatic hydrocarbons. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:4093-101 pubmed publisher
    Environmentally persistent aromatic hydrocarbons known as unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) derived from crude oil can be accumulated by, and elicit toxicological responses in, marine organisms (e.g. mussels, Mytilus edulis)...
  7. Den Hond E, Govarts E, Bruckers L, Schoeters G. Determinants of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in serum in three age classes--Methodological implications for human biomonitoring. Environ Res. 2009;109:495-502 pubmed publisher
    ..biomarkers in serum and quantify the major determinants for biomarkers of exposure to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCAHs) in three age groups. Data were obtained from the Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002-2006)...
  8. Chou C, Riviere J, Monteiro Riviere N. The cytotoxicity of jet fuel aromatic hydrocarbons and dose-related interleukin-8 release from human epidermal keratinocytes. Arch Toxicol. 2003;77:384-91 pubmed
    Many jet fuel aromatic hydrocarbons are known carcinogens with the ability to both readily penetrate the skin with high absorptive flux and cause skin irritation...
  9. Ramos G, Limon Flores A, Ullrich S. Dermal exposure to jet fuel suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity: a critical role for aromatic hydrocarbons. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:415-22 pubmed
    ..The recent availability of synthetic jet fuel (S-8), which is refined from natural gas, and is devoid of aromatic hydrocarbons, made it feasible to design experiments to address this problem...

More Information


  1. Tobin K, O Connor K. Polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulating diversity of Pseudomonas species utilising aromatic hydrocarbons. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;253:111-8 pubmed
    A number of Pseudomonas strains accumulated polyhdroxyalkanoate (PHA) from a variety of aromatic hydrocarbons. In many strains the level of PHA accumulation was dependent on the side chain length of the phenylalkanoic acid provided for ..
  2. Wang D, McKague B, Liss S, Edwards E. Gene expression profiles for detecting and distinguishing potential endocrine-disrupting compounds in environmental samples. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:6396-406 pubmed used in gene expression profiling assays to detect androgenic effects or for the presence of bioactive aromatic hydrocarbons. Gene expression profiling is emerging as a sensitive and specific method to screen complex samples for ..
  3. Paitan Y, Biran I, Shechter N, Biran D, Rishpon J, Ron E. Monitoring aromatic hydrocarbons by whole cell electrochemical biosensors. Anal Biochem. 2004;335:175-83 pubmed
    ..we describe a bacterial whole cell electrochemical biosensors system that can be used for monitoring aromatic hydrocarbons. These bacterial biosensors are based on fusions of a promoter that is sensitive to aromatic compounds (..
  4. Rabus R, Kube M, Heider J, Beck A, Heitmann K, Widdel F, et al. The genome sequence of an anaerobic aromatic-degrading denitrifying bacterium, strain EbN1. Arch Microbiol. 2005;183:27-36 pubmed
    ..Supplementary material on sequence and annotation are provided at the Web page ..
  5. da Silva M, Esposito E, Moody J, Canhos V, Cerniglia C. Metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons by the filamentous fungus Cyclothyrium sp. Chemosphere. 2004;57:943-52 pubmed
    ..CBS109850. The results also show a high regioselectivity since the K-regions of phenanthrene and pyrene were the major sites of metabolism. ..
  6. Zhang H, Kallimanis A, Koukkou A, Drainas C. Isolation and characterization of novel bacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from polluted Greek soils. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;65:124-31 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of a representative of the genus Paracoccus capable of degrading PAHs with such versatility. These three strains may be useful for bioremediation applications. ..
  7. Griebler C, Safinowski M, Vieth A, Richnow H, Meckenstock R. Combined application of stable carbon isotope analysis and specific metabolites determination for assessing in situ degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in a tar oil-contaminated aquifer. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:617-31 pubmed
    ..The combined application of CSIA and SMA, as two reliable and independent tools to collect direct evidence on intrinsic bioremediation, leads to a substantially improved evaluation of natural attenuation in situ. ..
  8. Bols N, Schirmer K, Joyce E, Dixon D, Greenberg B, Whyte J. Ability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to induce 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity in a trout liver cell line. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1999;44:118-28 pubmed
    Along with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 24 unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated for their ability to induce 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity in the rainbow trout liver cell ..
  9. Ramos L, Vreuls J, Brinkman U. Miniaturised pressurised liquid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil and sediment with subsequent large-volume injection-gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2000;891:275-86 pubmed
    ..As an example, the new system was applied to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and a sediment...
  10. Kasai Y, Kishira H, Harayama S. Bacteria belonging to the genus cycloclasticus play a primary role in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons released in a marine environment. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:5625-33 pubmed
    To identify the bacteria that play a major role in the aerobic degradation of petroleum polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a marine environment, bacteria were enriched from seawater by using 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, or ..
  11. Kastner M, Breuer Jammali M, Mahro B. Impact of inoculation protocols, salinity, and pH on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and survival of PAH-degrading bacteria introduced into soil. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998;64:359-62 pubmed
    Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and survival of bacteria in soil was investigated by applying different inoculation protocols...
  12. Allen C, Boyd D, Hempenstall F, Larkin M, Sharma N. Contrasting effects of a nonionic surfactant on the biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to cis-dihydrodiols by soil bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:1335-9 pubmed
    The biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene and phenanthrene was investigated by using two dioxygenase-expressing bacteria, Pseudomonas sp...
  13. Vainiotalo S, Kuusimaki L, Pekari K. Exposure to MTBE, TAME and aromatic hydrocarbons during gasoline pump maintenance, repair and inspection. J Occup Health. 2006;48:347-57 pubmed
    ..All individual results were below corresponding biological action levels. Exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons was estimated from post-shift urine samples, with benzene showing the highest concentration (range 4...
  14. D Annibale A, Rosetto F, Leonardi V, Federici F, Petruccioli M. Role of autochthonous filamentous fungi in bioremediation of a soil historically contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:28-36 pubmed
    ..fungi were tested for the abilities to grow under nonsterile conditions and to degrade various aromatic hydrocarbons in the same contaminated soil...
  15. Periago J, Prado C. Evolution of occupational exposure to environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in service stations. Ann Occup Hyg. 2005;49:233-40 pubmed
    ..A significant relationship between the volume of gasoline sold and the ambient concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons was found for each worker sampled in all three of the years...
  16. Greene E, Kay J, Jaber K, Stehmeier L, Voordouw G. Composition of soil microbial communities enriched on a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:5282-9 pubmed
    ..The enrichments effectively degraded all C5+ components except DCPD. Overall, degradation of individual C5+ hydrocarbons followed first-order kinetics, with the highest rates of removal for benzene. ..
  17. Letzel T, Poschl U, Wissiack R, Rosenberg E, Grasserbauer M, Niessner R. Phenyl-modified reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry: a universal method for the analysis of partially oxidized aromatic hydrocarbons. Anal Chem. 2001;73:1634-45 pubmed
    ..stationary phase and a methanol-water solvent gradient, it allows the separation of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) having up to five condensed aromatic rings and partially oxidized derivatives within a single ..
  18. Shertzer H, Clay C, Genter M, Chames M, Schneider S, Oakley G, et al. Uncoupling-mediated generation of reactive oxygen by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in mouse liver microsomes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36:618-31 pubmed
    ..This pathway is likely to contribute to the oxidative stress response and associated toxicity produced by many of these environmental chemicals. ..
  19. Myhre O, Fonnum F. The effect of aliphatic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons on production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in rat brain synaptosome fraction: the involvement of calcium, nitric oxide synthase, mitochondria, and phospholipas. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;62:119-28 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, C7 and C9 aliphatic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons stimulated formation of ROS and RNS in rat brain synaptosomes...
  20. Chakraborty R, Coates J. Anaerobic degradation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;64:437-46 pubmed
    ..Many of these biochemical pathways produce unique extracellular intermediates that can be utilized as biomarkers for the monitoring of hydrocarbon degradation in anaerobic natural environments. ..
  21. Chen J, Chen G, Bunce N. Inhibition of CYP 1A2-dependent MROD activity in rat liver microsomes: an explanation of the hepatic sequestration of a limited subset of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Toxicol. 2003;18:115-9 pubmed
  22. Buerck J, Roth S, Kraemer K, Scholz M, Klaas N. Application of a fiber-optic NIR-EFA sensor system for in situ monitoring of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated groundwater. J Hazard Mater. 2001;83:11-28 pubmed
    ..It could be demonstrated that the fiber-optic sensor system is a valuable tool for near-real-time control of a remedial action technique and verification and documentation of its success. ..
  23. Shu Y, Lao R, Chiu C, Turle R. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment reference materials by microwave-assisted extraction. Chemosphere. 2000;41:1709-16 pubmed
    The microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from harbor sediment reference material EC-1, marine sediment reference material HS-2 and PAH-spiked river bed soil was conducted...
  24. Phillips D. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the diet. Mutat Res. 1999;443:139-47 pubmed
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), of which benzo[a]pyrene is the most commonly studied and measured, are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic matter...
  25. Gardinali P, Sericano J, Wade T. Uptake and depuration of toxic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons by the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica): a field study. Chemosphere. 2004;54:61-70 pubmed
    ..With few exceptions, elimination of all toxic compounds investigated proceeded at a slower rate from the chronically exposed population that from the newly contaminated one. ..
  26. Prenafeta Boldú F, Summerbell R, Sybren de Hoog G. Fungi growing on aromatic hydrocarbons: biotechnology's unexpected encounter with biohazard?. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2006;30:109-30 pubmed
    The biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by fungi has traditionally been considered to be of a cometabolic nature...
  27. Yamazaki T, Okajima Y, Kawashima H, Tsukamoto A, Sugiura J, Shishido K. Intron-dependent accumulation of mRNA in Coriolus hirsutus of lignin peroxidase gene the product of which is involved in conversion/degradation of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:1293-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that at least one intron (intron I) is required for accumulation of lip mRNA and its subsequent translational expression in C. hirsutus. ..
  28. D Annibale A, Leonardi V, Federici E, Baldi F, Zecchini F, Petruccioli M. Leaching and microbial treatment of a soil contaminated by sulphide ore ashes and aromatic hydrocarbons. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;74:1135-44 pubmed
    Contaminated soil from a historical industrial site and containing sulfide ore ashes and aromatic hydrocarbons underwent sequential leaching by 0.5 M citrate and microbial treatments...
  29. Gibson J, S Harwood C. Metabolic diversity in aromatic compound utilization by anaerobic microbes. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2002;56:345-69 pubmed
    ..Biochemical strategies employed by microbes to destabilize the aromatic ring in preparation for degradation have become apparent from this work. ..
  30. Brouwer A, Morse D, Lans M, Schuur A, Murk A, Klasson Wehler E, et al. Interactions of persistent environmental organohalogens with the thyroid hormone system: mechanisms and possible consequences for animal and human health. Toxicol Ind Health. 1998;14:59-84 pubmed
    ..the focus is on the multiple and interactive mechanisms of interference of persistent polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) and their metabolites with the thyroid hormone system...
  31. Gieg L, Suflita J. Detection of anaerobic metabolites of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated aquifers. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:3755-62 pubmed
    ..The finding of these putative anaerobic metabolites of alkanes and naphthalenes signifies the in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons and attests to their value as indicators of intrinsic bioremediation. ..
  32. Tan Z, Chang X, Puga A, Xia Y. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by aromatic hydrocarbons: role in the regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) function. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;64:771-80 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that AHR ligands elicit AHR-independent non-genomic events that are essential for AHR activation and function. ..
  33. Widdel F, Rabus R. Anaerobic biodegradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2001;12:259-76 pubmed
    Saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons are wide-spread in our environment. These compounds exhibit low chemical reactivity and for many decades were thought to undergo biodegradation only in the presence of free oxygen...
  34. Nguyen T, Cho H, Poster D, Ball W. Evidence for a pore-filling mechanism in the adsorption of aromatic hydrocarbons to a natural wood char. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:1212-7 pubmed
    Sorption isotherms for five aromatic hydrocarbons were obtained with a natural wood char (NC1) and its residue after solvent extraction (ENC1). Substantial isotherm nonlinearity was observed in all cases...
  35. Rabus R. Functional genomics of an anaerobic aromatic-degrading denitrifying bacterium, strain EbN1. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;68:580-7 pubmed
    ..J Bacteriol 187:1493-1503] indicated coordinated vs sequential modes of regulation for the toluene and ethylbenzene pathways, respectively. ..
  36. Lee B, Iso M, Hosomi M. Prediction of Fenton oxidation positions in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Frontier electron density. Chemosphere. 2001;42:431-5 pubmed
    Five recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ethanol were subjected to Fenton oxidation, and following GC-MS identification of respective oxidation products, their oxidation positions were compared to those predicted by ..
  37. Kjällstrand J, Petersson G. Phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons in chimney emissions from traditional and modern residential wood burning. Environ Technol. 2001;22:391-5 pubmed
    ..Secondary harmful components like benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons constituted a major portion of the organic emissions...
  38. Grosso V, Previtali C, Chesta C, Vera D, Pierini A. An experimental and theoretical study on the electrostatic effect of an appended cationic group on electronic properties of aromatic systems. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2007;9:5988-96 pubmed
    ..The changes in the aromatic's redox properties, due to the net field effect and its different components, are interpreted on theoretical bases. ..
  39. Mallakpour S, Seyedjamali H. Synthesis and characterization of novel organosoluble and optically active aromatic polyesters containing L-methionine and phthalimide pendent groups. Amino Acids. 2008;34:531-8 pubmed
    ..Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the 10% weight loss temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere were more than 315 degrees C, which indicates that the resulting PEs have good thermal stability...
  40. Matsubayashi K, Kubo Y. Control of photophysical properties and photoreactions of aromatic imides by use of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. J Org Chem. 2008;73:4915-9 pubmed publisher
  41. Ji L, Shao Y, Xu Z, Zheng S, Zhu D. Adsorption of monoaromatic compounds and pharmaceutical antibiotics on carbon nanotubes activated by KOH etching. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:6429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings indicate that KOH etching is a useful activation method to improve the adsorption affinity and adsorption reversibility of organic contaminants on carbon nanotubes...
  42. Cao B, Nagarajan K, Loh K. Biodegradation of aromatic compounds: current status and opportunities for biomolecular approaches. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;85:207-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Emphasis is placed on monocyclic, polycyclic, and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons because they are the most prevalent aromatic contaminants in the environment...
  43. Ribas X, Calle C, Poater A, Casitas A, Gomez L, Xifra R, et al. Facile C-H bond cleavage via a proton-coupled electron transfer involving a C-H...Cu(II) interaction. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:12299-306 pubmed publisher
  44. Preiss A, Elend M, Gerling S, Berger Preiss E, Steinbach K. Identification of highly polar nitroaromatic compounds in leachate and ground water samples from a TNT-contaminated waste site by LC-MS, LC-NMR, and off-line NMR and MS investigations. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;389:1979-88 pubmed
    ..The NMR and MS data are presented here. The main polar compounds were additionally quantified. ..
  45. Chernyak N, Dudnik A, Huang C, Gevorgyan V. PyDipSi: a general and easily modifiable/traceless Si-tethered directing group for C-H acyloxylation of arenes. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:8270-2 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the installation of the PyDipSi directing group along with pivaloxylation and quantitative conversion of the PyDipSi group into a halogen functionality represents a formal three-step ortho oxygenation of haloarenes. ..
  46. Speltini A, Merli D, Quartarone E, Profumo A. Separation of alkanes and aromatic compounds by packed column gas chromatography using functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as stationary phases. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:2918-24 pubmed publisher stationary phase in low-cost packed columns for the gas chromatographic separation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. The MWCNTs were deeply investigated by means of physical and chemical methods, like thermal analysis, IR ..
  47. Burk P, Tammiku Taul J, Tamp S, Sikk L, Sillar K, Mayeux C, et al. Computational study of cesium cation interactions with neutral and anionic compounds related to soil organic matter. J Phys Chem A. 2009;113:10734-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The weakest cesium cation bonding is observed in the case of unsubstituted aromatic systems (11-15 kcal/mol). ..
  48. Bettiol E, Samanovic M, Murkin A, Raper J, Buckner F, Rodriguez A. Identification of three classes of heteroaromatic compounds with activity against intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi by chemical library screening. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e384 pubmed publisher
    ..These values are approximately 100 times lower than those of the medicines used in patients against T. cruzi. These results provide new candidate molecules for the development of treatments against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. ..
  49. Suksrichavalit T, Prachayasittikul S, Piacham T, Isarankura Na Ayudhya C, Nantasenamat C, Prachayasittikul V. Copper complexes of nicotinic-aromatic carboxylic acids as superoxide dismutase mimetics. Molecules. 2008;13:3040-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, copper complex with the highest SOD activity were shown to possess the lowest HOMO energy. These findings demonstrate a great potential for the development of value-added metallovitamin-based therapeutics. ..
  50. Hecht C, Griehl C. Investigation of the accumulation of aromatic compounds during biogas production from kitchen waste. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:654-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates the potential use aromatic acids as indicators for an upcoming process failure. ..
  51. Mezcua M, Fernandez Alba A, Boltes K, Alonso Del Aguila R, Leton P, Rodriguez A, et al. Determination of PASHs by various analytical techniques based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: application to a biodesulfurization process. Talanta. 2008;75:1158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The microorganism employed was Pseudomonas putida CECT 5279. The reaction was performed under controlled air flow, stirring and temperature conditions. ..
  52. Subileau M, Schneider R, Salmon J, Degryse E. Nitrogen catabolite repression modulates the production of aromatic thiols characteristic of Sauvignon Blanc at the level of precursor transport. FEMS Yeast Res. 2008;8:771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..On grape must, the uptake of the precursor through GAP1p is not confirmed, but the effect of addition of DAP, eventually prolonging NCR, is shown to decrease thiol production. ..
  53. Jencova V, Strnad H, Chodora Z, Ulbrich P, Vlcek C, Hickey W, et al. Nucleotide sequence, organization and characterization of the (halo)aromatic acid catabolic plasmid pA81 from Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8. Res Microbiol. 2008;159:118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these insights further our understanding of how mobile elements, and interactions between mobile elements affect the fate of organic and inorganic toxicants in the environment. ..