cyclooctanes

Summary

Summary: A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.

Top Publications

  1. Giridharan V, Thandavarayan R, Bhilwade H, Ko K, Watanabe K, Konishi T. Schisandrin B, attenuates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and neurotoxicity through modulating NF-?B pathway in mice. Free Radic Res. 2012;46:50-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, Sch B with potent antioxidant and neuro-protective property with no mutagenic activity would be beneficial complementary food factor against cDDP induced oxidative stress. ..
  2. Hsieh M, Wu C, Wang W, Lin L. The ameliorating effect of the water layer of Fructus Schisandrae on cycloheximide-induced amnesia in rats: interaction with drugs acting at neurotransmitter receptors. Pharmacol Res. 2001;43:17-22 pubmed
  3. Nishida H, Tatewaki N, Nakajima Y, Magara T, Ko K, Hamamori Y, et al. Inhibition of ATR protein kinase activity by schisandrin B in DNA damage response. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5678-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our demonstration of the ability of SchB to inhibit ATR protein kinase activity following DNA damage in cells has clinical implications in anti-cancer therapy. ..
  4. Blackman M, Royzen M, Fox J. Tetrazine ligation: fast bioconjugation based on inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reactivity. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:13518-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The rate of the ligation between trans-cyclooctene and 3,6-di-(2-pyridyl)-s-tetrazine is very rapid (k2 2000 M-1 s-1). This fast reactivity enables protein modification at low concentration. ..
  5. Pan S, Dong H, Zhao X, Xiang C, Fang H, Fong W, et al. Schisandrin B from Schisandra chinensis reduces hepatic lipid contents in hypercholesterolaemic mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008;60:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Fenofibrate treatment (100 mg kg(-1)) produced effects similar to those of Sch B on the hepatic index and lipid levels of hypercholesterolaemic mice...
  6. Min H, Park E, Hong J, Kang Y, Kim S, Chung H, et al. Antiproliferative effects of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis in human cancer cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:523-6 pubmed
    ..Additional studies indicate that one of mechanism of action of an active compound schizantherin C in A549 human lung cancer cells was related to the inhibition of cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase...
  7. Pan S, Dong H, Yu Z, Zhao X, Xiang C, Wang H, et al. Bicyclol, a synthetic dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative, decreases hepatic lipids but increases serum triglyceride level in normal and hypercholesterolaemic mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007;59:1657-62 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that bicyclol treatment can invariably decrease hepatic lipid levels and increase serum triglyceride levels in normal and hypercholesterolaemic mice. ..
  8. Chiu P, Ko K. Schisandrin B-induced increase in cellular glutathione level and protection against oxidant injury are mediated by the enhancement of glutathione synthesis and regeneration in AML12 and H9c2 cells. Biofactors. 2006;26:221-30 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results indicate that the cytoprotective action of Sch B is causally related to the increase in cellular GSH level, which is likely mediated by the enhancement of GSH synthesis and regeneration. ..
  9. Yang X, Wang Y, Zhang X, Chang R, Li X. Screening vasoconstriction inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicines using a vascular smooth muscle/cell membrane chromatography-offline-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci. 2011;34:2586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our VSM/CMC-offline-LC-MS/MS method can be applied for screening vasoconstriction inhibitors from TCMs collected from FSC and FSS, and may be useful in the development of vasodilators from natural products. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Lam P, Leong P, Chen N, Ko K. Schisandrin B enhances the glutathione redox cycling and protects against oxidant injury in different types of cultured cells. Biofactors. 2011;37:439-46 pubmed publisher
  2. Ko K, Chen N, Leung H, Leong E, Poon M, Chiu P. Long-term schisandrin B treatment mitigates age-related impairments in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in various tissues, and improves the survival of aging C57BL/6J mice. Biofactors. 2008;34:331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, long-term Sch B supplementation mitigated age-dependent impairments in mitochondrial antioxidant capacity and functional ability, thereby retarding the aging process in mice, particularly during early aging. ..
  3. Oh S, Kim Y, Bae D, Um B, Pan C, Kim C, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of gomisin N, gomisin J, and schisandrin C isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:285-91 pubmed
    ..These inhibitory effects were found to be caused by blockage of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation...
  4. Chen N, Ko M. Schisandrin B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection are mediated by reactive oxidant species production in rat hearts. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:825-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Sch B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection may be mediated by ROS arising from CYP-catalyzed reaction. ..
  5. Park E, Chun J, Kim S, Kim C, Lee H, Kim H, et al. Schisandrin B suppresses TGF?1 signaling by inhibiting Smad2/3 and MAPK pathways. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83:378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..chinensis extract and SchB inhibit TGF?1 signaling. Our results may help future investigations to understand vascular fibrosis pathogenesis and to develop novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of vascular fibrotic diseases. ..
  6. Chu J, Wang H, Ye Y, Chan P, Pan S, Fong W, et al. Inhibitory effect of schisandrin B on free fatty acid-induced steatosis in L-02 cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:2379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Sch B inhibits FFA-induced steatosis in L-02 cells by, at least in part, reversing the up-regulation of ADRP and SREBP-1. ..
  7. Chiu P, Mak D, Poon M, Ko K. In vivo antioxidant action of a lignan-enriched extract of Schisandra fruit and an anthraquinone-containing extract of Polygonum root in comparison with schisandrin B and emodin. Planta Med. 2002;68:951-6 pubmed
    ..GSH-Px: Se-glutathione peroxidase GST:glutathione S-transferases mt:mitochondrial MDA:malondialdehyde PME:anthraquinone-containing fraction of Polygonum root Sch B:schisandrin B SDH:sorbitol dehydrogenase alpha-Toc:alpha-tocopherol..
  8. Seitchik J, Peeler J, Taylor M, Blackman M, Rhoads T, Cooley R, et al. Genetically encoded tetrazine amino acid directs rapid site-specific in vivo bioorthogonal ligation with trans-cyclooctenes. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:2898-901 pubmed publisher
    ..We have demonstrated that protein containing 1 can be ligated to a conformationally strained trans-cyclooctene in vitro and in vivo with reaction rates significantly faster than most commonly used labeling methods. ..
  9. Brezinová L, Vlasínová H, Havel L, Humpa O, Slanina J. Validated method for bioactive lignans in Schisandra chinensis in vitro cultures using a solid phase extraction and a monolithic column application. Biomed Chromatogr. 2010;24:954-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of lignans in embryogenic plant cell cultures of Schisandra chinensis. ..
  10. Ip S, Che C, Kong Y, Ko K. Effects of schisandrin B pretreatment on tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced apoptosis and Hsp70 expression in mouse liver. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2001;6:44-8 pubmed
    ..The relevance of Sch B-induced increase in Hsp70 expression to the prevention of TNFalpha-triggered hepatic apoptosis remains to be elucidated. ..
  11. Lee T, Jung C, Lee D. Neuroprotective effects of Schisandrin B against transient focal cerebral ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Schisandrin B treatment provides a neuroprotective effect to rats after transient focal cerebral ischemia by inhibiting inflammation and by protecting against metalloproteinase degradation...
  12. Park J, Lee S, Yun M, Seo K, Bae S, Park J, et al. Gomisin A from Schisandra chinensis induces endothelium-dependent and direct relaxation in rat thoracic aorta. Planta Med. 2007;73:1537-42 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, it is suggested that GA induced vascular relaxation by partially activating ED-dependent NO pathway, and partially dephosphorylation of MLC...
  13. Taylor M, Blackman M, Dmitrenko O, Fox J. Design and synthesis of highly reactive dienophiles for the tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligation. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:9646-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Toward 3,6-diphenyl-s-tetrazine in MeOH at 25 °C, the strained derivative is 160 times more reactive than the parent trans-cyclooctene. ..
  14. Fong W, Wan C, Zhu G, Chattopadhyay A, Dey S, Zhao Z, et al. Schisandrol A from Schisandra chinensis reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by affecting Pgp-substrate complexes. Planta Med. 2007;73:212-20 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that SCH acts by affecting the normal formation and functioning of the Pgp-substrate complexes...
  15. Xu Y, Liu Z, Sun J, Pan Q, Sun F, Yan Z, et al. Schisandrin B prevents doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity and enhances its anticancer activity in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28335 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, Sch B is the only molecule ever proved to function as a cardioprotective agent as well as a chemotherapeutic sensitizer, which is potentially applicable for cancer treatment. ..
  16. van Delft P, Meeuwenoord N, Hoogendoorn S, Dinkelaar J, Overkleeft H, van der Marel G, et al. Synthesis of oligoribonucleic acid conjugates using a cyclooctyne phosphoramidite. Org Lett. 2010;12:5486-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cycloaddition of the alkyne functionalized RNA to the azide containing biomolecules led to a clean conversion into the corresponding nucleic acid conjugates. ..
  17. Szopa A, Ekiert H. Lignans in Schisandra chinensis in vitro cultures. Pharmazie. 2011;66:633-4 pubmed
    ..69 and 34.50 mg/100 g d.w.) and fruits (132.39 and 109.40 mg/100 g d.w., respectively). This is the first report on the quantitative analysis of schisandrol A and schisandrol B in Schisandra chinensis in vitro cultures...
  18. Huang T, Shen P, Shen Y. Preparative separation and purification of deoxyschisandrin and gamma-schisandrin from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1066:239-42 pubmed
  19. Lam P, Ko K. (-)Schisandrin B ameliorates paraquat-induced oxidative stress by suppressing glutathione depletion and enhancing glutathione recovery in differentiated PC12 cells. Biofactors. 2011;37:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that (-)Sch B treatment may increase the resistance of dopaminergic cells against PQ-induced oxidative stress through reducing the extent of oxidant-induced GSH depletion and enhancing the subsequent GSH recovery. ..
  20. Chiu P, Mak D, Poon M, Ko K. Role of cytochrome P-450 in schisandrin B-induced antioxidant and heat shock responses in mouse liver. Life Sci. 2005;77:2887-95 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that oxidant species generated from P-450-catalyzed reaction with Sch B may trigger the antioxidant and heat shock responses in mouse liver...
  21. Kim S, Kim Y, Kang S, Bae K, Hung T, Lee S. Anti-apoptotic and hepatoprotective effects of gomisin A on fulminant hepatic failure induced by D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008;106:225-33 pubmed
    ..The liver protection afforded by gomisin A is the result of the reduced oxidative stress and its anti-apoptotic activity. ..
  22. Chiu P, Leung H, Poon M, Mak D, Ko K. Effects of schisandrin B enantiomers on cellular glutathione and menadione toxicity in AML12 hepatocytes. Pharmacology. 2006;77:63-70 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that (-)Sch B is more effective than (+)Sch B in enhancing cellular GSH and protecting against oxidant injury in hepatocytes. ..
  23. Chiu P, Leung H, Poon M, Ko K. Chronic schisandrin B treatment improves mitochondrial antioxidant status and tissue heat shock protein production in various tissues of young adult and middle-aged rats. Biogerontology. 2006;7:199-210 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that chronic Sch B treatment may be beneficial for reversing the mitochondrial changes with aging and enhancing the heat shock response. ..
  24. Lam P, Chiu P, Leung H, Chen N, Leong P, Ko K. Schisandrin B co-treatment ameliorates the impairment on mitochondrial antioxidant status in various tissues of long-term ethanol treated rats. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:1239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term Sch B treatment enhanced mitochondrial antioxidant status in a tissue non-specific manner. Sch B co-treatment ameliorated the alterations in plasma ROM levels, mtMDA production and Hsp 25/70 expression in rat tissues. ..
  25. Sun M, Xu X, Lu Q, Pan Q, Hu X. Schisandrin B: a dual inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. Cancer Lett. 2007;246:300-7 pubmed
  26. Li L, Lu Q, Shen Y, Hu X. Schisandrin B enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells but not normal cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;71:584-95 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is speculative that Sch B may bring benefit to clinical chemotherapy by reducing significantly the cumulative doses of DOX and its associated cardiotoxicities. ..
  27. Chiu P, Chen N, Leong P, Leung H, Ko K. Schisandrin B elicits a glutathione antioxidant response and protects against apoptosis via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 pathway in H9c2 cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;350:237-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The ERK-mediated signaling is also likely involved in the cardioprotection afforded by Sch B in vivo. ..
  28. Ko K, Yiu H. Schisandrin B modulates the ischemia-reperfusion induced changes in non-enzymatic antioxidant levels in isolated-perfused rat hearts. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;220:141-7 pubmed
    ..The ensemble of results suggests that the cardioprotection afforded by Sch B or LA pretreatment may at least in part be attributed to the modulation on the interplay among non-enzymatic antioxidants under oxidative stress induced by IR. ..
  29. Ma W, Lu Y, Huang H, Zhou P, Chen D. Schisanwilsonins A-G and related anti-HBV lignans from the fruits of Schisandra wilsoniana. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:4958-62 pubmed publisher
    ..9 exhibited the most potent anti-HBV activity with potency against HBsAg and HBeAg secretion by 59.7% and 34.7%, respectively, at 50 microg/mL...
  30. Wu Y, Cao M, Gao Y, Chen F, Wang T, Zumbika E, et al. Down-modulation of heat shock protein 70 and up-modulation of Caspase-3 during schisandrin B-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:2944-8 pubmed
  31. Agard N, Prescher J, Bertozzi C. A strain-promoted [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition for covalent modification of biomolecules in living systems. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:15046-7 pubmed
    ..The utility of the reaction was demonstrated by selective modification of biomolecules in vitro and on living cells, with no apparent toxicity. ..
  32. Chiu P, Ko K. Schisandrin B protects myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury partly by inducing Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;266:139-44 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the induction of Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression contributes at least partly to the cardioprotection afforded by Sch B pre-treatment against I-R injury...
  33. Yao J, Uttamapinant C, Poloukhtine A, Baskin J, Codelli J, Sletten E, et al. Fluorophore targeting to cellular proteins via enzyme-mediated azide ligation and strain-promoted cycloaddition. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:3720-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Huang M, Jin J, Sun H, Liu G. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of cancer cells by five schizandrins isolated from the Chinese herb Fructus Schizandrae. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2008;62:1015-26 pubmed publisher
    ..p.) on tumor growth in nude mice bearing KBv200 xenograft. The LCC and its active component Sin A have remarkable reversal effect on MDR in cancer cells by inhibition of both the function and expression of Pgp and total PKC. ..
  35. Pan Q, Han W, Liu Z, Li L, Hu X. Schisandrin B prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity via enhancing glutathione redox cycling. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:6753-60 pubmed
  36. Pan Q, Lu Q, Zhang K, Hu X. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans: a class of novel inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006;58:99-106 pubmed
    ..Further studies demonstrated that these compounds physically interacted with P-gp. Schisandrin A and B, and schisantherin A are potent P-gp inhibitor and is of potential for future clinical application. ..
  37. Egashira N, Kurauchi K, Iwasaki K, Mishima K, Orito K, Oishi R, et al. Schizandrin reverses memory impairment in rats. Phytother Res. 2008;22:49-52 pubmed
    ..Taken together these findings suggest that schizandrin reverses scopolamine-induced memory impairment, in part, by enhancing cholinergic function, and that schizandrin might be useful for treating memory deficits...
  38. Chang P, Prescher J, Sletten E, Baskin J, Miller I, Agard N, et al. Copper-free click chemistry in living animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1821-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies establish Cu-free click chemistry as a bioorthogonal reaction that can be executed in the physiologically relevant context of a mouse. ..
  39. Li L, Pan Q, Sun M, Lu Q, Hu X. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans: a class of novel inhibitors of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. Life Sci. 2007;80:741-8 pubmed
    ..Considering that cancer multidrug resistance (MDR) is multifactorial, agents with broad activities are preferable to the use of combination of several specific modulators to prevent drug-drug interaction and cumulative toxicity. ..
  40. Giridharan V, Thandavarayan R, Sato S, Ko K, Konishi T. Prevention of scopolamine-induced memory deficits by schisandrin B, an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis in mice. Free Radic Res. 2011;45:950-8 pubmed publisher
  41. Ko K, Lam B. Schisandrin B protects against tert-butylhydroperoxide induced cerebral toxicity by enhancing glutathione antioxidant status in mouse brain. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;238:181-6 pubmed
    ..The ensemble of results suggests the antioxidant potential of Sch B pretreatment in protecting against cerebral oxidative stress. ..
  42. Qiangrong P, Wang T, Lu Q, Hu X. Schisandrin B--a novel inhibitor of P-glycoprotein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:406-11 pubmed
    ..Schisandrin B has a core structure of dibenzocyclooctadiene, representing a novel P-glycoprotein inhibitor. To our best knowledge, the role of schisandrin B to inhibit P-glycoprotein has not been reported. ..
  43. Choi Y, Takamatsu S, Khan S, Srinivas P, Ferreira D, Zhao J, et al. Schisandrene, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan from Schisandra chinensis: structure-antioxidant activity relationships of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:356-9 pubmed
    ..The structure-activity relationships of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans showed that the exocyclic methylene functionality was essential for antioxidant activity, with the benzoyloxy group probably enhancing such effects. ..
  44. Wan C, Zhu G, Shen X, Chattopadhyay A, Dey S, Fong W. Gomisin A alters substrate interaction and reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in HepG2-DR cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;72:824-37 pubmed
    ..Taken together our results suggest that gomisin A may bind to Pgp simultaneously with substrates and alters Pgp-substrate interaction. ..
  45. Stacchiotti A, Li Volti G, Lavazza A, Schena I, Aleo M, Rodella L, et al. Different role of Schisandrin B on mercury-induced renal damage in vivo and in vitro. Toxicology. 2011;286:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This discrepancy might be partly attributable to Sch B influence on glomerular perfusion as corroborated by the recovery of vasoactive markers like macular and endothelial nitric oxide isoforms. ..
  46. Dehnert K, Beahm B, Huynh T, Baskin J, Laughlin S, Wang W, et al. Metabolic labeling of fucosylated glycans in developing zebrafish. ACS Chem Biol. 2011;6:547-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We used this technique to image fucosylated glycans in the enveloping layer of zebrafish embryos during the first 5 days of development. This work provides a method to study the biosynthesis of fucosylated glycans in vivo. ..
  47. Leong P, Chiu P, Chen N, Leung H, Ko K. Schisandrin B elicits a glutathione antioxidant response and protects against apoptosis via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 pathway in AML12 hepatocytes. Free Radic Res. 2011;45:483-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, (-)Sch B triggers a redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 signalling, which then elicits a cellular glutathione antioxidant response and protects against oxidant-induced apoptosis in AML12 cells. ..
  48. Waiwut P, Shin M, Inujima A, Zhou Y, Koizumi K, Saiki I, et al. Gomisin N enhances TNF-?-induced apoptosis via inhibition of the NF-?B and EGFR survival pathways. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;350:169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggested that gomisin N enhanced TNF-?-induced apoptosis by suppressing of NF-?B and EGFR signaling pathways. ..
  49. Slaninova I, Brezinová L, Koubíková L, Slanina J. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans overcome drug resistance in lung cancer cells--study of structure-activity relationship. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:1047-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike the reversal effect, the cytotoxicity of lignans with the R-biaryl configuration was similar to that observed for lignans with the S-biaryl configuration. ..
  50. Park J, Shin H, Choi Y, Lee Y, Bae S, Han J, et al. Gomisin A induces Ca2+-dependent activation of eNOS in human coronary artery endothelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125:291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined whether GA could actually induce nitric oxide (NO) production and clarified the mechanism in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC)...
  51. Chen N, Chiu P, Ko K. Schisandrin B enhances cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status and structural integrity, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1387-91 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, long-term Sch B treatment could enhance cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status as well as improve mitochondrial structural integrity, thereby protecting against I/R injury...
  52. Checker R, Patwardhan R, Sharma D, Menon J, Thoh M, Bhilwade H, et al. Schisandrin B exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulation of the redox-sensitive transcription factors Nrf2 and NF-?B. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the anti-inflammatory effects of SB are mediated via modulation of Nrf2 and NF-?B in lymphocytes. ..
  53. Cao Y, Zhang Y, Li J, Ge G, Hu D, Liu H, et al. CYP3A catalyses schizandrin biotransformation in human, minipig and rat liver microsomes. Xenobiotica. 2010;40:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Better knowledge of schizandrin's metabolic pathway could provide the vital information for understanding the pharmacokinetic behaviours of schizandrin contained in Chinese medicinal formula. ..