amantadine

Summary

Summary: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.

Top Publications

  1. Lis Cieplak A, Sitkowski J, Kolodziejski W. Comparative proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of amantadine complexes formed in aqueous solutions with three major cyclodextrins. J Pharm Sci. 2014;103:274-82 pubmed publisher
    Host-guest complexes of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins (?-CD, ?-CD, and ?-CD, respectively) with amantadine (1-aminoadamantane, AMA; an antiviral agent) were characterized in aqueous solutions using proton nuclear magnetic ..
  2. Hayden F, Pavia A. Antiviral management of seasonal and pandemic influenza. J Infect Dis. 2006;194 Suppl 2:S119-26 pubmed
    ..The M2 ion channel inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine are effective for prophylaxis, and they decrease the duration of symptoms if they are used for ..
  3. Tosh C, Murugkar H, Nagarajan S, Tripathi S, Katare M, Jain R, et al. Emergence of amantadine-resistant avian influenza H5N1 virus in India. Virus Genes. 2011;42:10-5 pubmed publisher
    ..acid substitution from serine-to-asparagine at position 31 of M2 ion channel protein suggesting emergence of amantadine-resistant mutants not previously reported in HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in India...
  4. Wang J, Cady S, Balannik V, Pinto L, Degrado W, Hong M. Discovery of spiro-piperidine inhibitors and their modulation of the dynamics of the M2 proton channel from influenza A virus. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:8066-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Amantadine has been used for decades as an inhibitor of the influenza A virus M2 protein (AM2) in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A infections, but its clinical use has been limited by its central nervous system (CNS) side ..
  5. Shobugawa Y, Saito R, Sato I, Li D, Suzuki Y, Sasaki A, et al. Recurrence and persistence of fever in children who developed amantadine-resistant influenza viruses after treatment. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2008;214:129-38 pubmed
    In recent years, a dramatic increase of amantadine-resistant influenza A has occurred globally, but limited data have been available on the clinical course of patients developed amantadine-resistant viruses...
  6. Clarke D, Griffin S, Beales L, Gelais C, Burgess S, Harris M, et al. Evidence for the formation of a heptameric ion channel complex by the hepatitis C virus p7 protein in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:37057-68 pubmed
    ..of hepatitis C virus functions as an ion channel both in vitro and in cell-based assays and is inhibited by amantadine, long alkyl chain imino-sugar derivatives, and amiloride compounds...
  7. Seo S, Englund J, Nguyen J, Pukrittayakamee S, Lindegardh N, Tarning J, et al. Combination therapy with amantadine, oseltamivir and ribavirin for influenza A infection: safety and pharmacokinetics. Antivir Ther. 2013;18:377-86 pubmed publisher
    ..A triple-combination antiviral drug (TCAD) regimen consisting of amantadine (AMT), oseltamivir (OSL) and ribavirin (RBV) demonstrated good efficacy in an animal model...
  8. Mohammadi M, Kazemi M, Zia E, Rezazadeh S, Tabrizi M, Akhondzadeh S. Amantadine versus methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind trial. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2010;25:560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of the present study was to further evaluate, under double blind and controlled conditions, the efficacy of amantadine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents as compared to methylphenidate...
  9. Weintraub D, Sohr M, Potenza M, Siderowf A, Stacy M, Voon V, et al. Amantadine use associated with impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease in cross-sectional study. Ann Neurol. 2010;68:963-8 pubmed publisher
    A recent controlled clinical trial suggested a role for amantadine as a treatment for pathological gambling in patients with Parkinson disease (PD)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zaraket H, Saito R, Suzuki Y, Suzuki Y, Caperig Dapat I, Dapat C, et al. Genomic events contributing to the high prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A/H3N2. Antivir Ther. 2010;15:307-19 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A/H3N2 viruses (belonging to the N-lineage), possessing an S31N mutation in the M2 protein and S193F and D225N substitutions in their HA1 subunit, has significantly increased worldwide ..
  2. Nguyen J, Hoopes J, Le M, Smee D, Patick A, Faix D, et al. Triple combination of amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir is highly active and synergistic against drug resistant influenza virus strains in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9332 pubmed publisher
    ..Worldwide, virtually all 2009 H1N1 and seasonal H3N2 strains are resistant to the adamantanes (rimantadine and amantadine), and the majority of seasonal H1N1 strains are resistant to oseltamivir, the most widely prescribed ..
  3. Mendez Navarro J, Chirino R, Corey K, Gorospe E, Zheng H, Moran S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of double versus triple therapy with amantadine for genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C in Latino patients. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:2629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Amantadine has been proposed to improve response rates in addition to standard therapy with peginterferon alpha and ..
  4. Ohigashi Y, Ma C, Jing X, Balannick V, Pinto L, Lamb R. An amantadine-sensitive chimeric BM2 ion channel of influenza B virus has implications for the mechanism of drug inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18775-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Influenza A virus A/M2 channel is the target of the antiviral drug amantadine (and its methyl derivative rimantadine), whereas BM2 channel activity is not affected by the drug...
  5. Rogóż Z, Skuza G, Legutko B. Repeated co-treatment with fluoxetine and amantadine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2008;60:817-26 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the influence of repeated treatment with fluoxetine (FLU, 5 or 10 mg/kg) and amantadine (AMA, 10 mg/kg), given separately or jointly (twice daily for 14 day), at the mRNA level (the Northern blot) in ..
  6. Li C, Yi M, Hu J, Zhou H, Cross T. Solid-state NMR and MD simulations of the antiviral drug amantadine solubilized in DMPC bilayers. Biophys J. 2008;94:1295-302 pubmed
    The interactions of (15)N-labeled amantadine, an antiinfluenza A drug, with DMPC bilayers were investigated by solid-state NMR and by a 12.6-ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation...
  7. Ciancio A, Picciotto A, Giordanino C, Smedile A, Tabone M, Manca A, et al. A randomized trial of pegylated-interferon-alpha2a plus ribavirin with or without amantadine in the re-treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C not responding to standard interferon and ribavirin. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24:1079-86 pubmed
    ..To evaluate efficacy and safety of pegylated-interferon-alpha2a plus ribavirin with or without amantadine in such patients...
  8. Shuangjin C, Fang F, Han L, Ming M. New method for high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of amantadine and its analogues in rat plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;44:1100-5 pubmed
    A novel precolumn derivatization method is described for the quantitative determination of amantadine, rimantadine and memantine in biological samples by HPLC with UV detection...
  9. Kozakov D, Chuang G, Beglov D, Vajda S. Where does amantadine bind to the influenza virus M2 proton channel?. Trends Biochem Sci. 2010;35:471-5 pubmed publisher
    ..By considering all available models, we propose the primary drug binding site is inside the pore, but that exterior binding occurs under appropriate conditions. ..
  10. Wilcox S, Garry A, Johnson M. Novel use of amantadine: to treat hiccups. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2009;38:460-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss a potential therapeutic response to a novel agent, amantadine, unlicensed in the treatment of hiccups.
  11. Hong M, Mishanina T, Cady S. Accurate measurement of methyl 13C chemical shifts by solid-state NMR for the determination of protein side chain conformation: the influenza a M2 transmembrane peptide as an example. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:7806-16 pubmed publisher
  12. Camps P, Duque M, Vazquez S, Naesens L, De Clercq E, Sureda F, et al. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of several ring-contracted amantadine analogs. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16:9925-36 pubmed publisher
    ..viruses and one of them inhibited the cytopathicity of influenza A virus at a concentration similar to that of amantadine. Several of the new polycyclic amines show an interesting activity as NMDA receptor antagonists...
  13. Hrstka R, Powell D, Kvardova V, Roubalova E, Bourougaa K, Candeias M, et al. The novel platinum(IV) complex LA-12 induces p53 and p53/47 responses that differ from the related drug, cisplatin. Anticancer Drugs. 2008;19:369-79 pubmed publisher
  14. Saito R, Suzuki Y, Li D, Zaraket H, Sato I, Masaki H, et al. Increased incidence of adamantane-resistant influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) viruses during the 2006-2007 influenza season in Japan. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:630-2; author reply 632-3 pubmed publisher
  15. He G, Qiao J, Dong C, He C, Zhao L, Tian Y. Amantadine-resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Northern China. Antiviral Res. 2008;77:72-6 pubmed
    We tested the amantadine-resistance among avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from chicken in Hebei Province of Northern China from 2001 to 2005, and investigated the amantadine use in this area...
  16. Wenger C, Bischof T, Gonvers J, Renner E, Mullhaupt B. Interferon and ribavirin with or without amantadine for interferon non-responders with chronic hepatitis C. A randomized, controlled pilot study. Swiss Med Wkly. 2007;137:418-23 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to compare efficacy and tolerability of an interferon-alfa-2a (INF), ribavirin (RIBA) and amantadine (AMA) combination with those of an INF and RIBA combination...
  17. Suzuki Y, Saito R, Zaraket H, Dapat C, Caperig Dapat I, Suzuki H. Rapid and specific detection of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses with a Ser31Asn mutation by the cycling probe method. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:57-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Amantadine is one of the antiviral agents used to treat influenza A virus infections, but resistant strains have widely emerged worldwide...
  18. Yi M, Cross T, Zhou H. A secondary gate as a mechanism for inhibition of the M2 proton channel by amantadine. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:7977-9 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism of inhibition of the influenza A virus M2 proton channel by the antiviral drug amantadine has been under intense investigation...
  19. Kooijmans S, Senyschyn D, Mezhiselvam M, Morizzi J, Charman S, Weksler B, et al. The involvement of a Na?- and Cl?-dependent transporter in the brain uptake of amantadine and rimantadine. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:883-93 pubmed publisher
    Despite their structural similarity, the two anti-influenza adamantane compounds amantadine (AMA) and rimantadine (RIM) exhibit strikingly different rates of blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport...
  20. Yang F, Lee P, Ma Z, Ma L, Yang G, Wu X, et al. Regulation of amantadine hydrochloride binding with IIA subdomain of human serum albumin by fatty acid chains. J Pharm Sci. 2013;102:84-92 pubmed publisher
    ..For our experiments, we tested amantadine hydrochloride, a cationic drug with antiviral and antiparkinsonian effects...
  21. Higgins R, Eshaghi A, Burton L, Mazzulli T, Drews S. Differential patterns of amantadine-resistance in influenza A (H3N2) and (H1N1) isolates in Toronto, Canada. J Clin Virol. 2009;44:91-3 pubmed publisher
    Molecular methods were used to characterize influenza A (H1N1) and (H3N2) strains and to identify amantadine-resistance. To compare proportions of amantadine-resistant influenza A (H1N1) and (H3N2) isolates in the Greater Toronto Area...
  22. Ilyushina N, Govorkova E, Russell C, Hoffmann E, Webster R. Contribution of H7 haemagglutinin to amantadine resistance and infectivity of influenza virus. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1266-74 pubmed
    In the present study we determined the antiviral effect of amantadine against influenza A/Netherlands/219/03 (H7N7) virus in cell culture and in a mouse model...
  23. Furuse Y, Suzuki A, Kamigaki T, Shimizu M, Fuji N, Oshitani H. Reversion of influenza A (H3N2) virus from amantadine resistant to amantadine sensitive by further reassortment in Japan during the 2006-to-2007 influenza season. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:841-4 pubmed publisher
    In the 2006-to-2007 influenza season, amantadine-sensitive strains were found among the N-lineage influenza A (H3N2) viruses, which were previously believed to be associated with amantadine resistance...
  24. Perry M, Bailey L, Kotecha A, Malik S, Hernandez A. Amantadine for the treatment of refractory absence seizures in children. Pediatr Neurol. 2012;46:243-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Amantadine has demonstrated efficacy in small series for absence and myoclonic type seizures. We examined the efficacy of amantadine for treating refractory absence seizures in a cohort of pediatric patients...
  25. Hubsher G, Haider M, Okun M. Amantadine: the journey from fighting flu to treating Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2012;78:1096-9 pubmed publisher
    To explore how amantadine transitioned from an anti-flu drug to antiparkinsonian agent. A review of the historical literature on the use of amantadine from 1966 to the present was performed...
  26. Pappa S, Tsouli S, Apostolou G, Mavreas V, Konitsiotis S. Effects of amantadine on tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2010;33:271-5 pubmed
    The objective of the study was to demonstrate whether the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, amantadine, can safely ameliorate tardive dyskinesia (TD) without deteriorating the mental state of the patients...
  27. Giacino J, Whyte J, Bagiella E, Kalmar K, Childs N, Khademi A, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of amantadine for severe traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:819-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness after traumatic brain injury...
  28. Nguyen J, Hoopes J, Smee D, Prichard M, Driebe E, Engelthaler D, et al. Triple combination of oseltamivir, amantadine, and ribavirin displays synergistic activity against multiple influenza virus strains in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4115-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We have tested double and triple combinations of the approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir and amantadine together with ribavirin against three influenza virus strains using cytopathic effect inhibition assays in MDCK ..
  29. Feng S, Tian Y, Zhang Z, Zhang J, Huang M, Chen Y. Rapid simultaneous determination of paracetamol, amantadine hydrochloride, caffeine and chlorpheniramine maleate in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Arzneimittelforschung. 2009;59:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was first developed and validated to simultaneously determine paracetamol (PAR, CAS 103-90-2), amantadine hydrochloride (ATH, CAS 665-66-7), caffeine (CAF, CAS 58-08-2) and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM, CAS 113-92-8) ..
  30. Wang P, Liang Y, Chen B, Zhou N, Yi L, Yu Y, et al. Quantitative determination of amantadine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the application in a bioequivalence study. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43:1519-25 pubmed
    ..ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method is developed and validated for rapid determination of amantadine in human plasma. Desloratadine was used as the internal standard (I.S.). Human plasma (0...
  31. Cheng P, Leung T, Ho E, Leung P, Ng A, Lai M, et al. Oseltamivir- and amantadine-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:966-8 pubmed publisher
    Surveillance of amantadine and oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses was begun in Hong Kong in 2006...
  32. Bai G, Chittaganpitch M, Kanai Y, Li Y, Auwanit W, Ikuta K, et al. Amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant variants of influenza A viruses in Thailand. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:897-901 pubmed publisher
    b>Amantadine and oseltamivir are used to treat influenza A virus infections; however, resistance to these drugs has been widely reported throughout the world...
  33. Smee D, Hurst B, Wong M, Bailey K, Morrey J. Effects of double combinations of amantadine, oseltamivir, and ribavirin on influenza A (H5N1) virus infections in cell culture and in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2120-8 pubmed publisher
    An amantadine-resistant influenza A/Duck/MN/1525/81 (H5N1) virus was developed from the low-pathogenic North American wild-type (amantadine-sensitive) virus for studying treatment of infections in cell culture and in mice...
  34. Suzuki Y, Taira K, Saito R, Nidaira M, Okano S, Zaraket H, et al. Epidemiologic study of influenza infection in Okinawa, Japan, from 2001 to 2007: changing patterns of seasonality and prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:623-9 pubmed publisher
    To clarify seasonal influenza patterns and the prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses in Okinawa, located at the southern extremity of Japan in a subtropical climate, we conducted a laboratory-based study of influenza ..
  35. Bido S, Marti M, Morari M. Amantadine attenuates levodopa-induced dyskinesia in mice and rats preventing the accompanying rise in nigral GABA levels. J Neurochem. 2011;118:1043-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Amantadine is the only drug marketed for treating levodopa-induced dyskinesia. However, its impact on basal ganglia circuitry in the dyskinetic brain, particularly on the activity of striatofugal pathways, has not been evaluated...
  36. Cady S, Mishanina T, Hong M. Structure of amantadine-bound M2 transmembrane peptide of influenza A in lipid bilayers from magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR: the role of Ser31 in amantadine binding. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:1127-41 pubmed publisher
    The M2 proton channel of influenza A is the target of the antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine, whose effectiveness has been abolished by a single-site mutation of Ser31 to Asn in the transmembrane domain of the protein...
  37. von Wagner M, Hofmann W, Teuber G, Berg T, Goeser T, Spengler U, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of 400 mg amantadine combined with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 48 weeks in chronic hepatitis C virus-1 infection. Hepatology. 2008;48:1404-11 pubmed publisher
    The impact of amantadine on virologic response rates of interferon-based treatment of chronic hepatitis C is controversial...
  38. Nguyen J, Smee D, Barnard D, Julander J, Gross M, de Jong M, et al. Efficacy of combined therapy with amantadine, oseltamivir, and ribavirin in vivo against susceptible and amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31006 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a triple combination antiviral drug (TCAD) regimen composed of amantadine, oseltamivir, and ribavirin that is highly efficacious at reducing mortality and weight loss in mouse models of ..
  39. Horváth V, Soucek K, Svihálková Sindlerová L, Vondracek J, Blanárová O, Hofmanova J, et al. Different cell cycle modulation following treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cells with a new platinum(IV) complex vs cisplatin. Invest New Drugs. 2007;25:435-43 pubmed
    ..The differences between effects of LA-12 and cisplatin suggest that more attention should be paid to elucidation of modes of action of novel platinum(IV) complexes at cellular level. ..
  40. Cady S, Hong M. Amantadine-induced conformational and dynamical changes of the influenza M2 transmembrane proton channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Amantadine blocks this channel, thus inhibiting viral replication...
  41. Thomas A, Bonanni L, Gambi F, Di Iorio A, Onofrj M. Pathological gambling in Parkinson disease is reduced by amantadine. Ann Neurol. 2010;68:400-4 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the possible efficacy of amantadine in the control of pathological gambling (PG) associated with Parkinson disease (PD), 17 PD patients with PG were randomly selected for a double-blind crossover study with amantadine 200mg/..
  42. Yeh H, Yang Y, Chen S. Simultaneous determination of memantine and amantadine in human plasma as fluorescein derivatives by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection and its clinical application. Electrophoresis. 2010;31:1903-11 pubmed publisher
    ..detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of memantine, an anti-Alzheimer's disease agent, and amantadine, an anti-Parkinson's disease drug, in human plasma...
  43. Ma C, Polishchuk A, Ohigashi Y, Stouffer A, SchOn A, Magavern E, et al. Identification of the functional core of the influenza A virus A/M2 proton-selective ion channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..has a single transmembrane (TM) helix, which associates to form homotetramers that bind the anti-influenza drug amantadine. However, the minimal fragment required for assembly and proton transport in cellular membranes has not been ..
  44. Salter A, Ní Laoi B, Crowley B. Emergence and phylogenetic analysis of amantadine-resistant influenza a subtype H3N2 viruses in Dublin, Ireland, over Six Seasons from 2003/2004 to 2008/2009. Intervirology. 2011;54:305-15 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses and perform genetic analysis of isolates collected in Dublin during six seasons (2003/2004 to 2008/2009)...
  45. Torres J, Maheswari U, Parthasarathy K, Ng L, Liu D, Gong X. Conductance and amantadine binding of a pore formed by a lysine-flanked transmembrane domain of SARS coronavirus envelope protein. Protein Sci. 2007;16:2065-71 pubmed
    ..Channel activity is inhibited by the anti-influenza drug amantadine, which was found to bind our preparation with moderate affinity...
  46. Nissenkorn A, Hassin Baer S, Lerman S, Levi Y, Tzadok M, Ben Zeev B. Movement disorder in ataxia-telangiectasia: treatment with amantadine sulfate. J Child Neurol. 2013;28:155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..2 ± 3.9 years) for 8 weeks with the dopaminergic and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) agent amantadine sulfate 6.3 ± 0.87 mg/kg/d...
  47. Nishikawa N, Nagai M, Moritoyo T, Yabe H, Nomoto M. Plasma amantadine concentrations in patients with Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:351-3 pubmed publisher
    We determined plasma amantadine concentrations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in daily clinical practice and investigated the relationship between plasma concentration and adverse reactions to clarify the safe therapeutic range...
  48. Morrison D, Roy S, Rayner C, Amer A, Howard D, Smith J, et al. A randomized, crossover study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of amantadine and oseltamivir administered alone and in combination. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1305 pubmed
    ..understand the potential for drug interactions, a cross-over, randomized, open-label trial was conducted with amantadine, 100 mg po bid, and oseltamivir, 75 mg po bid, given alone or in combination for 5 days...
  49. Sawyer E, Mauro L, Ohlinger M. Amantadine enhancement of arousal and cognition after traumatic brain injury. Ann Pharmacother. 2008;42:247-52 pubmed publisher
    To determine the role of amantadine therapy for early arousal and improved cognition in traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
  50. Buxbaum L, Ferraro M, Whyte J, Gershkoff A, Coslett H. Amantadine treatment of hemispatial neglect: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;86:527-37 pubmed
    ..neglect syndrome (hypokinesia, decreased arousal) to aspects of Parkinsonian syndromes, and the success of amantadine in treating disorders of attention, prompted a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of amantadine, an ..
  51. Masihi K, Schweiger B, Finsterbusch T, Hengel H. Low dose oral combination chemoprophylaxis with oseltamivir and amantadine for influenza A virus infections in mice. J Chemother. 2007;19:295-303 pubmed
    ..at different steps of the influenza virus replication cycle, oseltamivir as a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor and amantadine targeting M2 protein, was investigated in vivo by oral administration in a mouse model of aerosol influenza ..
  52. Furuse Y, Suzuki A, Oshitani H. Large-scale sequence analysis of M gene of influenza A viruses from different species: mechanisms for emergence and spread of amantadine resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4457-63 pubmed publisher
    Influenza A virus infects many species, and amantadine is used as an antiviral agent...
  53. Krumbholz A, Schmidtke M, Bergmann S, Motzke S, Bauer K, Stech J, et al. High prevalence of amantadine resistance among circulating European porcine influenza A viruses. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:900-8 pubmed publisher
    Genetic analysis of the M2 sequence of European porcine influenza A viruses reveals a high prevalence of amantadine resistance due to the substitution of serine 31 by asparagine in all three circulating subtypes, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2...