squalene

Summary

Summary: A natural 30-carbon triterpene.

Top Publications

  1. Achiraman S, Archunan G, Abirami B, Kokilavani P, Suriyakalaa U, Sankarganesh D, et al. Increased squalene concentrations in the clitoral gland during the estrous cycle in rats: an estrus-indicating scent mark?. Theriogenology. 2011;76:1676-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Squalene in the rat clitoral gland is reported to be semi-volatile and may serve as a chemo-signal. The objective was to determine squalene concentrations in the clitoral gland throughout the reproductive cycle...
  2. Mantzouridou F, Tsimidou M. Observations on squalene accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to the manipulation of HMG2 and ERG6. FEMS Yeast Res. 2010;10:699-707 pubmed publisher
    ..and AM64, a derivative of AM63 with an additional deletion of the ERG6 gene, were used as tools to test the squalene accumulation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  3. Kim S, Karadeniz F. Biological importance and applications of squalene and squalane. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2012;65:223-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Squalene is a polyunsaturated hydrocarbon with a formula of C??H??. Squalene can be found in certain fish oils, especially shark liver oil, in high amounts and some vegetable oils in relatively smaller amounts...
  4. Fox C. Squalene emulsions for parenteral vaccine and drug delivery. Molecules. 2009;14:3286-312 pubmed publisher
    b>Squalene is a linear triterpene that is extensively utilized as a principal component of parenteral emulsions for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, the chemical structure and sources of squalene are presented...
  5. Nakazawa A, Matsuura H, Kose R, Kato S, Honda D, Inouye I, et al. Optimization of culture conditions of the thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. strain 18W-13a for squalene production. Bioresour Technol. 2012;109:287-91 pubmed publisher
    Optimum conditions of temperature, salinity and glucose concentration were investigated for squalene production of the strain of Aurantiochytrium sp. 18 W-13a, with a high content of squalene...
  6. Bullon P, Quiles J, Morillo J, Rubini C, Goteri G, Granados Principal S, et al. Gingival vascular damage in atherosclerotic rabbits: hydroxytyrosol and squalene benefits. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:2327-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated effects of squalene, hydroxytyrosol and coenzyme Q(10) on gingival tissues of rabbits fed on an atherosclerotic diet...
  7. Nguyen H, Neelakadan A, Quach T, Valliyodan B, Kumar R, Zhang Z, et al. Molecular characterization of Glycine max squalene synthase genes in seed phytosterol biosynthesis. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013;73:23-32 pubmed publisher
    The reaction catalyzed by squalene synthase (EC.2.5.1...
  8. Reddy L, Dubernet C, Mouelhi S, Marque P, Desmaele D, Couvreur P. A new nanomedicine of gemcitabine displays enhanced anticancer activity in sensitive and resistant leukemia types. J Control Release. 2007;124:20-7 pubmed
    ..The preclinical data obtained in vitro and in vivo with SQdFdC NA demonstrate that this nanomedicine represents a new therapeutic system for the effective treatment of leukemia. ..
  9. Ramírez Torres A, Barceló Batllori S, Martinez Beamonte R, Navarro M, Surra J, Arnal C, et al. Proteomics and gene expression analyses of squalene-supplemented mice identify microsomal thioredoxin domain-containing protein 5 changes associated with hepatic steatosis. J Proteomics. 2012;77:27-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Squalene is an abundant hydrocarbon present in virgin olive oil. Previous studies showed that its administration decreased atherosclerosis and steatosis in male apoE-knock-out mice...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Fukase H, Furuie H, Yasuda Y, Komatsu R, Matsushita K, Minami T, et al. Assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of varying doses of an MF59®-adjuvanted cell culture-derived A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine in Japanese paediatric, adult and elderly subjects. Vaccine. 2012;30:5030-7 pubmed publisher
  2. Bentinger M, Kania M, Danikiewicz W, Kaczorowska E, Wojcik J, Brismar K, et al. Effects of various squalene epoxides on coenzyme Q and cholesterol synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1841:977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..previous findings concerning the biological effects of certain epoxidated all-trans-polyisoprenes, the effects of squalene carrying epoxy moieties on the second and third isoprene residues were investigated here...
  3. Siedenburg G, Jendrossek D. Squalene-hopene cyclases. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..They are biochemically synthesized from linear precursors (squalene, 2,3-oxidosqualene) in only one enzymatic step that is catalyzed by squalene-hopene cyclase (SHC) or ..
  4. Ghimire G, Lee H, Sohng J. Improved squalene production via modulation of the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and heterologous expression of genes from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:7291-3 pubmed publisher
    ..hopanoid genes from Streptomyces peucetius were introduced into Escherichia coli to improve the production of squalene, an industrially important compound...
  5. Ta M, Kapterian T, Fei W, Du X, Brown A, Dawes I, et al. Accumulation of squalene is associated with the clustering of lipid droplets. FEBS J. 2012;279:4231-44 pubmed publisher
    The isoprenoid squalene is an important precursor for the biosynthesis of sterols. The cellular storage of squalene and its impact on membrane properties have been the subject of recent investigations...
  6. Madhun A, Akselsen P, Sjursen H, Pedersen G, Svindland S, Nøstbakken J, et al. An adjuvanted pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine provides early and long term protection in health care workers. Vaccine. 2010;29:266-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A rapid induction of protective antibody is important in reducing community spread of pandemic influenza and in helping maintain the integrity of the health care system during the pandemic...
  7. Black S, Della Cioppa G, Malfroot A, Nacci P, Nicolay U, Pellegrini M, et al. Safety of MF59-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and adolescents: an integrated analysis. Vaccine. 2010;28:7331-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the safety of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in the pediatric population...
  8. Andrews N, Waight P, Yung C, Miller E. Age-specific effectiveness of an oil-in-water adjuvanted pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine against confirmed infection in high risk groups in England. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:32-9 pubmed publisher
    The use of a squalene-containing (AS03) pandemic vaccine for high-risk groups in England allowed vaccine effectiveness (VE) of such novel oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccine to be evaluated.
  9. Tong R, Boone M, McDonald F. Stereo- and regioselective synthesis of squalene tetraepoxide. J Org Chem. 2009;74:8407-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Squalene tetraepoxide, a putative biosynthetic precursor to a variety of oxacyclic triterpenoid natural products, has been efficiently synthesized by anionic coupling of two farnesol-derived diepoxides, which have arisen from electronic ..
  10. Chen G, Fan K, Lu F, Li Q, Aki T, Chen F, et al. Optimization of nitrogen source for enhanced production of squalene from thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. N Biotechnol. 2010;27:382-9 pubmed publisher
    Nitrogen (N) sources, the critical medium component, were optimized for squalene production by microalga Aurantiochytrium sp. in heterotrophic cultures...
  11. Ray R, Meyer K, Banerjee A, Basu A, Coates S, Abrignani S, et al. Characterization of antibodies induced by vaccination with hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:862-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutralizing serum samples had increased affinity levels and displayed >2-fold higher specific activity levels to well-characterized epitopes on E1/E2, especially to the hypervariable region 1 of E2...
  12. Castelli F, Sarpietro M, Micieli D, Stella B, Rocco F, Cattel L. Enhancement of gemcitabine affinity for biomembranes by conjugation with squalene: differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir-Blodgett studies using biomembrane models. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2007;316:43-52 pubmed
    Molecular interactions between gemcitabine, alone or conjugated with squalene to form the gem-squalene prodrug, with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir film balance ..
  13. Petrick L, Dubowski Y. Heterogeneous oxidation of squalene film by ozone under various indoor conditions. Indoor Air. 2009;19:381-91 pubmed publisher
    ..conditions (ozone concentration, temperature, relative humidity (RH), and the presence of NO(x)) on heterogeneous squalene oxidation were studied with Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy...
  14. Frey S, Houghton M, Coates S, Abrignani S, Chien D, Rosa D, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of HCV E1E2 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59 administered to healthy adults. Vaccine. 2010;28:6367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the first in humans clinical trial of this prophylactic HCV vaccine...
  15. Motawi T, Sadik N, Refaat A. Cytoprotective effects of DL-alpha-lipoic acid or squalene on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative injury: an experimental study on rat myocardium, testicles and urinary bladder. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2326-36 pubmed publisher
    The present study aimed to evaluate the role of DL-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and squalene (SQ) on oxidative cardiac, testicular and urotoxic damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP)...
  16. Li Q, Chen G, Fan K, Lu F, Aki T, Jiang Y. Screening and characterization of squalene-producing thraustochytrids from Hong Kong mangroves. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:4267-72 pubmed publisher
    Eighteen strains of thraustochytrids were newly isolated from Hong Kong mangroves, and their fatty acid and squalene contents were analyzed. All strains could grow well heterotrophically with glucose as the sole carbon source...
  17. Spanova M, Zweytick D, Lohner K, Klug L, Leitner E, Hermetter A, et al. Influence of squalene on lipid particle/droplet and membrane organization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:647-53 pubmed publisher
    In a previous study (Spanova et al., 2010, J. Biol. Chem., 285, 6127-6133) we demonstrated that squalene, an intermediate of sterol biosynthesis, accumulates in yeast strains bearing a deletion of the HEM1 gene...
  18. Farvin K, Anandan R, Kumar S, Shiny K, Mathew S, Sankar T, et al. Cardioprotective effect of squalene on lipid profile in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats. J Med Food. 2006;9:531-6 pubmed
    We studied the cardioprotective effect of squalene on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in male albino rats with respect to changes in the levels of lipid components in plasma and heart tissue...
  19. Voyron S, Rocco F, Ceruti M, Forni P, Pla A, Sarpietro M, et al. Antifungal activity of bis-azasqualenes, inhibitors of oxidosqualene cyclase. Mycoses. 2010;53:481-7 pubmed publisher
    The antifungal activity and in vitro toxicity toward animal cells of two inhibitors of oxidosqualene cyclase, squalene bis-diethylamine (SBD) and squalene bis-diethylmethylammonium iodide (SBDI) were studied...
  20. Garçon N, Vaughn D, Didierlaurent A. Development and evaluation of AS03, an Adjuvant System containing ?-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012;11:349-66 pubmed publisher
    AS03 is an Adjuvant System composed of ?-tocopherol, squalene and polysorbate 80 in an oil-in-water emulsion...
  21. Heikkinen T, Young J, Van Beek E, Franke H, Verstraeten T, Weil J, et al. Safety of MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in pregnancy: a comparative cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207:177.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2009-2010 A/H1N1 pandemic provided a unique setting to study the safety of MF59-adjuvanted vaccination in pregnancy...
  22. Tsai T, Kyaw M, Novicki D, Nacci P, Rai S, Clemens R. Exposure to MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccines during pregnancy--a retrospective analysis. Vaccine. 2010;28:1877-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Further data will be forthcoming from planned post-licensure studies of adjuvanted H1N1 vaccines as they are distributed in the pandemic response...
  23. Reddy L, Marque P, Dubernet C, Mouelhi S, Desmaele D, Couvreur P. Preclinical toxicology (subacute and acute) and efficacy of a new squalenoyl gemcitabine anticancer nanomedicine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;325:484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the candidature of SQgem for clinical trials. ..
  24. Borchman D, Yappert M, Milliner S, Smith R, Bhola R. Confirmation of the presence of squalene in human eyelid lipid by heteronuclear single quantum correlation spectroscopy. Lipids. 2013;48:1269-77 pubmed publisher
    1)H-NMR spectroscopy has been used to quantify squalene in meibum and sebum...
  25. Phillips C, Matyas G, Hansen C, Alving C, Smith T, Ryan M. Antibodies to squalene in US Navy Persian Gulf War veterans with chronic multisymptom illness. Vaccine. 2009;27:3921-6 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the many possible exposures suspected of causing chronic multisymptom illnesses Gulf War veterans is squalene, thought to be present in anthrax vaccine...
  26. Ryan E, Galvin K, O Connor T, Maguire A, O Brien N. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007;62:85-91 pubmed
    ..lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols...
  27. Kostyuk V, Potapovich A, Stancato A, De Luca C, Lulli D, Pastore S, et al. Photo-oxidation products of skin surface squalene mediate metabolic and inflammatory responses to solar UV in human keratinocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44472 pubmed publisher
    ..The decay of photo-sensitive lipid-soluble components, alpha-tocopherol, squalene (Sq), and cholesterol in SSL was analysed and products of squalene photo-oxidation (SqPx) were quantitatively ..
  28. Clark T, Pareek M, Hoschler K, Dillon H, Nicholson K, Groth N, et al. Trial of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) monovalent MF59-adjuvanted vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2424-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has emerged to cause the first pandemic of the 21st century. Development of effective vaccines is a public health priority...
  29. Sarpietro M, Micieli D, Rocco F, Ceruti M, Castelli F. Conjugation of squalene to acyclovir improves the affinity for biomembrane models. Int J Pharm. 2009;382:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the interaction of acyclovir and its prodrug squalenoyl-acyclovir (obtained by conjugation of 1,1',2-tris-nor-squalene acid (squaleneCOOH) with acyclovir) with biomembrane models made of DMPC multilamellar vesicles with the aim to ..
  30. Kalvodova L. Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants perturb metabolism of neutral lipids and enhance lipid droplet formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;393:350-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The accumulated lipids comprise not only the delivered squalene, but also cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, fatty acids, and diacylglycerols...
  31. Gasparini R, Schioppa F, Lattanzi M, Barone M, Casula D, Pellegrini M, et al. Impact of prior or concomitant seasonal influenza vaccination on MF59-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine (Focetria) in adult and elderly subjects. Int J Clin Pract. 2010;64:432-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated prior seasonal vaccination in adult and elderly subjects, and concomitant vaccination with seasonal vaccine in adults, on the tolerability and immunogenicity of the Novartis MF59-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine, Focetria...
  32. Mosca F, Tritto E, Muzzi A, Monaci E, Bagnoli F, Iavarone C, et al. Molecular and cellular signatures of human vaccine adjuvants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that oil-in-water emulsions are the most efficient human vaccine adjuvants, because they induce an early and strong immunocompetent environment at the injection site by targeting muscle cells...
  33. Ansaldi F, Canepa P, Parodi V, Bacilieri S, Orsi A, Compagnino F, et al. Adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines and perpetual viral metamorphosis: the importance of cross-protection. Vaccine. 2009;27:3345-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Promising results were obtained using a new generation of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants, named AS, offering cross-protection against heterologous challenge in ferrets...
  34. Cho S, Choi C, Lee D, Won C, Kim S, Lee S, et al. High-dose squalene ingestion increases type I procollagen and decreases ultraviolet-induced DNA damage in human skin in vivo but is associated with transient adverse effects. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34:500-8 pubmed publisher
    Evidence for beneficial effects of squalene on ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoageing of the skin is lacking. To investigate whether squalene supplementation improves signs and molecular markers of photoageing in human skin in vivo...
  35. Galli G, Hancock K, Hoschler K, DeVos J, Praus M, Bardelli M, et al. Fast rise of broadly cross-reactive antibodies after boosting long-lived human memory B cells primed by an MF59 adjuvanted prepandemic vaccine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7962-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that pre-pandemic vaccination strategies should be considered...
  36. Seiki S, Frishman W. Pharmacologic inhibition of squalene synthase and other downstream enzymes of the cholesterol synthesis pathway: a new therapeutic approach to treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Cardiol Rev. 2009;17:70-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Squalene synthase is another enzyme that is downstream to HMG-CoA reductase in the cholesterol synthesis pathway and ..
  37. Warleta F, Campos M, Allouche Y, Sánchez Quesada C, Ruiz Mora J, Beltrán G, et al. Squalene protects against oxidative DNA damage in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells but not in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1092-100 pubmed publisher
    Until now, very little has been known about the antioxidant capacity of squalene and its effect on human breast tumourigenesis...
  38. El Sahly H. MF59™ as a vaccine adjuvant: a review of safety and immunogenicity. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:1135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, MF59 is under evaluation as an adjuvant with other antigens such as pandemic influenza antigens and cytomegalovirus antigens...
  39. O Hagan D, Rappuoli R, De Gregorio E, Tsai T, Del Giudice G. MF59 adjuvant: the best insurance against influenza strain diversity. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:447-62 pubmed publisher
  40. Ihara T. [Evaluation of alum-adjuvanted whole virus influenza vaccine and future aspects of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine]. Uirusu. 2010;60:69-78 pubmed
    ..Additionally, since WHO speculates (H1N1) 2009 virus could be endemic in near future, the (H1N1) 2009 virus-derived strain is included in the 2010/11 seasonal influenza vaccine. ..
  41. Vriet C, Russinova E, Reuzeau C. From squalene to brassinolide: the steroid metabolic and signaling pathways across the plant kingdom. Mol Plant. 2013;6:1738-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss emerging insights into the regulations of these pathways, their interactions with other hormonal pathways and multiple environmental signals, and the putative nature of sterols as signaling molecules. ..
  42. Ansaldi F, Bacilieri S, Durando P, Sticchi L, Valle L, Montomoli E, et al. Cross-protection by MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine: neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody activity against A(H3N2) drifted influenza viruses. Vaccine. 2008;26:1525-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MF59-adjuvanted vaccine confers greater immunogenicity than non-adjuvanted vaccines in vulnerable populations...
  43. Galli G, Medini D, Borgogni E, Zedda L, Bardelli M, Malzone C, et al. Adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine induces early CD4+ T cell response that predicts long-term persistence of protective antibody levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3877-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that CD4(+) T cell priming might be used as an early predictor of the immunogenicity of prepandemic vaccines...
  44. Cheong H, Song J, Heo J, Noh J, Choi W, Park D, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of the influenza A/H1N1 2009 inactivated split-virus vaccine in young and older adults: MF59-adjuvanted vaccine versus nonadjuvanted vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1358-64 pubmed publisher
    ..75-?g, MF59 adjuvanted vaccine priming schedule. Following a two-dose priming schedule, the increase in hemagglutinin inhibition titers was higher with MF59 adjuvanted vaccine than with nonadjuvanted vaccine...
  45. Pellegrini M, Nicolay U, Lindert K, Groth N, Della Cioppa G. MF59-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines: integrated analysis from a large safety database. Vaccine. 2009;27:6959-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Adding adjuvants such as MF59((R)) to influenza vaccines can enhance the immune response. This analysis evaluated the safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted [(+)MF59] compared with non-adjuvanted [(-)MF59] vaccines in a large clinical database...
  46. Huang Z, Lin Y, Fang J. Biological and pharmacological activities of squalene and related compounds: potential uses in cosmetic dermatology. Molecules. 2009;14:540-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Squalene is a triterpene that is an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. It was so named because of its occurrence in shark liver oil, which contains large quantities and is considered its richest source...
  47. Das B, Antoon R, Tsuchida R, Lotfi S, Morozova O, Farhat W, et al. Squalene selectively protects mouse bone marrow progenitors against cisplatin and carboplatin-induced cytotoxicity in vivo without protecting tumor growth. Neoplasia. 2008;10:1105-19 pubmed
    b>Squalene, an isoprenoid antioxidant is a potential cytoprotective agent against chemotherapy-induced toxicity...
  48. Novakova Z, Surín S, Blasko J, Majernik A, Smigán P. Membrane proteins and squalene-hydrosqualene profile in methanoarchaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus resistant to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2008;53:237-40 pubmed publisher
    ..in the maintenance of methanoarchaeal membrane structure and function, such as the composition of the mixture of squalene and its hydrosqualene derivatives and also properties of membrane-associated proteins were compared in wild-type ..
  49. Raouane M, Desmaele D, Gilbert Sirieix M, Gueutin C, Zouhiri F, Bourgaux C, et al. Synthesis, characterization, and in vivo delivery of siRNA-squalene nanoparticles targeting fusion oncogene in papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Med Chem. 2011;54:4067-76 pubmed publisher
    We report the conjugation of the natural lipid squalene (SQ) with a small interfering RNA (siRNA), against the junction oncogene RET/PTC1, usually found in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)...
  50. Reddy L, Couvreur P. Squalene: A natural triterpene for use in disease management and therapy. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2009;61:1412-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Squalene is a natural lipid belonging to the terpenoid family and a precursor of cholesterol biosynthesis. It is synthesized in humans and also in a wide array of organisms and substances, from sharks to olives and even bran, among others...
  51. Nakagawa K, Ibusuki D, Suzuki Y, Yamashita S, Higuchi O, Oikawa S, et al. Ion-trap tandem mass spectrometric analysis of squalene monohydroperoxide isomers in sunlight-exposed human skin. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:2779-87 pubmed
    We previously discovered that squalene monohydroperoxide (SQ-OOH) was produced on human forehead skin and suggested that skin squalene (SQ) may be the principal target lipid for oxidative stress (e.g., sunlight exposure)...
  52. Kasai H, Katsuta A, Sekiguchi H, Matsuda S, Adachi K, Shindo K, et al. Rubritalea squalenifaciens sp. nov., a squalene-producing marine bacterium belonging to subdivision 1 of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007;57:1630-4 pubmed
    ..44-0.53x0.65-0.79 microm) bacterium. The strain produced squalene and a red-pink carotenoid pigment...
  53. Mountfort K, Bronstein H, Archer N, Jickells S. Identification of oxidation products of squalene in solution and in latent fingerprints by ESI-MS and LC/APCI-MS. Anal Chem. 2007;79:2650-7 pubmed
    An investigation was carried out to identify oxidation products of squalene (SQ) in latent fingerprints...