Summary: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.

Top Publications

  1. Lopes S, Goormaghtigh E, Cabral B, Castanho M. Filipin orientation revealed by linear dichroism. Implication for a model of action. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:5396-402 pubmed
    The organization of the polyene antibiotic filipin in membranes containing cholesterol is a controversial matter of debate...
  2. Van Leeuwen M, Smant W, de Boer W, Dijksterhuis J. Filipin is a reliable in situ marker of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of germinating conidia (spores) of Penicillium discolor and stains intensively at the site of germ tube formation. J Microbiol Methods. 2008;74:64-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Filipin, a widely used fluorescent sterol marker is also a potent antibiotic. In this study we address the reliability of filipin as a monitor of ergosterol in fungal cells...
  3. Schnitzer J, Oh P, Pinney E, Allard J. Filipin-sensitive caveolae-mediated transport in endothelium: reduced transcytosis, scavenger endocytosis, and capillary permeability of select macromolecules. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:1217-32 pubmed
    ..We now show that the ability of sterol binding agents such as filipin to disassemble endothelial noncoated but not coated plasmalemmal vesicles selectively inhibits caveolae-mediated ..
  4. Rosengren B, al Rayyes O, Rippe B. Transendothelial transport of low-density lipoprotein and albumin across the rat peritoneum in vivo: effects of the transcytosis inhibitors NEM and filipin. J Vasc Res. 2002;39:230-7 pubmed
    ..from passive, 'porous' transport, we tested the effects of the transcytosis inhibitors N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and filipin given intraperitoneally on the peritoneal capillary clearance of LDL and albumin in anesthetized rats undergoing ..
  5. Marella M, Lehmann S, Grassi J, Chabry J. Filipin prevents pathological prion protein accumulation by reducing endocytosis and inducing cellular PrP release. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:25457-64 pubmed
    ..We show that the polyene antibiotic filipin both limits endocytosis of PrP-sen and dramatically reduces the amount of membrane-bound PrP-sen...
  6. Ros Baró A, Lopez Iglesias C, Peiro S, Bellido D, Palacin M, Zorzano A, et al. Lipid rafts are required for GLUT4 internalization in adipose cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:12050-5 pubmed
    ..The role of lipid rafts in GLUT4 trafficking was studied by adding nystatin or filipin at concentrations that specifically disrupt caveolae morphology and inhibit caveolae function without altering ..
  7. Awasthi Kalia M, Schnetkamp P, Deans J. Differential effects of filipin and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin on B cell receptor signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:77-82 pubmed
    Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and filipin are cholesterol-binding reagents often used interchangeably to investigate functional requirements for lipid rafts in receptor-mediated signal transduction...
  8. Xu L, Fushinobu S, Takamatsu S, Wakagi T, Ikeda H, Shoun H. Regio- and stereospecificity of filipin hydroxylation sites revealed by crystal structures of cytochrome P450 105P1 and 105D6 from Streptomyces avermitilis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16844-53 pubmed publisher
    The polyene macrolide antibiotic filipin is widely used as a probe for cholesterol and a diagnostic tool for type C Niemann-Pick disease...
  9. Van Leeuwen M, Golovina E, Dijksterhuis J. The polyene antimycotics nystatin and filipin disrupt the plasma membrane, whereas natamycin inhibits endocytosis in germinating conidia of Penicillium discolor. J Appl Microbiol. 2009;106:1908-18 pubmed publisher
    ..the differences in membrane permeability and the effect on endocytosis of the polyene antimycotics nystatin, filipin and natamycin on germinating fungal conidia. The model system was Penicillium discolor, a food spoilage fungus...

More Information


  1. Vanmarle J, Vrensen G. Cholesterol content of focal opacities and multilamellar bodies in the human lens: filipin cytochemistry and freeze fracture. Ophthalmic Res. 2000;32:285-91 pubmed
    ..Cholesterol was demonstrated using filipin cytochemistry...
  2. Castanho M, Prieto M, Jameson D. The pentaene macrolide antibiotic filipin prefers more rigid DPPC bilayers: a fluorescence pressure dependence study. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1419:1-14 pubmed
    b>Filipin is a pentaene macrolide antibiotic which was previously shown to incorporate more extensively into DPPC bilayers below the main phase transition temperature than above this temperature...
  3. Loura L, Castanho M, Fedorov A, Prieto M. A photophysical study of the polyene antibiotic filipin. Self-aggregation and filipin--ergosterol interaction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1510:125-35 pubmed
    b>Filipin, a macrolide polyene antibiotic, is known to interact selectively with ergosterol, a constituent of fungi membranes...
  4. Bonneau L, Gerbeau Pissot P, Thomas D, Der C, Lherminier J, Bourque S, et al. Plasma membrane sterol complexation, generated by filipin, triggers signaling responses in tobacco cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:2150-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, the pentaene macrolide antibiotic filipin III, commonly used in animal systems as a sterol sequestrating agent, was applied to tobacco cells...
  5. Zhang J, Chu W, Crandall I. Lipoprotein binding preference of CD36 is altered by filipin treatment. Lipids Health Dis. 2008;7:23 pubmed publisher
    ..absence of caveolae is the determining factor for lipoprotein preference, we treated CHO-CD36 and C32 cells with filipin. Filipin treatment rapidly increased the binding capacity of CD36 for the native lipoproteins HDL and LDL, but ..
  6. Orlandi P, Fishman P. Filipin-dependent inhibition of cholera toxin: evidence for toxin internalization and activation through caveolae-like domains. J Cell Biol. 1998;141:905-15 pubmed
    ..In this study, we used filipin, a sterol-binding agent that disrupts caveolae and caveolae-like structures, to explore their role in the ..
  7. Pohl J, Ring A, Stremmel W. Uptake of long-chain fatty acids in HepG2 cells involves caveolae: analysis of a novel pathway. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:1390-9 pubmed
    ..inhibition of clathrin coated pits did not influence LCFA uptake in HepG2, inhibition of caveolae formation by filipin III, cyclodextrin, and caveolin-1 antisense oligonucleotides resulted in reduction of [(3)H]oleic acid uptake by ..
  8. Naslavsky N, Weigert R, Donaldson J. Characterization of a nonclathrin endocytic pathway: membrane cargo and lipid requirements. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3542-52 pubmed
    ..Endocytosis of CD59 and MHCI required free membrane cholesterol because it was inhibited by filipin binding to the cell surface...
  9. Sugii S, Reid P, Ohgami N, Shimada Y, Maue R, Ninomiya H, et al. Biotinylated theta-toxin derivative as a probe to examine intracellular cholesterol-rich domains in normal and Niemann-Pick type C1 cells. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:1033-41 pubmed
    ..The sensitivity of BCtheta staining was superior to that of filipin staining...
  10. Lee C, Lin H, Liao C, Lin Y. Cholesterol effectively blocks entry of flavivirus. J Virol. 2008;82:6470-80 pubmed publisher
    ..of lipid raft formation by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin or cholesterol chelation with filipin III reduces JEV and DEN-2 infection, mainly at the intracellular replication steps and, to a lesser extent, at ..
  11. Khine A, Tam P, Nutikka A, Lingwood C. Brefeldin A and filipin distinguish two globotriaosyl ceramide/verotoxin-1 intracellular trafficking pathways involved in Vero cell cytotoxicity. Glycobiology. 2004;14:701-12 pubmed
    ..However, after 24 h incubation with concentrations of VT1 above 50 ng/ml, a filipin-sensitive (caveolae-dependent) route for cytotoxicity becomes significant...
  12. Walter M, Davies J, Ioannou Y. Telomerase immortalization upregulates Rab9 expression and restores LDL cholesterol egress from Niemann-Pick C1 late endosomes. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:243-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the existence of alternative endogenous therapeutic targets that can be modulated to reverse the NPC1 disease phenotype. ..
  13. Auriac A, Willemetz A, Canonne Hergaux F. Lipid raft-dependent endocytosis: a new route for hepcidin-mediated regulation of ferroportin in macrophages. Haematologica. 2010;95:1269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, lipid raft breakdown by cholesterol sequestration (filipin) or depletion (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin) decreased hepcidin activity on macrophage ferroportin...
  14. Pham N, Gal M, Bagshaw R, Mohr A, Chue B, Richardson T, et al. A comparative study of cytoplasmic granules imaged by the real-time microscope, Nile Red and Filipin in fibroblasts from patients with lipid storage diseases. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28:991-1004 pubmed
    Cytoplasmic granules in fibroblasts, visualized without stains, or labelled with Nile red, Filipin, or anti-LAMP-1 (lysosome-associated membrane protein 1), were imaged using the real-time microscope (RTM)...
  15. Biswas S, Lo W. Gap junctions contain different amounts of cholesterol which undergo unique sequestering processes during fiber cell differentiation in the embryonic chicken lens. Mol Vis. 2007;13:345-59 pubmed
    ..The possible mechanism by which cholesterol is removed from gap junction plaques is also investigated. Filipin cytochemistry in conjunction with freeze-fracture TEM was used to visualize cholesterol, as represented by ..
  16. Arthur J, Heinecke K, Seyfried T. Filipin recognizes both GM1 and cholesterol in GM1 gangliosidosis mouse brain. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1345-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Filipin is an antibiotic polyene widely used as a histochemical marker for cholesterol. We previously reported cholesterol/filipin-positive staining in brain of ?-galactosidase (?-gal) knockout ((-/-)) mice (GM1 gangliosidosis)...
  17. Kim J, Han J, Hwang I, Lee D, Kim B. Identification and biocontrol efficacy of Streptomyces miharaensis producing filipin III against Fusarium wilt. J Basic Microbiol. 2012;52:150-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Extensive spectrometric analysis using MS and NMR identified this as filipin III...
  18. Shimada Y, Ohno Iwashita Y. [How to visualize cholesterol]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2004;49:1381-7 pubmed
  19. Tamura H, Takahashi T, Ban N, Torisu H, Ninomiya H, Takada G, et al. Niemann-Pick type C disease: novel NPC1 mutations and characterization of the concomitant acid sphingomyelinase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;87:113-21 pubmed
    ..However, these studies demonstrated that the subcellular localization of ASM was preserved, suggesting that the high content of lysosomal cholesterol was not responsible for the decreased ASM activity. ..
  20. Ishibashi S, Yamazaki T, Okamoto K. Association of autophagy with cholesterol-accumulated compartments in Niemann-Pick disease type C cells. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:954-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in the number of granular LC3-positive structures that colocalized with filipin-labeled accumulated cholesterol was also observed in morphological studies...
  21. Caballero F, Fernandez A, De Lacy A, Fernandez Checa J, Caballeria J, Garcia Ruiz C. Enhanced free cholesterol, SREBP-2 and StAR expression in human NASH. J Hepatol. 2009;50:789-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the emerging role of free cholesterol (FC) in NAFLD, our aim was to examine the correlation between FC accumulation in patients with NAFLD and the expression of enzymes that regulate cholesterol homeostasis...
  22. Bretillon L, Acar N, Seeliger M, Santos M, Maire M, Juaneda P, et al. ApoB100,LDLR-/- mice exhibit reduced electroretinographic response and cholesteryl esters deposits in the retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:1307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings clearly suggest the role of cholesterol metabolism in the functioning of the retina and possibly in the etiology of ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. ..
  23. Parkin E, Watt N, Turner A, Hooper N. Dual mechanisms for shedding of the cellular prion protein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11170-8 pubmed
    ..The lipid raft-disrupting agents filipin and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin promoted the shedding of PrP(C) via a distinct mechanism that was not inhibited by ..
  24. Almeida R, Dogan B, Klaessing S, Schukken Y, Oliver S. Intracellular fate of strains of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy cows with acute or chronic mastitis. Vet Res Commun. 2011;35:89-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from this study helps to explain how these strains are capable of causing chronic E. coli mastitis. ..
  25. Hearn A, de Haan L, Pemberton A, Hirst T, Rivett A. Trafficking of exogenous peptides into proteasome-dependent major histocompatibility complex class I pathway following enterotoxin B subunit-mediated delivery. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51315-22 pubmed
    ..Conjugated peptides are released from early endosomes into the cytosol where they gain access to proteasomes and TAP in the "classical" pathway of class I presentation. ..
  26. Kamada H, Sato K, Iwai M, Ohta K, Nagano I, Shoji M, et al. Changes of free cholesterol and neutral lipids after transient focal brain ischemia in rats. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2003;86:177-80 pubmed
    ..temporal and spatial changes of free cholesterol (FC) and neutral lipids (NLs) after brain ischemia with filipin complex staining to detect mainly FC and Nile Red staining for NLs such as cholesteryl ester (CE) and ..
  27. Wachtler V, Rajagopalan S, Balasubramanian M. Sterol-rich plasma membrane domains in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:867-74 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our studies establish S. pombe as a genetically tractable model organism in which to study the role(s) of sterol-rich membrane domains in cell polarity and cytokinesis. ..
  28. Ishitsuka R, Saito T, Osada H, Ohno Iwashita Y, Kobayashi T. Fluorescence image screening for chemical compounds modifying cholesterol metabolism and distribution. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:2084-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell staining with another fluorescent cholesterol probe, filipin, revealed that 17 compounds accumulated cholesterol in the late endosomes...
  29. Gniadecki R, Christoffersen N, Wulf H. Cholesterol-rich plasma membrane domains (lipid rafts) in keratinocytes: importance in the baseline and UVA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;118:582-8 pubmed
    ..the integrity of membrane domains was disrupted by cholesterol sequestration with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and filipin, or after treatment with GM1 ganglioside; (iii) reactive oxygen species synthesis in cholesterol-depleted cells ..
  30. Flesch F, Brouwers J, Nievelstein P, Verkleij A, van Golde L, Colenbrander B, et al. Bicarbonate stimulated phospholipid scrambling induces cholesterol redistribution and enables cholesterol depletion in the sperm plasma membrane. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3543-55 pubmed
    ..Membrane cholesterol organization was observed with filipin, which labeled the entire sperm surface of non-stimulated and non-responding cells, but labeled only the apical ..
  31. Stenger C, Pinçon A, Hanse M, Royer L, Comte A, Koziel V, et al. Brain region-specific immunolocalization of the lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) and altered cholesterol distribution in aged LSR+/- mice. J Neurochem. 2012;123:467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Filipin and Nile red staining revealed membrane cholesterol content accumulation accompanied by significantly altered ..
  32. Kuhn N, Ward S, Leong W. Submicromolar manganese dependence of Golgi vesicular galactosyltransferase (lactose synthetase). Eur J Biochem. 1991;195:243-50 pubmed
    ..4 microM. This increased sharply to about 10 microM on permeabilization with filipin, lysis with detergents, solubilization with Triton X-100, or in the pure enzyme...
  33. Berry R, Klumpp D, Schaeffer A. Urothelial cultures support intracellular bacterial community formation by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2762-72 pubmed publisher
    ..By pharmacologic manipulation of urothelial cells with the cholesterol-sequestering drug filipin, numbers of intracellular UPEC CFU increased 8 h and 24 h postinfection relative to untreated cultures...
  34. Hakkou A, Coulon J, Mpona Minga M, Bonaly R. [Variation of the sterols from Kluyveromyces lactis and from a resistant mutant by culture in the presence of sublethal doses of amphotericin B]. Can J Microbiol. 1988;34:787-92 pubmed
    ..The mutant and the wild strain were equally sensitive to pimaricin, filipin, and candicidin. The efficacy of fungizone was very low...
  35. Gehne N, Lamik A, Lehmann M, Haseloff R, Andjelkovic A, Blasig I. Cross-over endocytosis of claudins is mediated by interactions via their extracellular loops. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182106 pubmed publisher
    ..TJ-remodeling via cross-over endocytosis represents a general mechanism for the degradation of transmembrane proteins in cell-cell contacts and directly links junctional membrane turnover to autophagy. ..
  36. Yang W, Dodge J, Passini M, Taksir T, Griffiths D, Schuchman E, et al. Intraparenchymal injections of acid sphingomyelinase results in regional correction of lysosomal storage pathology in the Niemann-Pick A mouse. Exp Neurol. 2007;207:258-66 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that intraparenchymal injection of hASM is associated with minimal toxicity and can lead to regional reductions in storage pathology in the ASMKO mouse. ..
  37. Awasthi V, Mandal S, Papanna V, Rao L, Pendurthi U. Modulation of tissue factor-factor VIIa signaling by lipid rafts and caveolae. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:1447-55 pubmed
    ..Overall our data show that lipid raft/caveolae play a selective role in modulating the TF-VIIa signaling function without affecting the TF-VIIa coagulant activity. ..
  38. Lam R, Shaw A, Duszyk M. Membrane cholesterol content modulates activation of BK channels in colonic epithelia. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1667:241-8 pubmed
    ..Similar results were obtained with a cholesterol-binding agent, filipin, and with the sphingomyelin-degrading enzyme, sphingomyelinase...
  39. Yancey P, Jerome W, Yu H, Griffin E, Cox B, Babaev V, et al. Severely altered cholesterol homeostasis in macrophages lacking apoE and SR-BI. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:1140-9 pubmed
    ..Both factors are likely to contribute to the accelerated atherosclerosis in DKO mice. ..
  40. Lobie P, Sadir R, Graichen R, Mertani H, Morel G. Caveolar internalization of growth hormone. Exp Cell Res. 1999;246:47-55 pubmed
    ..Disruption of caveolar integrity by sterol-binding agents (filipin, nystatin) partially inhibits internalization of 125I-hGH whereas internalization of hormone is not affected by ..
  41. Munro P, Kojima H, Dupont J, Bossu J, Poulain B, Boquet P. High sensitivity of mouse neuronal cells to tetanus toxin requires a GPI-anchored protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;289:623-9 pubmed
    ..addition, treatment of cultured mouse neuronal cells with cholesterol sequestrating agents such as nystatin and filipin, which disrupt clustering of GPI-anchored proteins in lipid rafts, prevented intraneuronal VAMP cleavage by TeNT...
  42. Karten B, Vance D, Campenot R, Vance J. Cholesterol accumulates in cell bodies, but is decreased in distal axons, of Niemann-Pick C1-deficient neurons. J Neurochem. 2002;83:1154-63 pubmed
    ..b>Filipin staining revealed numerous cholesterol-filled endosomes/lysosomes in NPC1-deficient neurons and the mass of ..
  43. Ferraro J, Daneshmand M, Bizios R, Rizzo V. Depletion of plasma membrane cholesterol dampens hydrostatic pressure and shear stress-induced mechanotransduction pathways in osteoblast cultures. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;286:C831-9 pubmed
    ..pressure- and shear stress-induced signaling were significantly reduced in osteoblasts pre-exposed to either filipin or methyl-beta-cyclodextrin...
  44. Samedova A, Kasumov K. [Mechanism of action of macrolide antibiotic filipin on cell and lipid membranes]. Antibiot Khimioter. 2009;54:44-52 pubmed
    The review deals with investigation of the mechanism of action of macrolide pentaene antibiotic filipin on cell and bilayer lipid membranes (BLM). The sterol hypothesis of the filipin mechanism of action is confirmed experimentally...
  45. Ares G, Ortiz P. Constitutive endocytosis and recycling of NKCC2 in rat thick ascending limbs. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F1193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These are the first data showing an increase in apical membrane NKCC2 in THALs by altering the rates of constitutive NKCC2 trafficking, rather than by stimulation of hormone-dependent signaling. ..
  46. Akaboshi S, Yano T, Miyawaki S, Ohno K, Takeshita K. A C57BL/KsJ mouse model of Niemann-Pick disease (spm) belongs to the same complementation group as the major childhood type of Niemann-Pick disease type C. Hum Genet. 1997;99:350-3 pubmed
    ..was the restoration of a normal intracellular fluorescent pattern in multinucleated cells stained with filipin to demonstrate cholesterol accumulation. These cells can be assigned to two complementation groups...
  47. Walterfang M, Evans A, Fietz M, Velakoulis D. Images in neuroscience: psychosis and vertical supranuclear opthalmoplegia. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:291, 370-1 pubmed
  48. Wakida K, Matsuyama Z, Suzuki Y, Sawada M, Tsurumi H, Kimura A, et al. [Diagnosis of adult type of Niemann-Pick disease (type C) in two brothers by filipin staining of bone marrow smears]. No To Shinkei. 2004;56:1047-53 pubmed
    ..Generally, the diagnosis of NPC is based on deficient cholesterol esterification and excessive lysosomal filipin staining in cultured skin fibroblasts...
  49. Kwok W, Lee S, Culberson C, Korneszczuk K, Clemens M. Caveolin-1 mediates endotoxin inhibition of endothelin-1-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G930-9 pubmed
    ..eNOS activation in LSECs by examining the effect of caveolae disruption using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD) and filipin. Treatment with 5 mM CD for 30 min increased eNOS activity (+255%, P < 0.05). A dose (0...
  50. Rejman J, Bragonzi A, Conese M. Role of clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis in gene transfer mediated by lipo- and polyplexes. Mol Ther. 2005;12:468-74 pubmed
    ..inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (chlorpromazine and K(+) depletion) and of caveolae-mediated uptake (filipin and genistein) on internalization of FITC-poly-l-lysine-labeled DOTAP/DNA lipoplexes and PEI/DNA polyplexes by ..
  51. Wachtler V, Balasubramanian M. Yeast lipid rafts?--an emerging view. Trends Cell Biol. 2006;16:1-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we attempt to synthesize our understanding of the function and organization of these domains from the study of fungi and identify some outstanding issues. ..
  52. Hanot M, Hoarau J, Carriere M, Angulo J, Khodja H. Membrane-dependent bystander effect contributes to amplification of the response to alpha-particle irradiation in targeted and nontargeted cells. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:1247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The global oxidative stress observed after irradiation was significantly attenuated after cells were treated with filipin, evidence for the primal role of membrane in the bystander effect...
  53. Barrias E, Dutra J, De Souza W, Carvalho T. Participation of macrophage membrane rafts in Trypanosoma cruzi invasion process. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;363:828-34 pubmed
    ..through transient depletion of macrophage membrane cholesterol with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and treatment with filipin. These treatments led to a decrease in the trypomastigote invasion process...