Summary: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.

Top Publications

  1. Poudyal D, Le P, Davis T, Hofseth A, Chumanevich A, Chumanevich A, et al. A hexane fraction of American ginseng suppresses mouse colitis and associated colon cancer: anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic mechanisms. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012;5:685-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This study moves us closer to understanding the molecular components of American ginseng that suppress colitis and prevent colon cancer associated with colitis. ..
  2. Manini P, Andreoli R, Mutti A, Bergamaschi E, Franchini I. Determination of free and glucuronated hexane metabolites without prior hydrolysis by liquid- and gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Toxicol Lett. 1999;108:225-31 pubmed
    ..Free' 2,5-HD seems to be both suitable from an analytical point of view and meaningful for biological monitoring purposes, provided that conjugate metabolites are rapidly removed from the body leading to a negligible neurotoxic risk. ..
  3. Qian J, Wang F, Liu S, Yun Z. In situ alkaline transesterification of cottonseed oil for production of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:9009-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The free and total gossypol contents in the cottonseed meal obtained from in situ alkaline transesterification were far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. ..
  4. DeCaprio A, Kinney E, LoPachin R. Comparative covalent protein binding of 2,5-hexanedione and 3-acetyl-2,5-hexanedione in the rat. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:861-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, further studies are required to fully assess the neurotoxic potency of AcHD and other non-cross-linking analogues as compared to HD. ..
  5. White D, Goldman J, Demple B, Levy S. Role of the acrAB locus in organic solvent tolerance mediated by expression of marA, soxS, or robA in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6122-6 pubmed
    ..These findings strongly suggest that active efflux specified by the acrAB locus is linked to intrinsic organic solvent tolerance and to tolerance mediated by the marA, soxS, or robA gene product in E. coli. ..
  6. Pleil J, Stiegel M, Sobus J, Tabucchi S, Ghio A, Madden M. Cumulative exposure assessment for trace-level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using human blood and plasma analysis. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2010;878:1753-60 pubmed publisher
  7. Phinney D, Frelka J, Cooperstone J, Schwartz S, Heldman D. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste. Food Chem. 2017;215:354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Extraction efficiency varied from 32.5% to 94.5%. This study demonstrates a lab scale feasibility to extract lycopene efficiently from tomato processing byproducts. ..
  8. Jang J, Kim H, Kim Y, Hong J, Choi Y, Choi Y, et al. Hexane extract from Uncaria sinensis exhibits anti-apoptotic properties against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured cortical neurons. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30:1465-72 pubmed publisher
  9. García M, Perera W, Scull R, Monzote L. Antileishmanial assessment of leaf extracts from Pluchea carolinensis, Pluchea odorata and Pluchea rosea. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:836-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The antileishmanial experiment suggests that ethanol extracts from P. carolinensis is the most promising. Further studies are still needed to evaluate the potential of this plant as a source of new antileishmanial agents. ..

More Information


  1. Wei W, Lu Y, Chen W, Chen S. One-pot synthesis, photoluminescence, and electrocatalytic properties of subnanometer-sized copper clusters. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:2060-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The Cu nanoclusters displayed apparent luminescence, with dual emissions at 425 and 593 nm, with quantum yields of 3.5 and 0.9%, respectively, and high electrocatalytic activity in the electoreduction of oxygen. ..
  2. Loizzo M, Pugliese A, Bonesi M, De Luca D, O Brien N, Menichini F, et al. Influence of drying and cooking process on the phytochemical content, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties of two bell Capsicum annum L. cultivars. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;53:392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..3 ?g/mL. Our results indicate that C. annuum cultivars Roggiano and Senise have an interestingly potential health benefits not influenced by processes that are used before consumption. ..
  3. Dobish M, Johnston J. Achiral counterion control of enantioselectivity in a Brønsted acid-catalyzed iodolactonization. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:6068-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this way, unsaturated carboxylic acids are converted to ?-lactones in high yields (up to 98% ee) using commercially available NIS...
  4. Bertanha C, Braguine C, Moraes A, Gimenez V, Groppo M, Silva M, et al. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory properties of nor-neolignans from Styrax pohlii. Nat Prod Res. 2012;26:2323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the assayed nor-neolignans, 4 gave a COX-1 inhibition of 35.7% at 30 µM. Compound 5 displayed a COX-2 inhibition of 19.7% at 30 µM...
  5. Teixeira T, Rainha N, Rosa J, Lima E, Baptista J. Molluscicidal activity of crude water and hexane extracts of Hypericum species to snails (Radix peregra). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..undulatum as the main compound. The present study indicates that products from hexane extracts of the Hypericum sp. analyzed may be used as potential molluscicides to control snails responsible for transmitting fasciolosis. ..
  6. Ward K, Stuckey D. Refractive index matching to develop transparent polyaphrons: Characterization of immobilized proteins. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016;142:159-164 pubmed publisher
    ..Isothermal calorimetry further demonstrated that non-ionic surfactant interactions were virtually non-existent, even at the high concentrations used (5% [w/v]), proving that non-ionic surfactants can preserve protein conformation. ..
  7. Chaurasia J, Tripathi Y. Chemical characterization of various fractions of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Linn toward their antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory property. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2011;33:466-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Result showed that CTH was the most active fraction toward these parameters, which was parallel to its eugenol and total phenolic content concentration...
  8. Saravanan M, Ignacimuthu S. Effect of Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R.Br. hexane extract on preadipocytes viability and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2013;6:360-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed properties clearly revealed the medicinal property of I. frutescens in the treatment of obesity. ..
  9. Demeter A, Druzhinin S, Kovalenko S, Senyushkina T, Zachariasse K. Dual fluorescence and ultrafast intramolecular charge transfer with 6-N,N-dialkylaminopurines. A two-state model. J Phys Chem A. 2011;115:1521-37 pubmed publisher
    ..With 6-N-methyl-9-methyladenine (MPURM) and 9-methyladenine (PURM), the fluorescence quantum yield is very low (<5 × 10(-5)) and dominated by impurities, due to enhanced IC from LE to S(0). ..
  10. Li J, Wakui R, Horie M, Nishimura Y, Nishiyama Y, Ikeno Y, et al. Feeding stimulant in Cinnamomum camphora for the common bluebottle, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Z Naturforsch C. 2010;65:571-6 pubmed
    ..Bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexane layer resulted in the isolation of a highly active compound, which was identified as a-linolenic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
  11. Toribio Delgado A, Maynar Mariño M, Caballero Loscos M, Robles Gil M, Olcina Camacho G, Maynar Mariño J. Qualification and quantification of seventeen natural steroids in plasma by GC-Q-MS and GC-IT-MS/MS. J Chromatogr Sci. 2012;50:349-57 pubmed publisher
  12. Muñiz Ramirez A, Flores Cotera L, Perez Gutierrez R. Anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane extract of Byrsonima crassifolia seeds in experimental animal models. Altern Ther Health Med. 2013;19:26-36 pubmed
    ..The anti-inflammatory mechanism of NS may be related to the other isoform (iNOS). ..
  13. Hincapié C, Monsalve Z, Parada K, Lamilla C, Alarcon J, Cespedes C, et al. Insect growth regulatory activity of Blechnum chilense. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:1085-8 pubmed
    ..The dead adult flies exhibited malformations. ..
  14. Kwamen R, Blumich B, Adams A. Estimation of self-diffusion coefficients of small penetrants in semicrystalline polymers using single-sided NMR. Macromol Rapid Commun. 2012;33:943-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also shown for the first time, with demonstration on PE plates several millimeter thick with different aging histories, that one-dimensional profiles of self-diffusion coefficients as a function of depth can be easily obtained. ..
  15. Tel G, Ozturk M, Duru M, Harmandar M, Topcu G. Chemical composition of the essential oil and hexane extract of Salvia chionantha and their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:3189-93 pubmed publisher
    ..1±0.8%) against butyrylcholinesterase enzyme. Hence, the essential oil may be useful as a moderate anticholinesterase agent, particularly against acetylcholinesterase...
  16. Hernandez M, Quijano G, Thalasso F, Daugulis A, Villaverde S, Munoz R. A comparative study of solid and liquid non-aqueous phases for the biodegradation of hexane in two-phase partitioning bioreactors. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010;106:731-40 pubmed publisher
  17. Coutinho H, Matias E, Santos K, Santos F, Morais Braga M, Souza T, et al. Modulation of the norfloxacin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. Biomedica. 2011;31:608-12 pubmed publisher
    ..and Ocimum gratissimum L. can be a source of plant derived products with antibiotic modifier activity. ..
  18. Bauer M, Stalinski T, Aziz E. Insights into the induced ultrafast electron delocalization in Fe(CO)5 using dark channel fluorescence yield X-ray absorption. Chemphyschem. 2011;12:2088-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the dark channel fluorescence yield technique, ultrafast delocalization processes on the femtosecond time-scale yield new insights into the electronic structure. ..
  19. Aly Hassan A, Sorial G. Treatment of dynamic mixture of hexane and benzene vapors in a Trickle Bed Air Biofilter integrated with cyclic adsorption/desorption beds. Chemosphere. 2011;82:521-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The control unit showed very erratic performance highlighting the benefit of the utilization of the cyclic adsorption/desorption beds. The biofilter was more adaptable to concentration changes in benzene than n-hexane. ..
  20. Stief T. Contact activation of coagulation depends on the maximal lipophilic trigger concentration. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2012;23:296-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the action of drugs on the intrinsic system of plasma, plasma should be supplemented with the respective drug at maximal concentrations that are in the range of the maximal blood concentrations obtained in clinical medicine. ..
  21. De D, Ali K, Chatterjee K, Bera T, Ghosh D. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of n-hexane fraction from the hydro-methanolic extract of sepals of Salmalia malabarica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Complement Integr Med. 2012;9:Article 12 pubmed publisher
    ..Phytochemical screening of the fraction revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids...
  22. Chladek G, Barszczewska Rybarek I, Lukaszczyk J. Developing the procedure of modifying the denture soft liner by silver nanoparticles. Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2012;14:23-9 pubmed
    ..Material components with various AgNP concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80, 120 and 200 ppm) have been obtained. Cured samples of the composites have been examined by SEM to confirm the effectiveness of the procedure. ..
  23. Rui F, Marques J, Miller S, Maycock C, Xavier K, Ventura M. Stereochemical diversity of AI-2 analogs modulates quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..65?M) in this organism. Thus, modification at C-5 opens the way to novel methods to manipulate quorum sensing as a method for controlling bacteria. ..
  24. Hu S, Chen S. Adsorption of triazine derivatives with humic fraction-immobilized silica gel in hexane: a mechanistic consideration. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:8524-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Other factors leading to the variation of the percentage of adsorption include the type of liquid phase and the additive of acidic or basic origin present in the matrix. ..
  25. Bonifácio R, Martins L, McCabe C, Filipe E. On the behavior of solutions of xenon in liquid n-alkanes: solubility of xenon in n-pentane and n-hexane. J Phys Chem B. 2010;114:15897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Henry's constants at infinite dilution for xenon + n-pentane and xenon + n-hexane were also calculated by Monte Carlo simulation using a united atom force field to describe the n-alkane and the Widom test particle insertion method. ..
  26. Ahameethunisa A, Hopper W. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2012;11:30 pubmed publisher
    ..The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs. ..
  27. Hernandez M, Quijano G, Munoz R. Key role of microbial characteristics on the performance of VOC biodegradation in two-liquid phase bioreactors. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:4059-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, an independent set of experiments showed that metabolite accumulation can also severely inhibit TLPB performance despite the presence of SO200. ..
  28. Zhao X, Shen J, Chang K, Kim S. Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:6841-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes. ..
  29. Lazreg Aref H, Mars M, Fekih A, Aouni M, Said K. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of a hexane extract of Tunisian caprifig latex from the unripe fruit of Ficus carica. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate an effective in vitro antibacterial activity of the hexane extract of caprifig latex. ..
  30. Estevan C, Ferri F, Sogorb M, Vilanova E. Characterization and evolution of exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Spanish shoemaking industry over a 5-year period. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9:653-62 pubmed
    ..Although n-hexane exposures significantly decreased over the study period, the overall level of VOC exposure did not decrease. More effective exposure prevention measures need to be implemented. ..
  31. Xiao W, Matsuyama S, Ando T, Millar J, Honda H. Unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons synergize responses to sex attractant pheromone in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis. J Chem Ecol. 2012;38:1143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The lowest doses that elicited synergism were 10(-1) female equivalents (of body wax extracts) for the two hydrocarbons, and 10(-2) female equivalents for the total unsaturated hydrocarbon mixture. ..
  32. Abu Bakar N, Makahleh A, Saad B. In-vial liquid-liquid microextraction-capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oils. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;742:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed method shows significant advantages over the current methods as lengthy evaporation step is not required. ..
  33. Yoshida M, Maeyama Y, Al Amin M, Shishido K. Synthesis of substituted 1,4,5,6-tetrahydrocyclopenta[b]pyrroles by platinum-catalyzed cascade cyclization/ring expansion of 2-alkynyl-1-azaspiro[2.3]hexanes. J Org Chem. 2011;76:5813-20 pubmed publisher
    The reaction of 2-alkynyl-1-azaspiro[2.3]hexanes with a platinum catalyst is described...
  34. Zhang J, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Sun D. [Pathology and neurophysiology analysis for peripheral neuropathy of four patients with chemicals poisoning]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2012;30:126-9; discussion 129-30 pubmed
    ..Axonal degeneration and demyelination always coexist in peripheral neuropathy caused by chemicals. ..
  35. Xu X, Zhang J, Chen L, Guo R, Wang D, Yang H. Design and synthesis of branched platinum-acetylide complexes possessing a porphyrin core and their self-assembly behaviour. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:11223-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A series of branched platinum-acetylide porphyrin derivatives were successfully prepared via a modified method and their self-assembly behaviour both in solution and on the surface was explored. ..
  36. Satou C, Goto H, Yamazaki Y, Saitou K, Matsumoto S, Takahashi O, et al. Modified Gas Chromatographic Method to Determine Monoacylglycerol and Diacylglycerol Contents in Edible Fats and Oils. J Oleo Sci. 2017;66:601-606 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative standard deviation of distearin peak areas was 1.8% or 2.9% in the modified method, while it was 5.6% in the AOCS method. In addition, capillary columns, such as DB-1ht and DB-5ht could be used in this method. ..
  37. Vanhaecke L, Vanden Bussche J, Wille K, Bekaert K, De Brabander H. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high-throughput confirmation and quantification of 34 anabolic steroids in bovine muscle. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;700:70-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed analysis is sensitive, and robust and therefore useful for confirmation and quantification of anabolic steroids for research purposes and residue control programs. ..
  38. Lee Y, Chang H, Liu C, Chen M, Chen P, Kuo J, et al. Methyl palmitate: a potent vasodilator released in the retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4746-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Both act primarily on the voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channel of aortic smooth muscle cells, causing aortic relaxation. These results suggest that PAME is the hydrophobic RRF. ..
  39. Castillo M, Gonzalez C, Miralles A. An evaluation method for determination of non-polar pesticide residues in animal fat samples by using dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up and GC-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;400:1315-28 pubmed publisher
    ..It simplifies time-consuming clean-up steps and allows a satisfactory long-term chromatographic performance. ..
  40. Lunn G, Banks B, Crook R, Feeder N, Pettman A, Sabnis Y. Discovery and synthesis of a new class of opioid ligand having a 3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane core. An example of a 'magic methyl' giving a 35-fold improvement in binding. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:4608-11 pubmed publisher
    ..An early example from the series had excellent ? opioid receptor antagonist antagonist activity and was very effective in an in vivo pruritus study. ..
  41. Büsing A, Ternes W. Separation of ?-tocotrienol oxidation products and eight tocochromanols by HPLC with DAD and fluorescence detection and identification of unknown peaks by DAD, PBI-EIMS, FTIR, and NMR. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:2843-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, 5-F?T3 was fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ..
  42. Asiri A, El Daly S, Khan S. Spectral characteristics of 4-(p-N,N-dimethyl-aminophenylmethylene)-2-phenyl-5-oxazolone (DPO) in different media. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2012;95:679-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of SDS and CTAB as well as the binding constants of DPO in micellar solution and ?-cyclodextrin have been also determined. ..
  43. Puente B, Hernandez E, Perez S, Pablo L, Prieto E, Garcia M, et al. Determination of memantine in plasma and vitreous humour by HPLC with precolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr Sci. 2011;49:745-52 pubmed
    ..2 mL/min. The linear range was 10-1000 ng/mL with a quantification limit of ? 10 ng/mL for both types of samples. This analytical method may be suitable for using in ocular availability studies. ..
  44. Doukyu N, Ishikawa K, Watanabe R, Ogino H. Improvement in organic solvent tolerance by double disruptions of proV and marR genes in Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;112:464-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests a new strategy for increasing the organic solvent tolerance level in E. coli to improve the usability of the whole-cell biocatalysts in two-phase systems employing organic solvents. ..
  45. Elbaz G, Elsayad I. Comparison of the antimicrobial effect of Egyptian propolis vs New Zealand propolis on Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in saliva. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2012;10:155-60 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Egyptian propolis vs New Zealand propolis on Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in saliva...
  46. Herbst D, Peper S, Niemeyer B. Enzyme catalysis in organic solvents: influence of water content, solvent composition and temperature on Candida rugosa lipase catalyzed transesterification. J Biotechnol. 2012;162:398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the decrease in conversion and the increase in selectivity with increasing solvent hydrophilicity are induced by the different water contents on the enzyme surface and not by the solvent itself. ..
  47. Mecchi M, Lago J. Chemical constituents derived from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae). Nat Prod Res. 2013;27:1927-9 pubmed publisher
    ..brasiliensis, while compounds 5, 7 and 8 have been reported to occur for the first time in the genus Drimys. The chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds, mainly flavonoids 5-8 in D. brasiliensis, was summarised. ..
  48. Gun ko V, Yurchenko G, Turov V, Goncharuk E, Zarko V, Zabuga A, et al. Adsorption of polar and nonpolar compounds onto complex nanooxides with silica, alumina, and titania. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2010;348:546-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Polar adsorbates can change the structure of aggregates of oxide nanoparticles that can, in turn, affect the results of adsorption measurements. ..
  49. Ribeiro A, Gomes P, Pais L, Rodrigues A. Chiral separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers by preparative and simulated moving bed chromatography. Chirality. 2011;23:602-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Using 40 g/l of racemic flurbiprofen feed solution, the purities for both outlet streams were above 99.4%, the productivity was 13.1 g(feed) /(L(bed) h), and a solvent consumption of 0.41 L(solvent) /g(feed) was achieved. ..
  50. Morel A, Volmant R, Methivier C, Krafft J, Boujday S, Pradier C. Optimized immobilization of gold nanoparticles on planar surfaces through alkyldithiols and their use to build 3D biosensors. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2010;81:304-12 pubmed publisher
  51. Ma J, Xiao R, Li J, Yu J, Zhang Y, Chen L. Determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples by solid-phase extraction using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:5462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) of the method were determined from 2.0 to 8.5ngL(-1). The optimized method was successfully applied to the determination of 16 PAHs in real environmental water samples. ..
  52. Kondo F, Ikai Y, Hayashi R, Okumura M, Takatori S, Nakazawa H, et al. Determination of five phthalate monoesters in human urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;85:92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Women had significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of MBP and MEP than men. The estimated daily exposure levels for the four parent phthalates excluding diisononyl phthalate ranged from 0.27 to 5.69 mug/kg/day (median). ..
  53. Lee S, Asaduzzaman A, Chun B. Characterization of lecithin isolated from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) residues deoiled by supercritical carbon dioxide and organic solvent extraction. J Food Sci. 2012;77:C773-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Lecithin from anchovy contain higher amounts of ?-3 fatty acids especially EPA and DHA, it may have positive outcome to use in food and pharmaceutical industries. ..