Summary: A group of MYCOTOXINS found in CORN contaminated with FUSARIUM fungus. They are chains of about 20 carbons with acidic ester, acetylamino and sometimes other substituents. They inhibit ceramide synthetase conversion of SPHINGOLIPIDS to CERAMIDES.

Top Publications

  1. Giacomo D, Stefania D. A multivariate regression model for detection of fumonisins content in maize from near infrared spectra. Food Chem. 2013;141:4289-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species that commonly live in maize. Whereas fungi damage plants, fumonisins cause disease both to cattle breedings and human beings...
  2. Dilkin P, Direito G, Simas M, Mallmann C, Correa B. Toxicokinetics and toxicological effects of single oral dose of fumonisin B1 containing Fusarium verticillioides culture material in weaned piglets. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;185:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In plasma and urine, the highest Sa and Sa/So ratios were obtained at 12 and 48 h, respectively. ..
  3. Lallès J, Lessard M, Boudry G. Intestinal barrier function is modulated by short-term exposure to fumonisin B? in Ussing chambers. Vet Res Commun. 2009;33:1039-43 pubmed publisher
    ..FB1 did not alter the jejunal absorptive and secretory physiology. In conclusion, 2h-exposure to FB1 tended to increase the trans- cellular permeability and increased para-cellular permeability of pig small intestine. ..
  4. Stępień L, Koczyk G, Waśkiewicz A. Genetic and phenotypic variation of Fusarium proliferatum isolates from different host species. J Appl Genet. 2011;52:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..It produces large amounts of fumonisins, a group of polyketide-derived mycotoxins...
  5. Torelli E, Firrao G, Bianchi G, Saccardo F, Locci R. The influence of local factors on the prediction of fumonisin contamination in maize. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:1808-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were determined and an artificial neural network (ANN) model suitable for ..
  6. Castells M, Marin S, Sanchis V, Ramos A. Distribution of fumonisins and aflatoxins in corn fractions during industrial cornflake processing. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;123:81-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of fumonisins (B(1) B(2,) and B(3)) and total aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) in various corn processed fractions...
  7. Aoyama K, Nakajima M, Tabata S, Ishikuro E, Tanaka T, Norizuki H, et al. Four-year surveillance for ochratoxin a and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan. J Food Prot. 2010;73:344-52 pubmed
    Between 2004 and 2007 we examined foods from Japanese retail shops for contamination with ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3)...
  8. Czéh A, Mandy F, Fehér Tóth S, Torok L, Mike Z, Koszegi B, et al. A flow cytometry based competitive fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (CFIA) system for detecting up to six mycotoxins. J Immunol Methods. 2012;384:71-80 pubmed publisher
    ..CFIA's poly-mycotoxin detection sensitivity exceeds standard ELISA. CFIA may be part of a comprehensive assay system that will provide reliable and effective safeguard for agricultural commodities to be free of mycotoxins. ..
  9. Desjardins A, Busman M, Proctor R, Stessman R. Wheat kernel black point and fumonisin contamination by Fusarium proliferatum. Food Addit Contam. 2007;24:1131-7 pubmed
    ..symptoms of kernel black point; two strains decreased kernel yield; and four strains contaminated kernels with fumonisins B(1), B(2) and B(3) as determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy...

More Information


  1. Heinl S, Hartinger D, Thamhesl M, Vekiru E, Krska R, Schatzmayr G, et al. Degradation of fumonisin B1 by the consecutive action of two bacterial enzymes. J Biotechnol. 2010;145:120-9 pubmed publisher
    ..g. in ensilaged forage or in the intestinal tract of animals...
  2. Sørensen L, Mogensen J, Nielsen K. Simultaneous determination of ochratoxin A, mycophenolic acid and fumonisin B(2) in meat products. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;398:1535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In the contaminated Parma ham, the high OTA level most likely originated from growth of Penicillium nordicum on the meat. ..
  3. Dall Asta C, Falavigna C, Galaverna G, Dossena A, Marchelli R. In vitro digestion assay for determination of hidden fumonisins in maize. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:12042-7 pubmed publisher
    Hidden fumonisins have received great attention in the last years as they have been frequently found in maize products in addition to the free forms...
  4. Wan L, Turner P, El Nezami H. Individual and combined cytotoxic effects of Fusarium toxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins B1) on swine jejunal epithelial cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;57:276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter observation in particular raises concerns over safety margins based on single toxin species, and suggests that the effects of multiple complex mixtures need to be better understood to assess health risks. ..
  5. Abdel Wahhab M, Hassan N, El Kady A, Khadrawy Y, El Nekeety A, Mohamed S, et al. Red ginseng extract protects against aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins-induced hepatic pre-cancerous lesions in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:733-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, treatment with GE after the administration of the mycotoxins was found to be more effective. It could be concluded that GE has a protective effects as pre-cancerous lesions and therapeutic effects as well. ..
  6. Mogensen J, Frisvad J, Thrane U, Nielsen K. Production of Fumonisin B2 and B4 by Aspergillus niger on grapes and raisins. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:954-8 pubmed publisher
    ..niger is a frequent contaminant. Here we investigate the potential production of fumonisins in A. niger cultured on grapes and raisins. Sixty-six A. niger, 4 A. tubingensis, and 16 A...
  7. Frisvad J, Smedsgaard J, Samson R, Larsen T, Thrane U. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:9727-32 pubmed
    ..Whereas F. verticillioides produced fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 on agar media based on plant extracts, such as barley malt, oat, rice, potatoes, and carrots, A...
  8. Streit E, Schatzmayr G, Tassis P, Tzika E, Marin D, Taranu I, et al. Current situation of mycotoxin contamination and co-occurrence in animal feed--focus on Europe. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:788-809 pubmed publisher
    ..Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation)...
  9. Han Z, Ren Y, Liu X, Luan L, Wu Y. A reliable isotope dilution method for simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in traditional Chinese medicines by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci. 2010;33:2723-33 pubmed publisher
    ..3%) and precision (RSD?12.3%). Finally, the validated method was successfully applied to the determination of fumonisins in different traditional Chinese medicines. Of 35 samples, 18 were contaminated with fumonisins...
  10. Lazzaro I, Falavigna C, Dall Asta C, Proctor R, Galaverna G, Battilani P. Fumonisins B, A and C profile and masking in Fusarium verticillioides strains on fumonisin-inducing and maize-based media. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;159:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..990 as favourable condition in ITEM 10026 and ITEM 10027. All fumonisins were maximised at 30days incubation in ITEM 10027 and ITEM 1744 and at 45days incubation in ITEM 10026...
  11. Sharma R, Thakur R, Senthilvel S, Nayak S, Reddy S, Rao V, et al. Identification and characterization of toxigenic fusaria associated with sorghum grain mold complex in India. Mycopathologia. 2011;171:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Some species of Fusarium involved in grain mold complex produce mycotoxins, such as fumonisins. An attempt was made to identify Fusarium spp...
  12. Kimanya M, De Meulenaer B, Baert K, Tiisekwa B, Van Camp J, Samapundo S, et al. Exposure of infants to fumonisins in maize-based complementary foods in rural Tanzania. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53:667-74 pubmed publisher
    Feeding children with maize may expose them to fumonisins (FBs)...
  13. Muller S, Dekant W, Mally A. Fumonisin B1 and the kidney: modes of action for renal tumor formation by fumonisin B1 in rodents. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:3833-46 pubmed publisher
  14. Mansson M, Klejnstrup M, Phipps R, Nielsen K, Frisvad J, Gotfredsen C, et al. Isolation and NMR characterization of fumonisin B2 and a new fumonisin B6 from Aspergillus niger. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:949-53 pubmed publisher
    ..niger was not possible. ..
  15. Mogensen J, Nielsen K, Samson R, Frisvad J, Thrane U. Effect of temperature and water activity on the production of fumonisins by Aspergillus niger and different Fusarium species. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:281 pubmed publisher
    b>Fumonisins are economically important mycotoxins which until recently were considered to originate from only a few Fusarium species...
  16. Covarelli L, Stifano S, Beccari G, Raggi L, Lattanzio V, Albertini E. Characterization of Fusarium verticillioides strains isolated from maize in Italy: fumonisin production, pathogenicity and genetic variability. Food Microbiol. 2012;31:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..F.verticillioides is a highly toxigenic species since it is able to produce the carcinogenic mycotoxins fumonisins. In this study, 25 F...
  17. Susca A, Proctor R, Mulè G, Stea G, Ritieni A, Logrieco A, et al. Correlation of mycotoxin fumonisin B2 production and presence of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene fum8 in Aspergillus niger from grape. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:9266-72 pubmed publisher
    ..niger from an important food crop. The results suggest that the absence of FB2 production in grape isolates of A. niger can result from the absence of at least one gene essential for production. ..
  18. Jakšić S, Abramović B, Jajić I, Baloš M, Mihaljev Z, Despotović V, et al. Co-occurrence of fumonisins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and maize harvested in Serbia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;89:615-9 pubmed publisher
    A survey was undertaken to determine total fumonisins (FUMs) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat and maize. Out of 75 wheat samples, 50.7% contained FUMs in the span from 27 to 614 ng/g, while 65...
  19. Burger H, Lombard M, Shephard G, Rheeder J, van der Westhuizen L, Gelderblom W. Dietary fumonisin exposure in a rural population of South Africa. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..where fumonisin exposure is below the recommended group provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins of 2 microg kg(-1)bw day(-1)...
  20. Gaspardo B, Del Zotto S, Torelli E, Cividino S, Firrao G, Della Riccia G, et al. A rapid method for detection of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn meal using Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy implemented with integrating sphere. Food Chem. 2012;135:1608-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that FT-NIR analysis is a suitable method to detect FB(1)+FB(2) in corn meal and to discriminate safe meals from those contaminated. ..
  21. Lin S, Martin R, Mongrand S, Vandenabeele S, Chen K, Jang I, et al. RING1 E3 ligase localizes to plasma membrane lipid rafts to trigger FB1-induced programmed cell death in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2008;56:550-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that RING1 acts as a signal from the plasma membrane lipid rafts to trigger the FB1-induced plant programmed cell death pathway. ..
  22. Woloshuk C, Shim W. Aflatoxins, fumonisins, and trichothecenes: a convergence of knowledge. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2013;37:94-109 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, these fungi produce aflatoxins, fumonisins, and trichothecenes, respectively, which threaten health and food security worldwide...
  23. Jurado M, Marín P, Callejas C, Moretti A, Vazquez C, Gonzalez Jaen M. Genetic variability and Fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum. Food Microbiol. 2010;27:50-7 pubmed publisher
    Fusarium proliferatum is together with Fusarium verticillioides the main source of fumonisins, a health risk mycotoxin, contaminating agro-products. Contrary to F...
  24. Tardieu D, Bailly J, Skiba F, Grosjean F, Guerre P. Toxicokinetics of fumonisin B1 in turkey poults and tissue persistence after exposure to a diet containing the maximum European tolerance for fumonisins in avian feeds. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight hours after the last intake of 20mg FB1+FB2/kg feed (maximum recommended concentration of fumonisins established by the EU for avian feed), hepatic and renal FB1 concentrations were 119 and 22microg/kg, level in ..
  25. Myung K, Li S, Butchko R, Busman M, Proctor R, Abbas H, et al. FvVE1 regulates biosynthesis of the mycotoxins fumonisins and fusarins in Fusarium verticillioides. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:5089-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the role of the veA homologue, FvVE1, on the production of two mycotoxin families, fumonisins and fusarins, in the important corn pathogen Fusarium verticillioides ...
  26. Knudsen P, Mogensen J, Larsen T, Nielsen K. Occurrence of fumonisins B(2) and B(4) in retail raisins. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:772-6 pubmed publisher
    Concerns that raisins may be contaminated by fumonisins stem from the persistent occurrence of Aspergillus niger spores on raisins and the recent discovery of fumonisin production by A...
  27. Glenn A, Zitomer N, Zimeri A, Williams L, Riley R, Proctor R. Transformation-mediated complementation of a FUM gene cluster deletion in Fusarium verticillioides restores both fumonisin production and pathogenicity on maize seedlings. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:87-97 pubmed
    ..However, a distinct population of F. verticillioides is pathogenic on banana and does not produce fumonisins. Fumonisin-producing strains from maize cause leaf lesions, developmental abnormalities, stunting, and sometimes ..
  28. Stockmann Juvala H, Alenius H, Savolainen K. Effects of fumonisin B(1) on the expression of cytokines and chemokines in human dendritic cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:1444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study indicate that FB(1) has an impact on the expression of cytokines and chemokines in human DC, and in addition to its other toxic effects, FB(1) may also be potentially immunotoxic to humans. ..
  29. Azaiez I, Meca G, Manyes L, Luciano F, Fernandez Franzón M. Study of the chemical reduction of the fumonisins toxicity using allyl, benzyl and phenyl isothiocyanate in model solution and in food products. Toxicon. 2013;63:137-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Fumonisins (FBs) are bioactive compounds produced by several strains of Fusarium spp. which contain a polyketide structure similar to sphinganine...
  30. Rocha L, Nakai V, Braghini R, Reis T, Kobashigawa E, Correa B. Mycoflora and co-occurrence of fumonisins and aflatoxins in freshly harvested corn in different regions of Brazil. Int J Mol Sci. 2009;10:5090-103 pubmed publisher
    Natural mycoflora and co-occurrence of fumonisins (FB(1), FB(2)) and aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1) and AFG(2)) in freshly harvested corn grain samples from four regions of Brazil were investigated...
  31. Devriendt B, Gallois M, Verdonck F, Wache Y, Bimczok D, Oswald I, et al. The food contaminant fumonisin B(1) reduces the maturation of porcine CD11R1(+) intestinal antigen presenting cells and antigen-specific immune responses, leading to a prolonged intestinal ETEC infection. Vet Res. 2009;40:40 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate an FB(1)-mediated reduction of in vivo APC maturation. ..
  32. Stępień L, Koczyk G, Waśkiewicz A. FUM cluster divergence in fumonisins-producing Fusarium species. Fungal Biol. 2011;115:112-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Fumonisins are polyketide-derived mycotoxins, produced by several Fusarium species, and its biosynthetic pathway is controlled by the FUM cluster--a group of genes exhibiting a common expression pattern during fumonisin biosynthesis...
  33. Marin D, Gouze M, Taranu I, Oswald I. Fumonisin B1 alters cell cycle progression and interleukin-2 synthesis in swine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51:1406-12 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these data suggest that FB1 may affect immune functions by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation and IL2 production, suggesting a possible role of FB1 exposure during infectious disease and cancer. ..
  34. Proctor R, Busman M, Seo J, Lee Y, Plattner R. A fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster in Fusarium oxysporum strain O-1890 and the genetic basis for B versus C fumonisin production. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008;45:1016-26 pubmed publisher
    Most species of Fusarium that produce fumonisin mycotoxins produce predominantly B fumonisins (FBs). However, Fusarium oxysporum strain O-1890 produces predominantly C fumonisins (FCs)...
  35. Stoev S, Gundasheva D, Zarkov I, Mircheva T, Zapryanova D, Denev S, et al. Experimental mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs provoked by a mouldy diet containing ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2012;64:733-41 pubmed publisher
  36. Khayoon W, Saad B, Salleh B, Ismail N, Abdul Manaf N, Abdul Latiff A. A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in food and feed using monolithic column and positive confirmation by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;679:91-7 pubmed publisher
    ..35 (78:22, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The fumonisins separation was achieved in about 4 min, compared to approximately 20 min by using a C(18) particle-packed column...
  37. Kimanya M, De Meulenaer B, Tiisekwa B, Ndomondo Sigonda M, Devlieghere F, Van Camp J, et al. Co-occurrence of fumonisins with aflatoxins in home-stored maize for human consumption in rural villages of Tanzania. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008;25:1353-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Samples of the 2005 maize harvest in Tanzania were collected from 120 households and examined for fumonisins and aflatoxins...
  38. Theumer M, Cánepa M, Lopez A, Mary V, Dambolena J, Rubinstein H. Subchronic mycotoxicoses in Wistar rats: assessment of the in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity induced by fumonisins and aflatoxin B(1), and oxidative stress biomarkers status. Toxicology. 2010;268:104-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the extent of DNA damage assessed by the comet assay suggests a possible protective effect of the fumonisins-AFB(1) mixtures in vitro against the genotoxicity induced individually by the toxins.
  39. Delgado J, Wolt J. Fumonisin B(1) and implications in nursery swine productivity: a quantitative exposure assessment. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:3767-77 pubmed publisher
    ..e., LOC1) of FB(1) toxicity; however, impacts on production efficiency remain uncertain. ..
  40. Klarić M, Cvetnić Z, Pepeljnjak S, Kosalec I. Co-occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, and zearalenone in cereals and feed, determined by competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thin-layer chromatography. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2009;60:427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEA) are found in food and feed in a wide range of concentrations, depending on ..
  41. Kim H, Smith J, Ridenour J, Woloshuk C, Bluhm B. HXK1 regulates carbon catabolism, sporulation, fumonisin B? production and pathogenesis in Fusarium verticillioides. Microbiology. 2011;157:2658-69 pubmed publisher
    ..verticillioides, and thus provides a new foothold from which the genetic regulatory networks that underlie pathogenesis and mycotoxigenesis can be unravelled and defined. ..
  42. Varga J, Kocsubé S, Suri K, Szigeti G, Szekeres A, Varga M, et al. Fumonisin contamination and fumonisin producing black Aspergilli in dried vine fruits of different origin. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;143:143-9 pubmed publisher
    Aspergillus niger isolates are able to produce fumonisins in high quantities on agar media with a low water activity. Several agricultural products fit this criterion, including dried vine fruits, dates and figs...
  43. Tardieu D, Bailly J, Benlashehr I, Auby A, Jouglar J, Guerre P. Tissue persistence of fumonisin B1 in ducks and after exposure to a diet containing the maximum European tolerance for fumonisins in avian feeds. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;182:239-44 pubmed publisher
  44. Soares C, Calado T, Venancio A. Mycotoxin production by Aspergillus niger aggregate strains isolated from harvested maize in three Portuguese regions. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2013;30:9-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the mycotoxins commonly associated with maize are fumonisins and ochratoxin A. Aspergillus niger is a known producer of ochratoxin A and is easily found in maize...
  45. Kim H, Woloshuk C. Role of AREA, a regulator of nitrogen metabolism, during colonization of maize kernels and fumonisin biosynthesis in Fusarium verticillioides. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008;45:947-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support the hypothesis that FB(1) biosynthesis is regulated by AREA. Also the failure to produce FB(1) in blister kernels is due to high pH conditions generated because of an unfavorable carbon/nitrogen environment. ..
  46. González Pereyra M, Pereyra C, Ramirez M, Rosa C, Dalcero A, Cavaglieri L. Determination of mycobiota and mycotoxins in pig feed in central Argentina. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2008;46:555-61 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the mycobiota and natural levels of aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone present in compound feed and home-corn grains intended for fattening pigs. Total fungi, Fusarium and Aspergillus species occurrence were examined...
  47. Jurado M, Marín P, Magan N, Gonzalez Jaen M. Relationship between solute and matric potential stress, temperature, growth, and FUM1 gene expression in two Fusarium verticillioides strains from Spain. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:2032-6 pubmed publisher
  48. Heinl S, Hartinger D, Thamhesl M, Schatzmayr G, Moll W, Grabherr R. An aminotransferase from bacterium ATCC 55552 deaminates hydrolyzed fumonisin B?. Biodegradation. 2011;22:25-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we suggest the novel enzyme to be part of the fumonisin catabolic pathway of the bacterium ATCC 55552. ..
  49. Cai Q, Tang L, Wang J. Validation of fumonisin biomarkers in F344 rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;225:28-39 pubmed
    b>Fumonisins (FNs) are ubiquitous contaminants of cereal grains. Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) was linked to several animal and human diseases...
  50. Bansal J, Pantazopoulos P, Tam J, Cavlovic P, Kwong K, Turcotte A, et al. Surveys of rice sold in Canada for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011;28:767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid chromatographic methods in two different years...
  51. Visentin I, Montis V, Doll K, Alabouvette C, Tamietti G, Karlovsky P, et al. Transcription of genes in the biosynthetic pathway for fumonisin mycotoxins is epigenetically and differentially regulated in the fungal maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:252-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This epigenetic regulation can be attained through the modulation of histone acetylation at the level of the promoter regions of the key biosynthetic genes FUM1 and FUM21, but less so for FUM8. ..
  52. Saucedo García M, Guevara García A, González Solís A, Cruz García F, Vázquez Santana S, Markham J, et al. MPK6, sphinganine and the LCB2a gene from serine palmitoyltransferase are required in the signaling pathway that mediates cell death induced by long chain bases in Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 2011;191:943-57 pubmed publisher
  53. Waskiewicz A, Golinski P, Karolewski Z, Irzykowska L, Bocianowski J, Kostecki M, et al. Formation of fumonisins and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium oxysporum and F. proliferatum: a comparative study. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010;27:608-15 pubmed publisher
    The principal aim of this study was to estimate the formation of fumonisins (FB(1) and FB(2)), moniliformin (MON), and ergosterol (ERG) by Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium proliferatum, while the formation of beauvericin (BEA) was ..