taurolithocholic acid


Summary: A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.

Top Publications

  1. Woudenberg Vrenken T, Buist Homan M, Conde de la Rosa L, Faber K, Moshage H. Anti-oxidants do not prevent bile acid-induced cell death in rat hepatocytes. Liver Int. 2010;30:1511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to the bile acids glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) or taurolithocholic acid-3 sulphate in the absence or presence of ROS scavengers or anti-oxidants...
  2. Beuers U, Denk G, Soroka C, Wimmer R, Rust C, Paumgartner G, et al. Taurolithocholic acid exerts cholestatic effects via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanisms in perfused rat livers and rat hepatocyte couplets. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17810-8 pubmed
    b>Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) is a potent cholestatic agent...
  3. Beuers U, Probst I, Soroka C, Boyer J, Kullak Ublick G, Paumgartner G. Modulation of protein kinase C by taurolithocholic acid in isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatology. 1999;29:477-82 pubmed
    ..The hydrophobic and cholestatic bile acid, taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), acts as a potent Ca++ agonist in isolated hepatocytes...
  4. Denk G, Maitz S, Wimmer R, Rust C, Invernizzi P, Ferdinandusse S, et al. Conjugation is essential for the anticholestatic effect of NorUrsodeoxycholic acid in taurolithocholic acid-induced cholestasis in rat liver. Hepatology. 2010;52:1758-68 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was used to induce a predominantly hepatocellular cholestasis in IPRL...
  5. Graf D, Kurz A, Fischer R, Reinehr R, Haussinger D. Taurolithocholic acid-3 sulfate induces CD95 trafficking and apoptosis in a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent manner. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:1411-27 pubmed
    ..The effect of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) on taurolithocholic acid-3 sulfate (TLCS)-induced apoptosis was studied in cultured rat hepatocytes...
  6. Adachi Y, Kobayashi H, Shouji M, Kitano M, Okuyama Y, Yamamoto T. Functional integrity of hepatocyte canalicular membrane transport of taurocholate and bilirubin diglucuronide in Eisai hyperbilirubinuria rats. Life Sci. 1993;52:777-84 pubmed
    ..Biliary excretion of taurolithocholic acid sulfate (TLCS) is defective in EHBR...
  7. Duguay A, Plaa G. Ketone potentiation of intrahepatic cholestasis: effect of two aliphatic isomers. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1997;50:41-52 pubmed
    ..present study reports that exposure to both ketones can potentiate cholestasis experimentally induced by taurolithocholic acid (TLC, 30 mumol/kg) or by a combination of manganese (Mn, 4.5 mg/kg) and bilirubin (BR, 25 mg/kg)...
  8. Zhang X, Bera T, Liang W, Fang J. Longitudinal zipping/unzipping of self-assembled organic tubes. J Phys Chem B. 2011;115:14445-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We synthesize a smart organic tube by the coassembly of lithocholic acid (LCA) and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) in aqueous solution...
  9. Herold B, Kirkpatrick R, Marcellino D, Travelstead A, Pilipenko V, Krasa H, et al. Bile salts: natural detergents for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:745-51 pubmed
    ..We found that taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate and a combination of glycocholic acid and taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate showed excellent ..

More Information


  1. Graf D, Reinehr R, Kurz A, Fischer R, Haussinger D. Inhibition of taurolithocholate 3-sulfate-induced apoptosis by cyclic AMP in rat hepatocytes involves protein kinase A-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;415:34-42 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that cAMP inhibits bile acid-induced apoptosis via PKA-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  2. Dahlström King L, Du Souich P, Couture J, Plaa G. The influence of severity of bile flow reduction, cycloheximide, and methyl isobutyl ketone pretreatment on the kinetics of taurolithocholic acid disposition in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990;104:312-21 pubmed
    Pretreatment of rats with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) potentiates the effect of taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) on bile flow, while cycloheximide pretreatment diminishes the cholestatic response...
  3. Duguay A, Plaa G. Plasma concentrations in methyl isobutyl ketone-potentiated experimental cholestasis after inhalation or oral administration. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1993;21:222-7 pubmed
    In studies of methyl isobutyl ketone (MiBK)-potentiated cholestasis induced by taurolithocholic acid (TLC) or manganese-bilirubin (Mn-BR) combinations, MiBK is usually given by gavage whereas industrial exposure to MiBK normally occurs ..
  4. Karimian G, Buist Homan M, Mikus B, Henning R, Faber K, Moshage H. Angiotensin II protects primary rat hepatocytes against bile salt-induced apoptosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52647 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a mechanism for the observed hepatocyte-toxicity of Sartans (angiotensin receptor blockers, ARBs) in some patients with chronic liver injury. ..
  5. Fuentes Broto L, Miana Mena F, Piedrafita E, Berzosa C, Martínez Ballarín E, García Gil F, et al. Melatonin protects against taurolithocholic-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:1219-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bile acids. Taurolithocholic acid (TLC) was revealed in previous studies as the most pro-oxidative bile acid...
  6. Becker S, Reinehr R, Grether Beck S, Eberle A, Haussinger D. Hydrophobic bile salts trigger ceramide formation through endosomal acidification. Biol Chem. 2007;388:185-96 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that changes in ion homeostasis underlie the stimulation of ceramide formation in response to hydrophobic bile acids as an important upstream event of bile salt-induced apoptosis. ..
  7. Milkiewicz P, Roma M, Elias E, Coleman R. Hepatoprotection with tauroursodeoxycholate and beta muricholate against taurolithocholate induced cholestasis: involvement of signal transduction pathways. Gut. 2002;51:113-9 pubmed
    ..The hepatoprotective effects of DBcAMP involved Ca(2+) mobilisation, but not PKC or PKA activation. ..
  8. Hu M, Zhang H, Fu Q, Qin T, Liu C, Wang Y, et al. Functional role of MicroRNA-19b in acinar cell necrosis in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2016;36:221-225 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, to further explore the role of miR-19b in ANP in vitro, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate disodium salt (TLC-S) (200 ?mol/L) was administrated to treat the rat pancreatic acinar cell ..
  9. Voronina S, Barrow S, Simpson A, Gerasimenko O, Da Silva Xavier G, Rutter G, et al. Dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP levels in pancreatic acinar cells. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1976-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterized the effects of these agents on ATP levels in the cytosol and mitochondria...
  10. Reinehr R, Becker S, Keitel V, Eberle A, Grether Beck S, Haussinger D. Bile salt-induced apoptosis involves NADPH oxidase isoform activation. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:2009-31 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that hydrophobic bile salts activate NADPH oxidase isoforms with the resulting oxidative stress response triggering activation of the CD95 system and apoptosis. ..
  11. Kitada H, Miyata M, Nakamura T, Tozawa A, Honma W, Shimada M, et al. Protective role of hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase in lithocholic acid-induced liver toxicity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17838-44 pubmed
    ..with liver toxicity marker activities, serum and liver levels of bile acids, particularly LCA and taurolithocholic acid, were clearly higher in wild-type mice than in FXR-null mice after 1% LCA supplement...
  12. Cheng K, Chen Y, Zimniak P, Raufman J, Xiao Y, Frucht H. Functional interaction of lithocholic acid conjugates with M3 muscarinic receptors on a human colon cancer cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1588:48-55 pubmed
    ..This suggests a mechanism whereby alterations in intestinal bile acids may affect the growth of colon cancer cells. ..
  13. Thibault N, Maurice M, Maratrat M, Cordier A, Feldmann G, Ballet F. Effect of tauroursodeoxycholate on actin filament alteration induced by cholestatic agents. A study in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets. J Hepatol. 1993;19:367-76 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in these experimental conditions, the protective effect of TUDC appears to be partial. ..
  14. Boucherie S, Koukoui O, Nicolas V, Combettes L. Cholestatic bile acids inhibit gap junction permeability in rat hepatocyte couplets and normal rat cholangiocytes. J Hepatol. 2005;42:244-51 pubmed
    ..Cholestatic, but not choleretic bile acids inhibit the PGJC in cells able to accumulate bile acids. This inhibition might contribute to the cholestatic effect of these bile acids. ..
  15. Alpini G, Ueno Y, Glaser S, Marzioni M, Phinizy J, Francis H, et al. Bile acid feeding increased proliferative activity and apical bile acid transporter expression in both small and large rat cholangiocytes. Hepatology. 2001;34:868-76 pubmed
    ..BA-stimulated ABAT expression was dependent on PKC activation in cholangiocytes. TC and TLC stimulate proliferation of small and large cholangiocytes associated with PKC-dependent up-regulation of ABAT. ..
  16. Raufman J, Zimniak P, Bartoszko Malik A. Lithocholyltaurine interacts with cholinergic receptors on dispersed chief cells from guinea pig stomach. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:G997-1004 pubmed
    ..Half-maximal inhibition of [3H]NMS binding was observed with approximately 0.5 mM carbachol and 1 mM LCT. These results indicate that the bile acid LCT is a partial agonist for muscarinic cholinergic receptors on gastric chief cells...
  17. Døving K, Hansson K, Backström T, Hamdani E. Visualizing a set of olfactory sensory neurons responding to a bile salt. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:80-7 pubmed publisher
  18. Tachizawa H, Sano N, Takikawa H. Effects of colchicine on the maximum biliary excretion of cholephilic compounds in rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;19:1016-22 pubmed
    ..The vesicular targeting of the multidrug resistance protein 2 and the P-glycoprotein to the canalicular membrane is considered to be colchicine insensitive in the absence of bile acid coadministration. ..
  19. Gebhardt R. Anticholestatic activity of flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and of their metabolites. Med Sci Monit. 2001;7 Suppl 1:316-20 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that artichoke leaf extracts exert a potent anticholestatic action at least in the case of taurolithocholate-induced cholestasis. Flavonoids and their metabolites may contribute significantly to this effect. ..
  20. Reinehr R, Haussinger D. Inhibition of bile salt-induced apoptosis by cyclic AMP involves serine/threonine phosphorylation of CD95. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:249-62 pubmed
    ..CD95 regulation involves complex phosphorylations with CD95-tyrosine phosphorylation favoring CD95 membrane trafficking and DISC formation, whereas CD95 Ser/Thr phosphorylation inhibits these processes. ..
  21. Voronina S, Barrow S, Gerasimenko O, Petersen O, Tepikin A. Effects of secretagogues and bile acids on mitochondrial membrane potential of pancreatic acinar cells: comparison of different modes of evaluating DeltaPsim. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27327-38 pubmed
    ..Bile acids are considered possible triggers of acute pancreatitis. The bile acids taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate, taurodeoxycholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, at low submillimolar concentrations, ..
  22. Tanaka H, Sano N, Takikawa H. Biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats. Pharmacology. 2003;68:177-82 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that phenolphthalein sulfate is a unique sulfated nonbile acid organic anion which is a substrate of Mrp2. ..
  23. Fang Z, He R, Cao Y, Tanaka N, Jiang C, Krausz K, et al. A model of in vitro UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inhibition by bile acids predicts possible metabolic disorders. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:3334-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) exhibited the strongest inhibition toward UGTs, followed by lithocholic acid...
  24. Schonhoff C, Yamazaki A, Hohenester S, Webster C, Bouscarel B, Anwer M. PKC{epsilon}-dependent and -independent effects of taurolithocholate on PI3K/PKB pathway and taurocholate uptake in HuH-NTCP cell line. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G1259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that TLC-induced inhibition of PKB, but not of TC uptake, is mediated via nPKCepsilon. Activation of nPKCepsilon and inhibition of TC uptake by TLC are not mediated via the PI3K/PKB pathway. ..
  25. Crocenzi F, Mottino A, Sánchez Pozzi E, Pellegrino J, Rodriguez Garay E, Milkiewicz P, et al. Impaired localisation and transport function of canalicular Bsep in taurolithocholate induced cholestasis in the rat. Gut. 2003;52:1170-7 pubmed
    ..Taurolithocholate impairs bile salt secretion at the canalicular level. Bsep internalisation may be a causal factor which can be prevented by dibutyryl-cAMP. ..
  26. Ma B, Wu L, Lu M, Gao B, Qiao X, Sun B, et al. Differentially expressed kinase genes associated with trypsinogen activation in rat pancreatic acinar cells treated with taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate. Mol Med Rep. 2013;7:1591-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, AR42J rat pancreatic acinar cells were treated with taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S), and trypsinogen activation was detected with bis-(CBZ-L-isoleucyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine ..
  27. Smídková M, Spundová M, Marecek Z, Entlicher G. Effect of drugs on cholesterol crystallization in an artificial bile model and relation of this effect to drug binding to albumin. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2003;17:331-9 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these experiments we could classify drugs into four groups which differ by their effects on spectral characteristics of complexes. ..
  28. Green A, Stratton R, Squires P, Simpson A. Atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates elevations in Ca2+ and protects hepatocytes by stimulating net plasma membrane Ca2+ efflux. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34542-54 pubmed
    ..Moreover we propose that plasma membrane Ca(2+) efflux is a valuable, previously undiscovered, mechanism through which atrial natriuretic peptide protects rat hepatocytes, and perhaps other cell types, against Ca(2+)-dependent injury. ..
  29. Holm R, Nicolajsen H, Hartvig R, Westh P, Ostergaard J. Complexation of tauro- and glyco-conjugated bile salts with three neutral beta-CDs studied by ACE. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:3745-52 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that displacement of drug substances from beta-CD inclusion complexes is likely to occur in the small intestine where BS are present potentially influencing drug bioavailability. ..
  30. Keitel V, Gorg B, Bidmon H, Zemtsova I, Spomer L, Zilles K, et al. The bile acid receptor TGR5 (Gpbar-1) acts as a neurosteroid receptor in brain. Glia. 2010;58:1794-805 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that TGR5 is a novel neurosteroid receptor in brain with implications for the pathogenesis of HE. ..
  31. Carvalho A, Sousa R, Franco A, Costa J, Neves L, Ribeiro R, et al. Protective effects of fucoidan, a P- and L-selectin inhibitor, in murine acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2014;43:82-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute pancreatitis was induced in mice either by the retrograde infusion of taurolithocholic acid sulfate into the pancreatic duct or by intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 ?g/kg per hour)...
  32. Velez Z, Hubbard P, Welham K, Hardege J, Barata E, Canario A. Identification, release and olfactory detection of bile salts in the intestinal fluid of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2009;195:691-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The main bile salts identified in the bile were taurocholic acid (342 mM) and taurolithocholic acid (271 mM) plus a third, unidentified, bile salt of 532.3 Da...
  33. Li Z, Lu M, Chu J, Qiao X, Meng X, Sun B, et al. Early proteome analysis of rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells treated with taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate. Pancreatology. 2012;12:248-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aims to determine the differentially expressed proteins in taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells as an in vitro model for acute pancreatitis...
  34. Akita H, Suzuki H, Ito K, Kinoshita S, Sato N, Takikawa H, et al. Characterization of bile acid transport mediated by multidrug resistance associated protein 2 and bile salt export pump. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1511:7-16 pubmed
    ..These results can be accounted for by assuming that the sulfated bile acids trans-inhibit the Bsep-mediated transport of TC. ..
  35. Voronina S, Longbottom R, Sutton R, Petersen O, Tepikin A. Bile acids induce calcium signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells: implications for bile-induced pancreatic pathology. J Physiol. 2002;540:49-55 pubmed
    The effect of the natural bile acid, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S), on calcium signalling in pancreatic acinar cells has been investigated...
  36. Pusl T, Vennegeerts T, Wimmer R, Denk G, Beuers U, Rust C. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces bile acid-induced apoptosis by modulation of AP-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;367:208-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that reversal of bile acid-induced AP-1 activation may be relevant for the antiapoptotic effect of TUDCA in liver cells. ..
  37. Sasamoto T, Sano N, Takikawa H. Biliary excretion of sulfated bile acids and organic anions in zone 1- and zone 3-injured rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:26-31 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that zone 3 is important for the biliary excretion of substrates of multidrug resistance protein 2. ..
  38. Perides G, Van Acker G, Laukkarinen J, Steer M. Experimental acute biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde infusion of bile acids into the mouse pancreatic duct. Nat Protoc. 2010;5:335-41 pubmed publisher
    ..With practice and gentle technique, the surgery (from induction of anesthesia to completion of the infusion) can be completed within 25 min per animal. ..
  39. Dietrich A, Dieminger W, Fuchte K, Stoll G, Schlitz E, Gerok W, et al. Functional significance of interaction of H-FABP with sulfated and nonsulfated taurine-conjugated bile salts in rat liver. J Lipid Res. 1995;36:1745-55 pubmed
    ..In intracellular transport of taurine-conjugated bile salts, several cytosolic polypeptides may have a function, whereas, in transport of taurine-conjugated 3 alpha-sulfato bile salts, only H-FABP appears to be involved. ..
  40. Gerasimenko J, Flowerdew S, Voronina S, Sukhomlin T, Tepikin A, Petersen O, et al. Bile acids induce Ca2+ release from both the endoplasmic reticulum and acidic intracellular calcium stores through activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors and ryanodine receptors. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:40154-63 pubmed
    ..important for the cellular damage in pancreatitis, we have studied the mechanisms by which the bile acid taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S) liberates Ca(2+)...
  41. Fischer L, Gukovskaya A, Penninger J, Mareninova O, Friess H, Gukovsky I, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase facilitates bile acid-induced Ca(2+) responses in pancreatic acinar cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G875-86 pubmed
    ..cells, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K with LY-294002 or wortmannin inhibited [Ca(2+)](i) responses to taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S) and taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC)...
  42. Sasaki M, Suzuki H, Ito K, Abe T, Sugiyama Y. Transcellular transport of organic anions across a double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cell monolayer expressing both human organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP2/SLC21A6) and Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2). J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6497-503 pubmed
    ..The double-transfected MDCK II monolayer expressing both OATP2 and MRP2 may be used to analyze the hepatic vectorial transport of organic anions and to screen the transport profiles of new drug candidates. ..
  43. Mannack G, Graf D, Donner M, Richter L, Gorg B, vom Dahl S, et al. Taurolithocholic acid-3 sulfate impairs insulin signaling in cultured rat hepatocytes and perfused rat liver. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2008;21:137-50 pubmed publisher
    The role of bile acids for insulin resistance in cholestatic liver disease is unknown. The effect of taurolithocholic acid-3 sulfate (TLCS) on insulin signaling was studied in cultured rat hepatocytes and perfused rat liver...
  44. Linsdell P, Hanrahan J. Substrates of multidrug resistance-associated proteins block the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;126:1471-7 pubmed
    ..6. These results also suggest that the related proteins CFTR and MRP may share a structurally similar anion binding site at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane...
  45. Döring B, Lütteke T, Geyer J, Petzinger E. The SLC10 carrier family: transport functions and molecular structure. Curr Top Membr. 2012;70:105-68 pubmed publisher
  46. Kida T, Tsubosaka Y, Hori M, Ozaki H, Murata T. Bile acid receptor TGR5 agonism induces NO production and reduces monocyte adhesion in vascular endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:1663-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In bovine aortic endothelial cells, treatment with a bile acid having a high affinity to TGR5, taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), significantly increased NO production...
  47. Hamdani E, Døving K. Sensitivity and selectivity of neurons in the medial region of the olfactory bulb to skin extract from conspecifics in crucian carp, Carassius carassius. Chem Senses. 2003;28:181-9 pubmed
    ..Stimulation with nucleotides, amino acids and taurolithocholic acid did not induce firing of the type I units of the posterior part of the medial region of the olfactory bulb...
  48. Gebhardt R. Prevention of taurolithocholate-induced hepatic bile canalicular distortions by HPLC-characterized extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves. Planta Med. 2002;68:776-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that artichoke leaf extracts exert a potent anticholestatic action at least in the case of taurolithocholate. This effect may contribute to the overall hepatoprotective influence of this herbal formulation. ..
  49. Hoque R, Sohail M, Malik A, Sarwar S, Luo Y, Shah A, et al. TLR9 and the NLRP3 inflammasome link acinar cell death with inflammation in acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:358-69 pubmed publisher
    ..a TLR9 antagonist before induction of acute pancreatitis by caerulein or retrograde bile duct infusion of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate. Caspase-1, ASC, and NLRP3 were required for inflammation in acute pancreatitis...
  50. Muili K, Wang D, Orabi A, Sarwar S, Luo Y, Javed T, et al. Bile acids induce pancreatic acinar cell injury and pancreatitis by activating calcineurin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The bile acid taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate (TLCS) was primarily used to examine bile acid responses...
  51. Raufman J, Chen Y, Cheng K, Compadre C, Compadre L, Zimniak P. Selective interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors: a case of molecular mimicry. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;457:77-84 pubmed
    ..We propose that bile acids are signaling molecules whose effects may be mediated by interaction with muscarinic receptors. ..
  52. Hansson K, Døving K, Skjeldal F. Mixed input to olfactory glomeruli from two subsets of ciliated sensory neurons does not impede relay neuron specificity in the crucian carp. J Exp Biol. 2015;218:3257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in relation to the emerging concepts about non-mammalian glomeruli. ..
  53. Verkade H, Wolbers M, Havinga R, Uges D, Vonk R, Kuipers F. The uncoupling of biliary lipid from bile acid secretion by organic anions in the rat. Gastroenterology. 1990;99:1485-92 pubmed
    ..This study shows a comparison of the effects of ampicillin (18 mumol/100g body wt), sulfated taurolithocholic acid (0.2 and 1.0 mumol/100 g body wt), and indocyanine green (0...