taurodeoxycholic acid


Summary: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.

Top Publications

  1. Muhlbauer M, Allard B, Bosserhoff A, Kiessling S, Herfarth H, Rogler G, et al. Differential effects of deoxycholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid on NF-kappa B signal transduction and IL-8 gene expression in colonic epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;286:G1000-8 pubmed
    ..CEC line HT-29 and primary human CECs were treated with dilutions of salts of deoxycholic acid (DCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA)...
  2. Bourbon Freie A, Dub R, Xiao X, Lowe M. Trp-107 and trp-253 account for the increased steady state fluorescence that accompanies the conformational change in human pancreatic triglyceride lipase induced by tetrahydrolipstatin and bile salt. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the results suggest that the conformation of PTL in solution differs significantly from the conformation in crystals. ..
  3. Perrone E, Liu L, Turner D, Strauch E. Bile salts increase epithelial cell proliferation through HuR-induced c-Myc expression. J Surg Res. 2012;178:155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased enterocyte exposure to luminal bile salts, as occurs during critical illness, liver failure, starvation, and intestinal injury, may have a detrimental effect on mucosal integrity. ..
  4. Hardison W, Dalle Molle E, Gosink E, Lowe P, Steinbach J, Yamaguchi Y. Function of rat hepatocyte tight junctions: studies with bile acid infusions. Am J Physiol. 1991;260:G167-74 pubmed
    ..Cations efflux more readily than anions, and within this group efflux rate is inversely related to molecular weight. The data confirm the size and charge selectivity of biliary tree permeability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  5. Jin H, Lämsä T, Nordback P, Hyvönen M, Grigorenko N, Khomutov A, et al. Association between remote organ injury and tissue polyamine homeostasis in acute experimental pancreatitis - treatment with a polyamine analogue bismethylspermine. Pharmacol Rep. 2011;63:999-1008 pubmed
    ..However, Me(2)Spm could not ameliorate multi-organ injury. Me(2)Spm administration was associated with significant renal toxicity and induced mortality, suggesting that the current dose is too high and needs to be modified. ..
  6. Xie Q, Li G, Zhou X, Liao D, Yu H, Guo Q. [Effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic acid on cytochrome C-mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2003;11:298-301 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) on Taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA)-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis and to clarify the molecular mechanism of its anti-apoptosis effect of TUDCA...
  7. Lin E, Lin K, Chang C, Hsieh M. On-line sample preconcentration by sweeping and poly(ethylene oxide)-mediated stacking for simultaneous analysis of nine pairs of amino acid enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis. Talanta. 2013;114:297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..This method was successfully used to determine d-Tryptophan (Trp), l-Trp, d-Phenylalanine (Phe), l-Phe, d-Glutamic acid (Glu), and l-Glu in various types of beers. ..
  8. Crandall W, Lowe M. Colipase residues Glu64 and Arg65 are essential for normal lipase-mediated fat digestion in the presence of bile salt micelles. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12505-12 pubmed
    ..PTL complexes, that bile salt micelles influence that binding, and that the proper interaction of colipase with PTL requires the Glu(64)/Arg(65) binding site. ..
  9. Lin J, Nakagawa M, Uchiyama K, Hobo T. Comparison of three different anionic surfactants for the separation of hydrophobic compounds by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2002;23:421-5 pubmed
    ..Separations of all selected uncharged hydrophobic compounds, e.g., p-arylacetophones were shown to be strongly dependent on the kind of surfactant. The electrolyte containing 180 mM SDS provided the best result for the selected samples. ..

More Information


  1. Zhou Y, Dial E, Doyen R, Lichtenberger L. Effect of indomethacin on bile acid-phospholipid interactions: implication for small intestinal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G722-31 pubmed publisher
    ..gastric AGS and intestinal IEC-6 cells and found that combinations of bile acid, deoxycholic acid (DC), taurodeoxycholic acid, glycodeoxycholic acid, and the NSAID indomethacin (Indo) significantly increased cell plasma membrane ..
  2. Khafagy E, Morishita M, Isowa K, Imai J, Takayama K. Effect of cell-penetrating peptides on the nasal absorption of insulin. J Control Release. 2009;133:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data demonstrate that L-penetratin markedly increased the permeability of insulin across the nasal membrane without causing detectable damage to the integrity of cells in the nasal respiratory mucosa. ..
  3. Graf D, Kurz A, Fischer R, Reinehr R, Haussinger D. Taurolithocholic acid-3 sulfate induces CD95 trafficking and apoptosis in a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent manner. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:1411-27 pubmed
    ..JNK activation may be important for bile acid-induced apoptosis by triggering ligand-independent CD95 surface trafficking and activation of apoptosis. ..
  4. Kullak Ublick G, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Schteingart C, Hofmann A, Wolkoff A, et al. Molecular and functional characterization of an organic anion transporting polypeptide cloned from human liver. Gastroenterology. 1995;109:1274-82 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, its additional localization in a variety of extrahepatic tissues suggests that it plays a fundamental role in overall transepithelial organic anion transport of the human body. ..
  5. Tiss A, Carriere F, Verger R. Effects of gum arabic on lipase interfacial binding and activity. Anal Biochem. 2001;294:36-43 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, GA, or a putative contaminant present in GA, was found to be surface active and to have similar effects to those of bile salts on the interfacial binding and activity of HPL. ..
  6. Perrone E, Chen C, Longshore S, Okezie O, Warner B, Sun C, et al. Dietary bile acid supplementation improves intestinal integrity and survival in a murine model. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:1256-65 pubmed publisher
    In vitro supplementation of the bile salt, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), has been shown to stimulate proliferation and prevent intestinal apoptosis in IEC-6 cells...
  7. Takikawa Y, Miyoshi H, Rust C, Roberts P, Siegel R, Mandal P, et al. The bile acid-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway inhibits Fas apoptosis upstream of bid in rodent hepatocytes. Gastroenterology. 2001;120:1810-7 pubmed
    ..The TCDC/PI 3-K survival signal blocks Fas-mediated apoptosis by preventing caspase 8 activation and Bid mitochondrial translocation. Potentiation of this survival pathway in cholestasis has the potential to attenuate liver injury. ..
  8. Artusi M, Santi P, Colombo P, Junginger H. Buccal delivery of thiocolchicoside: in vitro and in vivo permeation studies. Int J Pharm. 2003;250:203-13 pubmed
    ..The fast dissolving (sublingual) form resulted in a quick uptake of 0.5 mg of thiocolchicoside within 15 min whereas with the adhesive buccal form the same dose can be absorbed over an extended period of time. ..
  9. Camarota L, Chapman J, Hui D, Howles P. Carboxyl ester lipase cofractionates with scavenger receptor BI in hepatocyte lipid rafts and enhances selective uptake and hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters from HDL3. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27599-606 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that carboxyl ester lipase plays a physiological role in hepatic selective uptake and metabolism of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters by direct and indirect interactions with the scavenger receptor BI pathway. ..
  10. Creveld L, Meijberg W, Berendsen H, Pepermans H. DSC studies of Fusarium solani pisi cutinase: consequences for stability in the presence of surfactants. Biophys Chem. 2001;92:65-75 pubmed
    ..Improvement of the stability of cutinase with respect to both surfactants and thermal denaturation, should thus be directed toward the prevention of exposure of hydrophobic patches in the early intermediate. ..
  11. Hişmioğullari A, Hismiogullari S, Rahman K. Isolation and biochemical analysis of vesicles from taurohyodeoxycholic acid-infused isolated perfused rat livers. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:6228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant changes in biliary lipids were observed in the fractions from THDC-infused livers; however, PDE activity was significantly increased compared to the control livers. ..
  12. Antonilli M, Bottari E, Festa M. Taurocholate and taurodeoxycholate: gel formation and protonation constants. Ann Chim. 2007;97:39-48 pubmed
    ..00 mol dm(-3) NaCl, as ionic medium. The obtained protonation constants had the following values: log k1 = 0.07+/- 0.02 for TC and log k'1 = 1.60 +/- 0.03 for TDC. ..
  13. Alrefai W, Saksena S, Tyagi S, Gill R, Ramaswamy K, Dudeja P. Taurodeoxycholate modulates apical Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco2 cells. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:1270-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our studies provide direct evidence for inhibition of human intestinal apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity by bile acids via Ca(2+)-, PI3 kinase-, and PKC beta I-dependent pathways in Caco2 cells. ..
  14. Ejima D, Ono K, Tsumoto K, Arakawa T, Eto Y. A novel "reverse screening" to identify refolding additives for activin-A. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;47:45-51 pubmed
    ..TDCA among others is proved to be a highly effective refolding additive. These results strongly suggest that reverse screening using native proteins, if available, may be another approach to discovering effective refolding additives. ..
  15. Voronina S, Barrow S, Gerasimenko O, Petersen O, Tepikin A. Effects of secretagogues and bile acids on mitochondrial membrane potential of pancreatic acinar cells: comparison of different modes of evaluating DeltaPsim. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27327-38 pubmed
    ..The bile acids taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate, taurodeoxycholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, at low submillimolar concentrations, induced mitochondrial depolarization,..
  16. Strauch E, Bass B, Rao J, Vann J, Wang J. NF-kappaB regulates intestinal epithelial cell and bile salt-induced migration after injury. Ann Surg. 2003;237:494-501 pubmed
    ..Bile salts at physiologic concentrations increase cell migration by activation of NF-kappa B. These data show that bile salts may have a role in the maintenance of intestinal mucosal integrity. ..
  17. Kubitz R, Sütfels G, Kühlkamp T, Kölling R, Haussinger D. Trafficking of the bile salt export pump from the Golgi to the canalicular membrane is regulated by the p38 MAP kinase. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:541-53 pubmed
    ..Trafficking of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) to the canalicular membrane was investigated in HepG2 cells and rat hepatocytes...
  18. Frijters C, Tuijn C, Ottenhoff R, Zegers B, Groen A, Elferink R. The role of different P-glycoproteins in hepatobiliary secretion of fluorescently labeled short-chain phospholipids. J Lipid Res. 1999;40:1950-8 pubmed
    ..These data confirm that the efficiency of NBD-SM extraction depends on the lipid composition and suggest that the canalicular membrane outer leaflet of Mdr2 -/- mice has a reduced PC content. ..
  19. Oelberg D, Wang L, Sackman J, Adcock E, Lester R, Dubinsky W. Bile salt-induced calcium fluxes in artificial phospholipid vesicles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;937:289-99 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that bile salts promote calcium uptake by a mechanism which may be similar to those of other carboxylic ionophores. ..
  20. Dunphy D, Garcia F, Jiang Z, Strzalka J, Wang J, Brinker C. X-ray characterization of self-assembled long-chain phosphatidylcholine/bile salt/silica mesostructured films with nanoscale homogeneity. Chem Commun (Camb). 2011;47:1806-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Phase diagrams for NaTDC/didecanoyl phosphatidylcholine/SiO(2) and NaTDC/egg phosphatidylcholine/SiO(2) films were investigated through grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering at a synchrotron source. ..
  21. Czerny B, Teister M, Juzyszyn Z, Kaminski A, Pawlik A. Effect of tamoxifen and raloxifene on the conjugation of bile acids with taurine and glycine in ovariectomized rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2006;58:435-8 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study suggest that tamoxifen and raloxifene increase the concentrations of conjugated bile acids in bile. ..
  22. Xu Y, Khaoustov V, Wang H, Yu J, Tabassam F, Yoffe B. Freeze-dried grape powder attenuates mitochondria- and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in liver cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:9324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms of FDGP effects, cells were treated with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL); taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA); thapsigargin (TG), to induce cell apoptosis through death receptor-, mitochondria-, or ER-mediated ..
  23. Carubbi F, Guicciardi M, Concari M, Loria P, Bertolotti M, Carulli N. Comparative cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects of taurohyodeoxycholic acid (THDCA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) in HepG2 cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1580:31-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that bile acid molecules with a similar degree of hydrophilicity may show different cytotoxic and cytoprotective properties. ..
  24. Shant J, Cheng K, Marasa B, Wang J, Raufman J. Akt-dependent NF-kappaB activation is required for bile acids to rescue colon cancer cells from stress-induced apoptosis. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:432-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a mechanism whereby bile acids increase resistance of colon cancer to chemotherapy and radiation. ..
  25. Ben Bacha A, Fendri A, Gargouri Y, Mejdoub H, Miled N. Proteolytic cleavage of ostrich and turkey pancreatic lipases: production of an active N-terminal domain. Pancreas. 2007;35:e55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations are, however, needed to identify key residues involved in substrate recognition responsible for biochemical differences between the 2 classes of lipases...
  26. Khurana S, Yamada M, Wess J, Kennedy R, Raufman J. Deoxycholyltaurine-induced vasodilation of rodent aorta is nitric oxide- and muscarinic M(3) receptor-dependent. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;517:103-10 pubmed
    ..In advanced liver disease, interaction of serum bile acids with endothelial muscarinic receptors may explain nitric oxide overproduction in the systemic circulation and resulting peripheral arterial vasodilation. ..
  27. Oude Elferink R, Ottenhoff R, van Wijland M, Frijters C, Van Nieuwkerk C, Groen A. Uncoupling of biliary phospholipid and cholesterol secretion in mice with reduced expression of mdr2 P-glycoprotein. J Lipid Res. 1996;37:1065-75 pubmed
    ..The extent to which cholesterol is secreted via this mechanism may depend on the hydrophobicity (i.e., cholesterol-solubilizing capacity) of the secreted bile salt. ..
  28. Okolo C, Wong T, Moody M, Nguyen T. Effects of bile acids on dog pancreatic duct epithelial cell secretion and monolayer resistance. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;283:G1042-50 pubmed
    ..In nontransformed cultured dog PDEC, which express many ion transport pathways of PDEC, 1 mM taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) stimulated an (125)I(-) efflux inhibited by DIDS and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (..
  29. Mühlfeld S, Domanova O, Berlage T, Stross C, Helmer A, Keitel V, et al. Short-term feedback regulation of bile salt uptake by bile salts in rodent liver. Hepatology. 2012;56:2387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors had an additive effect, whereas Erk1/2 (extracellular signal activated kinase 1/2), p38MAPK, protein phosphatase 1/2A (PP1/2A), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved...
  30. Selvam S, Andrews M, Mishra A. A photophysical study on the role of bile salt hydrophobicity in solubilizing amphotericin B aggregates. J Pharm Sci. 2009;98:4153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of steady state fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence lifetimes studies suggest that the interaction between AmB (hydrophobic heptaene face) and bile salts (hydrophobic steroidal face) is essentially hydrophobic. ..
  31. Baumgartner U, Baier P, Schoffel U, Farthmann E. Colchicine inhibits taurodeoxycholate transport in pericentral but not in periportal hepatocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1539:218-24 pubmed
  32. Hartmann G, Cheung A, Piquette Miller M. Inflammatory cytokines, but not bile acids, regulate expression of murine hepatic anion transporters in endotoxemia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;303:273-81 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, cytokines are key mediators in regulating hepatic expression of anion transporters in inflammatory cholestasis, whereas bile acids likely play a minor role. ..
  33. Fang Y, Studer E, Mitchell C, Grant S, Pandak W, Hylemon P, et al. Conjugated bile acids regulate hepatocyte glycogen synthase activity in vitro and in vivo via Galphai signaling. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:1122-8 pubmed
  34. Lamireau T, Zoltowska M, Levy E, Yousef I, Rosenbaum J, Tuchweber B, et al. Effects of bile acids on biliary epithelial cells: proliferation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine secretion. Life Sci. 2003;72:1401-11 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, TC, a major biliary acid in human bile, stimulated secretion of cytokines involved in the inflammatory and fibrotic processes occurring during cholestatic liver diseases. ..
  35. Reiner J, Phinney K, Keller J. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma and serum Standard Reference Materials using independent analytical methods. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:2899-907 pubmed publisher
    ..The nominal mass interference from taurodeoxycholic acid, which has caused over estimation of the amount of PFOS in biological samples, was separated from PFOS ..
  36. Hata Y, Ota S, Kawabe T, Terano A, Razandi M, Ivey K. Bile salts stimulate mucous glycoprotein secretion from cultured rabbit gastric mucosal cells. J Lab Clin Med. 1994;124:395-400 pubmed
    ..Bile salts stimulated mucous glycoprotein secretion from cultured rabbit gastric mucosal cells. This effect occurred independently of changes in endogenous PGE2 or extracellular Ca2+ concentrations. ..
  37. Thibault N, Maurice M, Maratrat M, Cordier A, Feldmann G, Ballet F. Effect of tauroursodeoxycholate on actin filament alteration induced by cholestatic agents. A study in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets. J Hepatol. 1993;19:367-76 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in these experimental conditions, the protective effect of TUDC appears to be partial. ..
  38. Leveau P, Wang X, Sun Z, Börjesson A, Andersson E, Andersson R. Severity of pancreatitis-associated gut barrier dysfunction is reduced following treatment with the PAF inhibitor lexipafant. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;69:1325-31 pubmed
    ..The findings imply that PAF plays a critical role in the development of pancreatitis-associated gut barrier dysfunction and that PAF antagonist in some forms may represent potential candidates for future therapeutic intervention. ..
  39. Song I, Choi M, Jin Q, Shim W, Shim C. Increased affinity to canalicular P-gp via formation of lipophilic ion-pair complexes with endogenous bile salts is associated with mw threshold in hepatobiliary excretion of quaternary ammonium compounds. Pharm Res. 2010;27:823-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of lipophilic ion-pair complexes with bile salts, followed by stronger binding to canalicular P-gp, appears to accelerate biliary excretion of QACs with a high Mw. ..
  40. Lopez Font I, Gea Sorlí S, de Madaria E, Gutierrez L, Perez Mateo M, Closa D. Pancreatic and pulmonary mast cells activation during experimental acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:3411-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, lung mast cells are not directly involved in the inflammatory response related to pancreatic damage. ..
  41. Jin H, Lamsa T, Nordback P, Hyvonen M, Raty S, Nordback I, et al. Polyamine catabolism in relation to trypsin activation and apoptosis in experimental acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2011;11:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The beneficial effect of polyamine supplementation on necrosis in taurodeoxycholate pancreatitis may rather be mediated by other mechanisms than amelioration of trypsin activation. and IAP. ..
  42. Piessen G, Jonckheere N, Vincent A, Hemon B, Ducourouble M, Copin M, et al. Regulation of the human mucin MUC4 by taurodeoxycholic and taurochenodeoxycholic bile acids in oesophageal cancer cells is mediated by hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha. Biochem J. 2007;402:81-91 pubmed
    ..These results bring new insights into MUC4 up-regulation in oesophageal carcinoma associated with bile reflux...
  43. Song K, Chung S, Shim C. Enhanced intestinal absorption of salmon calcitonin (sCT) from proliposomes containing bile salts. J Control Release. 2005;106:298-308 pubmed
  44. Baumgartner U, Baier P, Mappes H, Farthmann E. Pericentral hepatocytes translocate hydrophilic bile acids more rapidly than hydrophobic ones. Dig Dis Sci. 2001;46:2098-103 pubmed
    ..Therefore, different or additional translocation pathways for bile acids may be involved in periportal versus pericentral cells. ..
  45. Aromataris E, Castro J, Rychkov G, Barritt G. Store-operated Ca(2+) channels and Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) are targets for the actions of bile acids on liver cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:874-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here using whole cell patch clamp experiments with H4-IIE liver cells that taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and other choleretic bile acids reversibly activate an inwardly-rectifying current with ..
  46. Vinokurova L, Valitova E, Trubitsyna I, Shustova S, Iashina N, Tkachenko E. [Impairment of humoral regulation of exocrine pancreatic function in chronic pancreatitis]. Ter Arkh. 2007;79:44-8 pubmed
    ..Decreased threshold of nociceptors activation in simultaneous enhancement of afferent nociceptive flows may entail pain syndrome in CP. ..
  47. Liang G, Choi K, Badjah Hadj Ahmed A, AlOthman Z, Chung D. Highly sensitive chiral analysis of amino acids by in-line single drop microextraction and capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;677:37-42 pubmed publisher
    ..When a microstirrer was customized to the CE instrument several thousand-fold enrichments could be obtained with LODs in the low picomolar range of 1-3 pM. ..
  48. Funasaki N, Fukuba M, Hattori T, Ishikawa S, Okuno T, Hirota S. Micelle formation of bile salts and zwitterionic derivative as studied by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Chem Phys Lipids. 2006;142:43-57 pubmed
    ..The chemical shift changes of several protons of CHAPS and NaTC in the micellar state are close to each other, but are different from those of NaTDC. This finding is consistent with the difference in their micellar structures. ..
  49. Lim H, Kim S, Lee W. Isolation of cholesterol-lowering lactic acid bacteria from human intestine for probiotic use. J Vet Sci. 2004;5:391-5 pubmed
    ..as probiotic strains to use through the bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity assay by using MRS media added taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and the cholesterol-lowering test by using soluble cholesterol containing MRS broth...
  50. Fang Y, Han S, Mitchell C, Gupta S, Studer E, Grant S, et al. Bile acids induce mitochondrial ROS, which promote activation of receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling pathways in rat hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2004;40:961-71 pubmed
    ..DCA and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) (100 micromol/L) caused activation of ERBB1, insulin receptor, and the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways in ..
  51. Yamaguchi J, Toledo A, Bass B, Celeste F, Rao J, Wang J, et al. Taurodeoxycholate increases intestinal epithelial cell proliferation through c-myc expression. Surgery. 2004;135:215-21 pubmed
    ..This effect is at least partially mediated through a c-myc-dependent mechanism. Bile salts can have a beneficial effect on the intestinal mucosa. ..
  52. Martinez Diez M, Serrano M, Monte M, Marin J. Comparison of the effects of bile acids on cell viability and DNA synthesis by rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1500:153-60 pubmed
    ..contrast, the ability to inhibit radiolabeled thymidine incorporation into DNA was only slightly lower for taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) than for DCA...
  53. Schagger H, Von Jagow G. Blue native electrophoresis for isolation of membrane protein complexes in enzymatically active form. Anal Biochem. 1991;199:223-31 pubmed
    ..g., separation of radioactively labeled membrane proteins, N-terminal protein sequencing, preparation of proteins for immunization, and diagnostic studies of inborn neuromuscular diseases. ..