taurocholic acid


Summary: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.

Top Publications

  1. Pereda J, Escobar J, Sandoval J, Rodriguez J, Sabater L, Pallardo F, et al. Glutamate cysteine ligase up-regulation fails in necrotizing pancreatitis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:1599-609 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism would abrogate a rapid recovery of glutathione levels. ..
  2. Sorg J, Sonenshein A. Chenodeoxycholate is an inhibitor of Clostridium difficile spore germination. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1115-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that chenodeoxycholate inhibits the germination of C. difficile spores in response to cholate and taurocholate...
  3. Wheeldon L, Worthington T, Hilton A, Elliott T, Lambert P. Physical and chemical factors influencing the germination of Clostridium difficile spores. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:2223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the influence of chemical and physical factors on the rate and extent of germination of Clostridium difficile spores...
  4. Beuling E, Kerkhof I, Nicksa G, Giuffrida M, Haywood J, aan de Kerk D, et al. Conditional Gata4 deletion in mice induces bile acid absorption in the proximal small intestine. Gut. 2010;59:888-95 pubmed publisher
  5. Ramirez N, Liggins M, Abel Santos E. Kinetic evidence for the presence of putative germination receptors in Clostridium difficile spores. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, comparing calculated kinetic parameters with intestinal concentrations of the two germinants suggests a mechanism for the preferential germination of C. difficile spores in antibiotic-treated individuals. ..
  6. Burns D, Heap J, Minton N. SleC is essential for germination of Clostridium difficile spores in nutrient-rich medium supplemented with the bile salt taurocholate. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:657-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, fewer R20291 spores germinated, indicating that there are differences in both sporulation and germination between these epidemic and nonepidemic C. difficile isolates. ..
  7. Jemnitz K, Veres Z, Vereczkey L. Contribution of high basolateral bile salt efflux to the lack of hepatotoxicity in rat in response to drugs inducing cholestasis in human. Toxicol Sci. 2010;115:80-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in rats, the higher rate of basolateral bile salt efflux represents an additional protective mechanism in cholestasis, which contributes to species differences in response to hepatotoxic drugs...
  8. Devkota S, Wang Y, Musch M, Leone V, Fehlner Peach H, Nadimpalli A, et al. Dietary-fat-induced taurocholic acid promotes pathobiont expansion and colitis in Il10-/- mice. Nature. 2012;487:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..wadsworthia. When mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with taurocholic acid, but not with glycocholic acid, for example, a bloom of B...
  9. Saeki T, Munetaka Y, Ueda K, Iwami K, Kanamoto R. Effects of Ala substitution for conserved Cys residues in mouse ileal and hepatic Na+-dependent bile acid transporters. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007;71:1865-72 pubmed
    ..two Cys residues in mouse Slc10a2 (Cys(51) and Cys(106)) the replacement of which by Ala remarkably reduces taurocholic acid (TCA) transport...

More Information


  1. Sorg J, Sonenshein A. Bile salts and glycine as cogerminants for Clostridium difficile spores. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2505-12 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile spores but prevented the growth of vegetative C. difficile. A model of resistance to C. difficile colonization mediated by the normal bacterial flora is proposed...
  2. Ramm G, Shepherd R, Hoskins A, Greco S, Ney A, Pereira T, et al. Fibrogenesis in pediatric cholestatic liver disease: role of taurocholate and hepatocyte-derived monocyte chemotaxis protein-1 in hepatic stellate cell recruitment. Hepatology. 2009;49:533-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapies aimed at neutralizing MCP-1 or bile acids may help reduce fibro-obliterative liver injury in childhood cholestatic diseases. ..
  3. Saeki T, Mizushima S, Ueda K, Iwami K, Kanamoto R. Mutational analysis of uncharged polar residues and proline in the distal one-third (Thr130-Pro142) of the highly conserved region of mouse Slc10a2. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:1535-40 pubmed
    ..in the distal one-third of this region in mouse Slc10a2 (mSlc10a2) were submitted to mutational analysis, and taurocholic acid uptake and cell surface localization were evaluated...
  4. Franco Pons N, Gea SorlĂ­ S, Closa D. Release of inflammatory mediators by adipose tissue during acute pancreatitis. J Pathol. 2010;221:175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the areas of fat necrosis are important sources of inflammatory mediators. ..
  5. Sorg J, Sonenshein A. Inhibiting the initiation of Clostridium difficile spore germination using analogs of chenodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4983-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these compounds resist 7?-dehydroxylation by Clostridium scindens, a core member of the normal human colonic microbiota, suggesting that they are more stable than chenodeoxycholate in the colonic environment. ..
  6. Boaglio A, Zucchetti A, Sanchez Pozzi E, Pellegrino J, Ochoa J, Mottino A, et al. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway is involved in estradiol 17?-D-glucuronide-induced cholestasis: complementarity with classical protein kinase C. Hepatology. 2010;52:1465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the biliary secretory failure induced by E(2)17G through sustained internalization of canalicular transporters endocytosed via cPKC. ..
  7. Jemnitz K, Veres Z, Szabo M, Baranyai Z, Jakab F, Vereczkey L. Differential inhibitory effect of cyclosporin A and bosentan on taurocholate uptake in human and rat hepatocytes as a function of culturing time. Toxicol In Vitro. 2012;26:174-81 pubmed publisher
  8. Huang Y, Li W, Jia L, Qiu J, Jiang S, Ou Y, et al. Infliximab enhances the therapeutic effectiveness of octreotide on acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rat model. Pancreas. 2012;41:849-54 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Infliximab could significantly lower the serum biochemical indicator, improve organs' function, and enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of octreotide on ANP. ..
  9. Howerton A, Ramirez N, Abel Santos E. Mapping interactions between germinants and Clostridium difficile spores. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:274-82 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile spore germination. In conclusion, C. difficile spores recognize both amino acids and taurocholate through multiple interactions that are required to bind the germinants and/or activate the germination machinery. ..
  10. Martinez Becerra P, Briz O, Romero M, Macias R, Perez M, Sancho Mateo C, et al. Further characterization of the electrogenicity and pH sensitivity of the human organic anion-transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;79:596-607 pubmed publisher
    ..both using oocytes and CHO cells, extracellular acidification affected differently the specific transport of taurocholic acid (TCA) and estradiol 17?-d-glucuronide (E(2)17?G) by Oatp1a1 (stimulation), OATP1B1 (inhibition), and OATP1B3 (..
  11. Segersvard R, Tsai J, Herrington M, Wang F. Obesity alters cytokine gene expression and promotes liver injury in rats with acute pancreatitis. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..AP was induced in lean and obese Zucker rats by pancreatic infusion of taurocholic acid. All survivors were killed 8 h later...
  12. Mariette C, Piessen G, Leteurtre E, Hemon B, Triboulet J, Van Seuningen I. Activation of MUC1 mucin expression by bile acids in human esophageal adenocarcinomatous cells and tissues is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Surgery. 2008;143:58-71 pubmed
    ..Bile acids induce MUC1 mucin overexpression in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells and tissues by activating its transcription through a process involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. ..
  13. Wu T, Bound M, Standfield S, Jones K, Horowitz M, Rayner C. Effects of taurocholic acid on glycemic, glucagon-like peptide-1, and insulin responses to small intestinal glucose infusion in healthy humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E718-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the effects of intrajejunal taurocholic acid (TCA) on blood glucose, GLP-1, and insulin responses to jejunal glucose infusion in healthy men...
  14. Morel D, Frossard J, Cikirikcioglu B, Tapponnier M, Pastor C. Time course of lung injury in rat acute pancreatitis. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32:1872-80 pubmed
    ..We then studied the severity of acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury over 18h in rats that had taurocholic acid injection in the pancreatic duct and determined whether blood collected from rats with pancreatitis is toxic ..
  15. Mita S, Suzuki H, Akita H, Hayashi H, Onuki R, Hofmann A, et al. Inhibition of bile acid transport across Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1) and bile salt export pump (ABCB 11)-coexpressing LLC-PK1 cells by cholestasis-inducing drugs. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:1575-81 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that such coexpressing cells can provide a useful system for the identification of inhibitors of these two transport systems, including potential drug candidates. ..
  16. Balakrishnan A, Wring S, Polli J. Interaction of native bile acids with human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT): influence of steroidal hydroxylation pattern and C-24 conjugation. Pharm Res. 2006;23:1451-9 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that bile acid binding to hASBT may be the rate-limiting step in the apical transport of bile acids. ..
  17. Vaquero E, Gukovsky I, Zaninovic V, Gukovskaya A, Pandol S. Localized pancreatic NF-kappaB activation and inflammatory response in taurocholate-induced pancreatitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;280:G1197-208 pubmed
    ..Correlation between localized NF-kappaB activation, cytokine upregulation, and tissue damage suggests a key role for NF-kappaB in the development of the inflammatory response of acute pancreatitis...
  18. Hahm J, Mun G, Lee H, Eun C, Park J, Han D, et al. [Interactions of unconjugated bilirubin with bile acid by rapid solvent partition]. Taehan Kan Hakhoe Chi. 2002;8:80-9 pubmed
    ..We propose to extend the study of partition to determine the activity and the degradation products of calcium salts of unbound bilirubin fractions. ..
  19. Craddock A, Love M, Daniel R, Kirby L, Walters H, Wong M, et al. Expression and transport properties of the human ileal and renal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:G157-69 pubmed
  20. Zhang C, Ge C, Guo R, He S. Effect of IL-4 on altered expression of complement activation regulators in rat pancreatic cells during severe acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:6770-4 pubmed
    ..Moreover, DAF and CD59 may play an important role in the regulation of complement activation regulators during SAP. ..
  21. Segersvard R, Sylvan M, Herrington M, Larsson J, Permert J. Obesity increases the severity of acute experimental pancreatitis in the rat. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001;36:658-63 pubmed
    ..The sodium taurocholate model in obese rats would be useful for future mechanistic studies of the effect of obesity on pancreatitis. ..
  22. Oruc N, Ozutemiz A, Yukselen V, Nart D, Celik H, Yuce G, et al. Infliximab: a new therapeutic agent in acute pancreatitis?. Pancreas. 2004;28:e1-8 pubmed
    ..Chimeric TNF antibody, infliximab, should be evaluated for treatment of acute pancreatitis. ..
  23. Funk C, Pantze M, Jehle L, Ponelle C, Scheuermann G, Lazendic M, et al. Troglitazone-induced intrahepatic cholestasis by an interference with the hepatobiliary export of bile acids in male and female rats. Correlation with the gender difference in troglitazone sulfate formation and the inhibition of the canalicular bile . Toxicology. 2001;167:83-98 pubmed
    ..Such an interaction might lead potentially also in man to a troglitazone-induced intrahepatic cholestasis, potentially contributing to the formation of troglitazone-induced liver injuries...
  24. Wong M, Oelkers P, Craddock A, Dawson P. Expression cloning and characterization of the hamster ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:1340-7 pubmed
  25. Weinman S, Carruth M, Dawson P. Bile acid uptake via the human apical sodium-bile acid cotransporter is electrogenic. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34691-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that membrane potential may regulate bile acid transport rates under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. ..
  26. Kostrubsky V, Strom S, Hanson J, Urda E, Rose K, Burliegh J, et al. Evaluation of hepatotoxic potential of drugs by inhibition of bile-acid transport in cultured primary human hepatocytes and intact rats. Toxicol Sci. 2003;76:220-8 pubmed
    ..potential of compounds in vitro and in vivo, we investigated the effect of clinical cholestatic agents on [3H]taurocholic acid transport in regular and collagen-sandwich cultured human hepatocytes...
  27. Isik A, Mas M, Comert B, Yasar M, Korkmaz A, Akay C, et al. The effect of combination therapy of hyperbaric oxygen, meropenem, and selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in experimental acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2004;28:53-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that adding the HBO therapy as an adjunctive to the treatment protocol of acute necrotizing pancreatitis may yield improvement in the morbidity and mortality of the disease. ..
  28. Schliess F, Kurz A, Vom Dahl S, Haussinger D. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate the stimulation of bile acid secretion by tauroursodeoxycholate in rat liver. Gastroenterology. 1997;113:1306-14 pubmed
    ..Although both TUDCA and hypo-osmotic hepatocyte swelling lead to MAP-kinase activation and a stimulation of bile acid secretion, different upstream signaling events are involved. ..
  29. Dlugosz J, Andrzejewska A, Wroblewski E, Poplawski C, Wereszczynska Siemiatkowska U. Beneficial effect of iloprost on the course of acute taurocholate pancreatitis in rats and its limitation by antecedent acute ethanol intake. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2004;55:401-9 pubmed
  30. Kurz A, Graf D, Schmitt M, Vom Dahl S, Haussinger D. Tauroursodesoxycholate-induced choleresis involves p38(MAPK) activation and translocation of the bile salt export pump in rats. Gastroenterology. 2001;121:407-19 pubmed
    ..Dual activation of Erks and p38(MAPK) is required for the choleretic effect of both TUDC and hypo-osmotic cell swelling. ..
  31. Kemp D, Zamek Gliszczynski M, Brouwer K. Xenobiotics inhibit hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of taurocholate in rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Sci. 2005;83:207-14 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, xenobiotics may alter hepatic bile acid transport by inhibiting both hepatic uptake and biliary excretion. ..
  32. Stelzner M, Somasundaram S, Kearney D. A simple method for measuring of intestinal solute transport in mucosal biopsy specimens. Dig Dis Sci. 2001;46:451-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this method is valuable to measure Na+-dependent solute uptake rates in biopsy samples from human intestine. ..
  33. Stelzner M, Hoagland V, Somasundaram S. Distribution of bile acid absorption and bile acid transporter gene message in the hamster ileum. Pflugers Arch. 2000;440:157-62 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Na-dependent and Na-independent bile acid absorption capacities both have distinct distribution curves in the hamster ileum. All ileocytes on villi in the high-uptake area of the ileum express IBAT mRNA and protein. ..
  34. Fattinger K, Funk C, Pantze M, Weber C, Reichen J, Stieger B, et al. The endothelin antagonist bosentan inhibits the canalicular bile salt export pump: a potential mechanism for hepatic adverse reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;69:223-31 pubmed
    ..In this study we investigated whether inhibition of the hepatocanalicular bile salt export pump (rodents, Bsep; humans, BSEP ABCB11) could account for bosentan-induced liver injury...
  35. Zahner D, Eckhardt U, Petzinger E. Transport of taurocholate by mutants of negatively charged amino acids, cysteines, and threonines of the rat liver sodium-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide Ntcp. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:1117-27 pubmed
    ..amino acids were Asp115, Glu257, and Cys266, which were found to be essential for the maintenance of taurocholic acid transport...
  36. Petersson J, Phillipson M, Jansson E, Patzak A, Lundberg J, Holm L. Dietary nitrate increases gastric mucosal blood flow and mucosal defense. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G718-24 pubmed
    ..The gastroprotective effect likely involves a higher mucosal blood flow caused by nonenzymatic NO production. These data suggest an important physiological role of nitrate in the diet. ..
  37. Paskin T, Byrd Jacobs C. Reversible deafferentation of the adult zebrafish olfactory bulb affects glomerular distribution and olfactory-mediated behavior. Behav Brain Res. 2012;235:293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study demonstrate the remarkable regenerative ability of the olfactory system following extensive and long-term injury. ..
  38. Hirano H, Kurata A, Onishi Y, Sakurai A, Saito H, Nakagawa H, et al. High-speed screening and QSAR analysis of human ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB11 (bile salt export pump) to predict drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Mol Pharm. 2006;3:252-65 pubmed
    ..This approach can be used to predict compounds with a potential risk of drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis...
  39. Hamoudi M, Fattal E, Gueutin C, Nicolas V, Bochot A. Beads made of cyclodextrin and oil for the oral delivery of lipophilic drugs: in vitro studies in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids. Int J Pharm. 2011;416:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The original structure of beads confers to this multiparticulate system interesting properties for the oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. ..
  40. Fu D, Wakabayashi Y, Lippincott Schwartz J, Arias I. Bile acid stimulates hepatocyte polarization through a cAMP-Epac-MEK-LKB1-AMPK pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Linkage between bile acid synthesis, hepatocyte polarization, and regulation of energy metabolism is likely important in normal hepatocyte development and disease. ..
  41. de Campos T, Deree J, Martins J, Loomis W, Shenvi E, Putnam J, et al. Pentoxifylline attenuates pulmonary inflammation and neutrophil activation in experimental acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2008;37:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PTX may serve as an adjunct for the treatment of the inflammatory complications of severe AP. ..
  42. Annaba F, Kumar P, Dudeja A, Saksena S, Gill R, Alrefai W. Green tea catechin EGCG inhibits ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter ASBT. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data demonstrate a novel role of lipid rafts in the modulation of ASBT function by the dietary component EGCG, which may underlie the hypocholesterolemic effects of green tea. ..
  43. Li Z, Ma Q, Luo Y. [Expression of survivin gene in a rat model of acute pancreatitis]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:1141-3 pubmed
  44. Li Z, Ma Q, Luo Y. [Effect of resveratrol-induced FasL up-regulation on the apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells in rats with severe acute pancreatitis]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:454-7 pubmed
    ..Resveratrol produces important therapeutic effect on SAP in rats by inducing pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis possibly as a result of up-regulated FasL gene expression. ..
  45. Deng W, Chen C, Wang W, Yu J, Li J, Liu L. Effects of ORP150 on appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells following acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Pathol Res Pract. 2011;207:370-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply a probable role of ORP150 in the changes in appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells following acute necrotizing pancreatitis, through the pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress. ..
  46. Bi Y, Kazolias D, Duignan D. Use of cryopreserved human hepatocytes in sandwich culture to measure hepatobiliary transport. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:1658-65 pubmed
    ..The use of cryopreserved human hepatocytes in 24-well sandwich culture to form intact bile canaliculi and to exhibit functional uptake and efflux transport has been successfully demonstrated. ..
  47. Li Y, Reuter N, Li X, Liu Q, Zhang J, Martin R. Colocalization of MnSOD expression in response to oxidative stress. Mol Carcinog. 2010;49:44-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that bile salts may contribute to the dysfunction of mitochondria, by enzymatically inhibiting of MnSOD localization and thus activation in the mitochondria. ..
  48. Wang C, Li L, Guan H, Tong S, Liu M, Liu C, et al. Effects of taurocholic acid on immunoregulation in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;15:217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Taurocholic acid (TCA), as a kind of natural bioactive substance of animal bile acid, has medicinal applications to treat a ..
  49. Yang M, Liu Z, Hughes C, Stern A, Wang H, Zhong Z, et al. Bile salt-induced intermolecular disulfide bond formation activates Vibrio cholerae virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2348-53 pubmed publisher
    ..cholerae virulence cascade by a host signal molecule. They further provide a paradigm for recognition of the host environment in pathogenic bacteria through periplasmic cysteine oxidation...
  50. Karamustafa F, Celebi N, Degim Z, Unal N. Transport evaluation of alendronate across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Pharmazie. 2009;64:98-103 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that DM-beta-CD is a promising agent for improving the transport of alendronate. ..
  51. Walters J. Defining primary bile acid diarrhea: making the diagnosis and recognizing the disorder. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;4:561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of FGF19 as the central mechanism opens up new areas for development in the diagnosis and treatment of primary bile acid diarrhea. ..
  52. Chen X, Oshima T, Tomita T, Fukui H, Watari J, Matsumoto T, et al. Acidic bile salts modulate the squamous epithelial barrier function by modulating tight junction proteins. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;301:G203-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The cells were treated with taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), or deoxycholic acid (DCA) at different pH values, or with pepsin...
  53. Engel A, Oswald S, Siegmund W, Keiser M. Pharmaceutical excipients influence the function of human uptake transporting proteins. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:2577-81 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be evaluated in further in vivo studies. ..