ethyl methanesulfonate


Summary: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.

Top Publications

  1. Yang H, Tanikawa A, Van Voorhies W, Silva J, Kondrashov A. Whole-genome effects of ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation on nine quantitative traits in outbred Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2001;157:1257-65 pubmed
    We induced mutations in Drosophila melanogaster males by treating them with 21.2 mm ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)...
  2. Martín B, Ramiro M, Martinez Zapater J, Alonso Blanco C. A high-density collection of EMS-induced mutations for TILLING in Landsberg erecta genetic background of Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biol. 2009;9:147 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana. Comparisons with TILLING populations in other organisms indicate that this new A. thaliana collection carries the highest chemically induced mutation density per individual known in diploid species. ..
  3. Emmanuel E, Levy A. Tomato mutants as tools for functional genomics. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2002;5:112-7 pubmed
    ..New developments - such as the use of saturated mutant populations, new methods for the detection of mutants and new sequence data - are bridging the gap between tomato genes and their functions. ..
  4. Sarin S, Bertrand V, Bigelow H, Boyanov A, Doitsidou M, Poole R, et al. Analysis of multiple ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized Caenorhabditis elegans strains by whole-genome sequencing. Genetics. 2010;185:417-30 pubmed publisher
    ..of this approach by identifying a point-mutated locus responsible for a specific phenotype, observed in an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Caenorhabditis elegans strain...
  5. Bush S, Krysan P. iTILLING: a personalized approach to the identification of induced mutations in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:25-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Using repeated iterations of the iTILLING process, mutations in three or more tandemly duplicated genes could be generated. ..
  6. Adsul M, Bastawde K, Varma A, Gokhale D. Strain improvement of Penicillium janthinellum NCIM 1171 for increased cellulase production. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98:1467-73 pubmed
    ..Higher hydrolysis yields of Avicel were obtained with enzyme preparations of EU1. This is the first report on the isolation and selection of mutants based on hydrolysis of Avicel, which is the most crystalline substrate. ..
  7. Klein H, Garneau L, Banderali U, Simoes M, Parent L, Sauve R. Structural determinants of the closed KCa3.1 channel pore in relation to channel gating: results from a substituted cysteine accessibility analysis. J Gen Physiol. 2007;129:299-315 pubmed
  8. Li W. Trace analysis of residual methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate and isopropyl methanesulfonate in pharmaceuticals by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1046:297-301 pubmed
    ..detection was developed and validated for the trace analysis (ppm level) of methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, and isopropyl methanesulfonate in pharmaceutical drug substance...
  9. Uauy C, Paraiso F, Colasuonno P, Tran R, Tsai H, Berardi S, et al. A modified TILLING approach to detect induced mutations in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. BMC Plant Biol. 2009;9:115 pubmed publisher
    ..We hope that the use of this reverse genetics resource will enable more researchers to pursue wheat functional genomics and provide novel allelic diversity for wheat improvement. ..

More Information


  1. Le Signor C, Savois V, Aubert G, Verdier J, Nicolas M, Pagny G, et al. Optimizing TILLING populations for reverse genetics in Medicago truncatula. Plant Biotechnol J. 2009;7:430-41 pubmed publisher
    ..truncatula. Phenotyping data to help forward screenings are publicly available, as well as a web tool for ordering seeds at ..
  2. Phillips L, Enkvetchakul D, Nichols C. Gating dependence of inner pore access in inward rectifier K(+) channels. Neuron. 2003;37:953-62 pubmed
  3. Harloff H, Lemcke S, Mittasch J, Frolov A, Wu J, Dreyer F, et al. A mutation screening platform for rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and the detection of sinapine biosynthesis mutants. Theor Appl Genet. 2012;124:957-69 pubmed publisher
    ..However, primers have to be carefully designed to amplify single sequences from the polyploid rapeseed genome. ..
  4. Ramakrishna K, Raman N, Rao K, Prasad A, Reddy K. Development and validation of GC-MS method for the determination of methyl methanesulfonate and ethyl methanesulfonate in imatinib mesylate. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;46:780-3 pubmed publisher
    ..methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in imatinib mesylate (INM)...
  5. Blumenstiel J, Noll A, Griffiths J, Perera A, Walton K, Gilliland W, et al. Identification of EMS-induced mutations in Drosophila melanogaster by whole-genome sequencing. Genetics. 2009;182:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This new method of whole-genome sequencing represents great promise for mutant mapping in flies, potentially replacing conventional methods. ..
  6. Cooper J, Greene E, Till B, Codomo C, Wakimoto B, Henikoff S. Retention of induced mutations in a Drosophila reverse-genetic resource. Genetics. 2008;180:661-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has implications for the use of balancer chromosomes to maintain mutant lines and provides the first large-scale quantitative assessment of the limitations of using breeding populations for repositories of genetic variability. ..
  7. Loussouarn G, Phillips L, Masia R, Rose T, Nichols C. Flexibility of the Kir6.2 inward rectifier K(+) channel pore. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:4227-32 pubmed
    ..2 model this narrowing excludes all ions. To allow entry of ions as large as MTSPTrEA(+) or qBBr(+), the entrance must widen to >8 A, but this widening is readily accomplished by minimal M2 helix motion and side-chain rearrangement. ..
  8. Kurata H, Diraviyam K, Marton L, Nichols C. Blocker protection by short spermine analogs: refined mapping of the spermine binding site in a Kir channel. Biophys J. 2008;95:3827-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the validity of a blocker protection approach for mapping polyamine-binding sites in a Kir pore, and confirm that spermine binds stably at a deep site in the inner cavity of strongly rectifying Kir channels. ..
  9. Guruprasad K, Subramanian A, Singh V, Sharma R, Gopinath P, Sewram V, et al. Brahmarasayana protects against Ethyl methanesulfonate or Methyl methanesulfonate induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:113 pubmed
    ..The present study assessed the role of Brahmarasayana (BR) on Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced genotoxicity and DNA repair in in vivo mouse test system...
  10. Till B, Cooper J, Tai T, Colowit P, Greene E, Henikoff S, et al. Discovery of chemically induced mutations in rice by TILLING. BMC Plant Biol. 2007;7:19 pubmed
    ..By comparison to other plants used in public TILLING services, we conclude that the populations described here would be suitable for use in a large scale TILLING project. ..
  11. Yoshihara R, Nakane C, Takimoto K. A new system for detecting mutations in arabidopsis thaliana and the mutational spectra resulting from ethylmethanesulfonate treatment. J Radiat Res. 2006;47:223-8 pubmed
    ..This assay system is useful for the detection and analysis of mutations arising on chromosomal DNA in plants, and should be useful for evaluating analysis of the effects of environmental mutagens. ..
  12. Müller L, Gocke E, Lave T, Pfister T. Ethyl methanesulfonate toxicity in Viracept--a comprehensive human risk assessment based on threshold data for genotoxicity. Toxicol Lett. 2009;190:317-29 pubmed publisher
    ..supplied by Roche outside the US, Canada and Japan was contaminated with relatively high levels of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) for at most 3 months in spring of 2007...
  13. Flynn G, Zagotta W. A cysteine scan of the inner vestibule of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels reveals architecture and rearrangement of the pore. J Gen Physiol. 2003;121:563-82 pubmed
  14. Knoll J, Ramos M, Zeng Y, Holbrook C, Chow M, Chen S, et al. TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:81 pubmed publisher
    ..Using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as a mutagen, a mutation frequency of 1 SNP/967 kb (3,420 M2 individuals screened) was observed...
  15. Bruening Wright A, Schumacher M, Adelman J, Maylie J. Localization of the activation gate for small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels. J Neurosci. 2002;22:6499-506 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the SK channel gate is not formed by the cytoplasmic end of S6 but resides deep in the channel pore in or near the selectivity filter. ..
  16. Hartwig B, James G, Konrad K, Schneeberger K, Turck F. Fast isogenic mapping-by-sequencing of ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant bulks. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:591-600 pubmed publisher
    ..its functional form is involved in chromatin-mediated gene repression, we identified three closely linked ethyl methanesulfonate-induced changes as putative candidates...
  17. Gocke E, Bürgin H, Müller L, Pfister T. Literature review on the genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity of ethyl methanesulfonate. Toxicol Lett. 2009;190:254-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the data on teratogenicity and carcinogenicity are insufficient for assessing dose-response relations it is generally accepted that the genotoxic property of EMS is at the base of the teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. ..
  18. Perry J, Brachmann A, Welham T, Binder A, Charpentier M, Groth M, et al. TILLING in Lotus japonicus identified large allelic series for symbiosis genes and revealed a bias in functionally defective ethyl methanesulfonate alleles toward glycine replacements. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:1281-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A structured population of M2 progeny of 4,904 ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized M1 embryos is available for single nucleotide polymorphism mutation detection, using a TILLING ..
  19. Stephenson P, Baker D, Girin T, Perez A, Amoah S, King G, et al. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:62 pubmed publisher
    ..rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development...
  20. Zaïr Z, Jenkins G, Doak S, Singh R, Brown K, Johnson G. N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase plays a pivotal role in the threshold response of ethyl methanesulfonate-induced chromosome damage. Toxicol Sci. 2011;119:346-58 pubmed publisher
    ..the involvement of MPG in modulating the genotoxic threshold response induced by the Sn2 alkylating agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and not the Sn1 alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) in human lymphoblastoid cells and ..
  21. Gilchrist E, O Neil N, Rose A, Zetka M, Haughn G. TILLING is an effective reverse genetics technique for Caenorhabditis elegans. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:262 pubmed
    ..For eight of the 10 target genes screened, TILLING has provided the first genetically heritable mutations which can be used to study their functions in vivo. ..
  22. Austin R, Vidaurre D, Stamatiou G, Breit R, Provart N, Bonetta D, et al. Next-generation mapping of Arabidopsis genes. Plant J. 2011;67:715-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy can easily be applied to other model organisms, and we expect that it will also have utility in crops and any other eukaryote with a completed genome sequence. ..
  23. Cooper J, Till B, Laport R, Darlow M, Kleffner J, Jamai A, et al. TILLING to detect induced mutations in soybean. BMC Plant Biol. 2008;8:9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have applied TILLING to four mutagenized soybean populations, three of which were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and one with N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU)...
  24. Smith S, Liu X, Zhang Z, Sun F, Kriewall T, McCarty N, et al. CFTR: covalent and noncovalent modification suggests a role for fixed charges in anion conduction. J Gen Physiol. 2001;118:407-31 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with the hypothesis that in wild-type CFTR, R334 occupies a position where its charge can influence the distribution of anions near the mouth of the pore. ..
  25. Chawade A, Sikora P, Bräutigam M, Larsson M, Vivekanand V, Nakash M, et al. Development and characterization of an oat TILLING-population and identification of mutations in lignin and beta-glucan biosynthesis genes. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:86 pubmed publisher
    ..The population (M5) will be available for academic research via Nordgen as soon as enough seeds are obtained.[Genbank accession number for the cloned AsPAL1 is GQ373155 and GQ379900 for AsCslF6]. ..
  26. Rawat N, Sehgal S, Joshi A, Rothe N, Wilson D, McGraw N, et al. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:205 pubmed publisher
    ..However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis...
  27. Perry J, Wang T, Welham T, Gardner S, Pike J, Yoshida S, et al. A TILLING reverse genetics tool and a web-accessible collection of mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus. Plant Physiol. 2003;131:866-71 pubmed
  28. Mouchet F, Gauthier L, Mailhes C, Ferrier V, Devaux A. Comparative study of the comet assay and the micronucleus test in amphibian larvae (Xenopus laevis) using benzo(a)pyrene, ethyl methanesulfonate, and methyl methanesulfonate: establishment of a positive control in the amphibian comet assay. Environ Toxicol. 2005;20:74-84 pubmed
    ..Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were used as model compounds for assessing DNA damage...
  29. Hashem V, Pytlos M, Klysik E, Tsuji K, Khajavi M, Khajav M, et al. Chemotherapeutic deletion of CTG repeats in lymphoblast cells from DM1 patients. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:6334-46 pubmed
    ..A significant reduction of CTG repeat length by 100-350 (CTG).(CAG) repeats often occurred in the cell population following treatment with these drugs. Potential mechanisms of drug-induced deletion are presented. ..
  30. Till B, Reynolds S, Weil C, Springer N, Burtner C, Young K, et al. Discovery of induced point mutations in maize genes by TILLING. BMC Plant Biol. 2004;4:12 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that TILLING is a broadly applicable and efficient reverse-genetic strategy. We are establishing a public TILLING service for maize modeled on the existing Arabidopsis TILLING Project. ..
  31. Yi H, Richards E. Phenotypic instability of Arabidopsis alleles affecting a disease Resistance gene cluster. BMC Plant Biol. 2008;8:36 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these mutant alleles respond differently to various conditions. Exposure to mutagens, such as ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and gamma-irradiation, induce high frequency phenotypic instability of the bal allele...
  32. Branda R, O Neill J, Brooks E, Trombley L, Nicklas J. The effect of folate deficiency on the cytotoxic and mutagenic responses to ethyl methanesulfonate in human lymphoblastoid cell lines that differ in p53 status. Mutat Res. 2001;473:51-71 pubmed
    ..of folate-replete or deficient WTK1 and TK6 cells with increasing concentrations (0-50microg/ml) of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) resulted in significantly different HPRT mutation dose-response relationships (P<0...
  33. Guruprasad K, Vasudev V. Inducible protective processes in animal systems: VIII. Enhancement of adaptive response by nicotinamide. Mutagenesis. 2001;16:257-63 pubmed
    ..Hence, the present studies were undertaken to understand the role of PARP in ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced adaptive response in mouse bone marrow cells by employing the inhibitor of this enzyme, ..
  34. Botticella E, Sestili F, Hernandez Lopez A, Phillips A, Lafiandra D. High resolution melting analysis for the detection of EMS induced mutations in wheat SBEIIa genes. BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:156 pubmed publisher
    ..TILLING has successfully been used to generate novel alleles for SBEIIa genes known to control amylose content in wheat. Single and double null SBEIIa genotypes have been found to show a significant increase in amylose content. ..
  35. Kankel M, Ramsey D, Stokes T, Flowers S, Haag J, Jeddeloh J, et al. Arabidopsis MET1 cytosine methyltransferase mutants. Genetics. 2003;163:1109-22 pubmed
    ..ddm1 met1 double mutants were constructed to further our understanding of the mechanism of DDM1 action and the interaction between two major genetic loci affecting global cytosine methylation levels in Arabidopsis. ..
  36. Flibotte S, Edgley M, Chaudhry I, Taylor J, Neil S, Rogula A, et al. Whole-genome profiling of mutagenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2010;185:431-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the spectrum of mutations induced by three commonly used mutagens: ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), and ultraviolet trimethylpsoralen (UV/TMP) in the nematode ..
  37. Wu J, Wu C, Lei C, Baraoidan M, Bordeos A, Madamba M, et al. Chemical- and irradiation-induced mutants of indica rice IR64 for forward and reverse genetics. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;59:85-97 pubmed
    ..To facilitate broad usage of the mutants, a mutant database has been constructed in the International Rice Information System (IRIS; http: // to document the phenotypes and gene function discovered by users. ..
  38. Kurata H, Marton L, Nichols C. The polyamine binding site in inward rectifier K+ channels. J Gen Physiol. 2006;127:467-80 pubmed
    ..These data provide physical constraints on the spermine binding site, demonstrating that spermine stably binds at a deep site beyond the "rectification controller" residue, near the extracellular entrance to the channel. ..
  39. Bentley A, MacLennan B, Calvo J, Dearolf C. Targeted recovery of mutations in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;156:1169-73 pubmed
    ..Our method should prove useful for targeted mutagenesis screens in Drosophila and other genetically tractable organisms and for more precise studies of mutagenesis and DNA repair mechanisms. ..
  40. Hirochika H, Guiderdoni E, An G, Hsing Y, Eun M, Han C, et al. Rice mutant resources for gene discovery. Plant Mol Biol. 2004;54:325-34 pubmed
    ..The aims of this review are to summarize the current status of rice mutant resources, key tools for functional analysis of genes, and our perspectives on how to accelerate rice gene discovery through collaboration. ..
  41. Cui G, Zhang Z, O Brien A, Song B, McCarty N. Mutations at arginine 352 alter the pore architecture of CFTR. J Membr Biol. 2008;222:91-106 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that R352 plays an important structural role in CFTR, perhaps reflecting its involvement in forming a salt bridge with residue D993. ..
  42. Wang N, Wang Y, Tian F, King G, Zhang C, Long Y, et al. A functional genomics resource for Brassica napus: development of an EMS mutagenized population and discovery of FAE1 point mutations by TILLING. New Phytol. 2008;180:751-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure was applied to 1344 M2 plants, with 19 mutations identified, of which three were functionally compromised with reduced seed erucic acid content. ..
  43. Okabe Y, Asamizu E, Saito T, Matsukura C, Ariizumi T, Br s C, et al. Tomato TILLING technology: development of a reverse genetics tool for the efficient isolation of mutants from Micro-Tom mutant libraries. Plant Cell Physiol. 2011;52:1994-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA pools were constructed from 3,052 ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutant lines treated with 0.5 or 1.0% EMS...
  44. Greene E, Codomo C, Taylor N, Henikoff J, Till B, Reynolds S, et al. Spectrum of chemically induced mutations from a large-scale reverse-genetic screen in Arabidopsis. Genetics. 2003;164:731-40 pubmed
    ..Here we report a comprehensive analysis of approximately 1900 ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutations in 192 Arabidopsis thaliana target genes from a large-scale TILLING reverse-..
  45. Xiao J, Zhen X, Yang J. Localization of PIP2 activation gate in inward rectifier K+ channels. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:811-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the TM2 helices undergo conformation changes upon PIP2 binding/unbinding, but neither they nor the cytoplasmic pore close fully to form a physical gate for K+ conduction. ..
  46. Wienholds E, van Eeden F, Kosters M, Mudde J, Plasterk R, Cuppen E. Efficient target-selected mutagenesis in zebrafish. Genome Res. 2003;13:2700-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore,we show that TILLING can be used to detect the full spectrum of ENU-induced mutations in a vertebrate genome with the presence of many naturally occurring polymorphisms. ..
  47. Di Sotto A, Mazzanti G, Carbone F, Hrelia P, Maffei F. Inhibition by beta-caryophyllene of ethyl methanesulfonate-induced clastogenicity in cultured human lymphocytes. Mutat Res. 2010;699:23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of beta-caryophyllene to protect cultured human lymphocytes from the genotoxic damage induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and colcemid (COL) in the micronucleus assay...
  48. Caldwell D, McCallum N, Shaw P, Muehlbauer G, Marshall D, Waugh R. A structured mutant population for forward and reverse genetics in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plant J. 2004;40:143-50 pubmed
    ..To enhance the screening process, 12-16 M(3) progeny from each of the M(2) plants were assessed for visible phenotypes and the data entered into a web accessible database ( ..
  49. Dalmais M, Schmidt J, Le Signor C, Moussy F, Burstin J, Savois V, et al. UTILLdb, a Pisum sativum in silico forward and reverse genetics tool. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R43 pubmed publisher
    ..UTILLdb can be searched online for TILLING alleles, through the BLAST tool, or for phenotypic information about mutants by keywords. ..
  50. Recio L, Kissling G, Hobbs C, Witt K. Comparison of Comet assay dose-response for ethyl methanesulfonate using freshly prepared versus cryopreserved tissues. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2012;53:101-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Rats (5 per treatment group) were administered ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS; 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) by gavage twice at an interval of 21 hr; blood, liver, stomach, and ..
  51. Xin Z, Wang M, Barkley N, Burow G, Franks C, Pederson G, et al. Applying genotyping (TILLING) and phenotyping analyses to elucidate gene function in a chemically induced sorghum mutant population. BMC Plant Biol. 2008;8:103 pubmed publisher
    ..consisting of 1,600 lines was generated from the inbred line BTx623 by treatment with the chemical agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)...
  52. Jander G, Baerson S, Hudak J, Gonzalez K, Gruys K, Last R. Ethylmethanesulfonate saturation mutagenesis in Arabidopsis to determine frequency of herbicide resistance. Plant Physiol. 2003;131:139-46 pubmed
    ..Neither of these mutations caused enhanced resistance to chlorsulfuron in Arabidopsis. ..
  53. Wulff B, Thomas C, Parniske M, Jones J. Genetic variation at the tomato Cf-4/Cf-9 locus induced by EMS mutagenesis and intralocus recombination. Genetics. 2004;167:459-70 pubmed
    ..Most mutations result in single-amino-acid substitutions in their C terminus at residues that are conserved in other Cf proteins. ..