alkanesulfonic acids


Summary: Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.

Top Publications

  1. Lopez Espinosa M, Fitz Simon N, Bloom M, Calafat A, Fletcher T. Comparison between free serum thyroxine levels, measured by analog and dialysis methods, in the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:552-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings do not indicate any observable bias from the use of the analog with respect to the dialysis method, across the range of PFOS and PFOA concentrations in this population...
  2. Cheng W, Yu Z, Feng L, Wang Y. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced embryotoxicity and disruption of cardiogenesis. Toxicol In Vitro. 2013;27:1503-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PFOS altered the expression of crucial genes, reduced ATP production, induced ROS, and stimulated apoptosis during the early stages of cardiogenesis; these effects may result in poor developmental outcomes. ..
  3. Zhang J, Liang J, Zhu H, Li C, Wu Q. PFOS and PCB 153 have direct adverse effects on neonatal testis modeled using a coculture of primary gonocyte and sertoli cells. Environ Toxicol. 2013;28:322-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that both PCB 153 and PFOS directly affect neonatal gonocyte and Sertoli cells; the production of ROS and the change in the cytoskeleton in Sertoli cells might be causes. ..
  4. Jensen M, Nørgaard Pedersen B, Toft G, Hougaard D, Bonde J, Cohen A, et al. Phthalates and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid in human amniotic fluid: temporal trends and timing of amniocentesis in pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:897-903 pubmed publisher
    ..The environmental pollutant levels were positively associated with later gestational age at amniocentesis during pregnancy weeks 12-22. ..
  5. Mhadhbi L, Rial D, Perez S, Beiras R. Ecological risk assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in marine environment using Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Siriella armata and Psetta maxima. J Environ Monit. 2012;14:1375-82 pubmed publisher
  6. Goosey E, Harrad S. Perfluoroalkyl substances in UK indoor and outdoor air: spatial and seasonal variation, and implications for human exposure. Environ Int. 2012;45:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed variability could not be attributed to changes in room contents, nor to seasonality. Human exposure via inhalation appears a minor pathway. ..
  7. Du G, Hu J, Huang H, Qin Y, Han X, Wu D, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) affects hormone receptor activity, steroidogenesis, and expression of endocrine-related genes in vitro and in vivo. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:353-60 pubmed publisher
  8. Wan Ibrahim W, Tofighi R, Onishchenko N, Rebellato P, Bose R, Uhlen P, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate induces neuronal and oligodendrocytic differentiation in neural stem cells and alters the expression of PPAR? in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;269:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that PPAR? plays a role in the alteration of spontaneous differentiation of NSCs induced by nanomolar concentrations of PFOS. ..
  9. Li J, Guo F, Wang Y, Zhang J, Zhong Y, Zhao Y, et al. Can nail, hair and urine be used for biomonitoring of human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid?. Environ Int. 2013;53:47-52 pubmed publisher
    ..299 (p<0.05). The results suggested that nail has more potential than hair and urine to be applied in human biomonitoring for PFOS and PFOA in general populations. ..

More Information


  1. Toft G, Jönsson B, Lindh C, Giwercman A, Spano M, Heederik D, et al. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds and human semen quality in Arctic and European populations. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:2532-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality...
  2. Lopez Espinosa M, Fletcher T, Armstrong B, Genser B, Dhatariya K, Mondal D, et al. Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) with age of puberty among children living near a chemical plant. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:8160-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study showed a later age of puberty in this population correlated with PFC concentrations...
  3. Wang M, Chen J, Lin K, Chen Y, Hu W, Tanguay R, et al. Chronic zebrafish PFOS exposure alters sex ratio and maternal related effects in F1 offspring. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:2073-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to PFOS adversely impacts embryonic growth, reproduction, and subsequent offspring development. ..
  4. Huang Q, Fang C, Wu X, Fan J, Dong S. Perfluorooctane sulfonate impairs the cardiac development of a marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). Aquat Toxicol. 2011;105:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed for the first time that PFOS exposure affected the expression of cardiac development-related genes, development and function of heart in the marine medaka...
  5. Shankar A, Xiao J, Ducatman A. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and chronic kidney disease in US adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:893-900 pubmed publisher
    ..04, 2.88; P for trend = 0.015) for perfluorooctanoic acid and 1.82 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 3.27; P for trend = 0.019) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. The present results suggest that elevated PFC levels are associated with CKD...
  6. Vested A, Ramlau Hansen C, Olsen S, Bonde J, Kristensen S, Halldórsson T, et al. Associations of in utero exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids with human semen quality and reproductive hormones in adult men. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:453-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern...
  7. Arbuckle T, Kubwabo C, Walker M, Davis K, Lalonde K, Kosarac I, et al. Umbilical cord blood levels of perfluoroalkyl acids and polybrominated flame retardants. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013;216:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to reports from other countries, the preponderant PBDE congener measured in the cord blood was PBDE-47. Questions remain on why various studies have reported conflicting results on the association between PFAAs and birth weight. ..
  8. Olsen G, Lange C, Ellefson M, Mair D, Church T, Goldberg C, et al. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl concentrations in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2010. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:6330-8 pubmed publisher
    ..8 years reported in individuals. This similarity supports the conclusion that the dominant PFOS-related exposures to humans in the United States were greatly mitigated during the phase-out period...
  9. Gallo V, Leonardi G, Genser B, Lopez Espinosa M, Frisbee S, Karlsson L, et al. Serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations and liver function biomarkers in a population with elevated PFOA exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:655-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies in humans have reported inconsistent associations between PFOA and liver enzymes...
  10. Whitworth K, Haug L, Baird D, Becher G, Hoppin J, Skjaerven R, et al. Perfluorinated compounds and subfecundity in pregnant women. Epidemiology. 2012;23:257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, data from nulliparous women may be more informative regarding toxic effects of perfluorinated compounds. Our results among nulliparous women did not support an association with subfecundity. ..
  11. Raymer J, Michael L, Studabaker W, Olsen G, Sloan C, Wilcosky T, et al. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and their associations with human semen quality measurements. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Luteinizing hormone was positively correlated with plasma PFOA and PFOS, but not semen PFOS. Important methodological concerns included the lack of multiple hormonal measurements necessary to address circadian rhythms...
  12. Yan H, Zhang C, Zhou Q, Chen L, Meng X. Short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in sewage sludge from Shanghai, China. Chemosphere. 2012;88:1300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, further studies are needed to explore the fate of PFAs in sludge-amended soils due to the persistence and bioaccumulation potential of these compounds. ..
  13. Kraugerud M, Zimmer K, Ropstad E, Verhaegen S. Perfluorinated compounds differentially affect steroidogenesis and viability in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) in vitro cell assay. Toxicol Lett. 2011;205:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, PFCs appear to differentially affect cell viability with induction of cell death via apoptosis at high doses of PFNA. ..
  14. Liu X, Jin Y, Liu W, Wang F, Hao S. Possible mechanism of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate on the release of calcium ion from calcium stores in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:1294-301 pubmed publisher
    ..IP(3)Rs seem to serve a predominant role in PFOS-induced calcium release. Calcium release from intracellular stores may partially account for the perturbation of calcium homeostasis caused by PFOS or PFOA. ..
  15. Joensen U, Veyrand B, Antignac J, Blomberg Jensen M, Petersen J, Marchand P, et al. PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate) in serum is negatively associated with testosterone levels, but not with semen quality, in healthy men. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:599-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Is exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) associated with testicular function (reproductive hormone levels and semen quality) in healthy men?..
  16. Lin A, Panchangam S, Chang C, Hong P, Hsueh H. Removal of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate via ozonation under alkaline condition. J Hazard Mater. 2012;243:272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of PFAAs by ozone or peroxone proves to be efficient in terms of energy requirement, contact time, and removal rate. ..
  17. Fitz Simon N, Fletcher T, Luster M, Steenland K, Calafat A, Kato K, et al. Reductions in serum lipids with a 4-year decline in serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Epidemiology. 2013;24:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..5-7.4%). Our findings from this longitudinal study support previous evidence from cross-sectional studies of positive associations between PFOA and PFOS in serum and LDL cholesterol. ..
  18. Sepulvado J, Blaine A, Hundal L, Higgins C. Occurrence and fate of perfluorochemicals in soil following the land application of municipal biosolids. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:8106-12 pubmed publisher
  19. Chen T, Zhang L, Yue J, Lv Z, Xia W, Wan Y, et al. Prenatal PFOS exposure induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in the lung of rat off-spring. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:538-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that oxidative stress and both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways were involved in prenatal PFOS exposure-induced injuries in postnatal lungs. ..
  20. Chen H, Zhang C, Yu Y, Han J. Sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on marine sediments. Mar Pollut Bull. 2012;64:902-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This work will aid in better understanding of PFOS sorption mechanisms, and be useful for fate modeling of this class of contaminants in the marine environment. ..
  21. Mondal D, Lopez Espinosa M, Armstrong B, Stein C, Fletcher T. Relationships of perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctane sulfonate serum concentrations between mother-child pairs in a population with perfluorooctanoate exposure from drinking water. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:752-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides an opportunity to assess the association between PFAA concentrations in mother-child pairs in a population exposed to PFOA via drinking water...
  22. Innes K, Ducatman A, Luster M, Shankar A. Association of osteoarthritis with serum levels of the environmental contaminants perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctane sulfonate in a large Appalachian population. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:440-50 pubmed publisher
  23. Lee H, Lee Y, Yang J. Perfluorooctane sulfonate induces apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells via a ROS-dependent protein kinase C signaling pathway. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:314-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study may contribute to understand a new mechanistic aspect of PFOS-induced neurotoxicities. ..
  24. Chen J, Das S, La Du J, Corvi M, Bai C, Chen Y, et al. Chronic PFOS exposures induce life stage-specific behavioral deficits in adult zebrafish and produce malformation and behavioral deficits in F1 offspring. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors' findings demonstrate that chronic PFOS exposure during different life stages adversely affects adult behavior and F1 offspring morphology, behavior, and survival. ..
  25. Bjork J, Butenhoff J, Wallace K. Multiplicity of nuclear receptor activation by PFOA and PFOS in primary human and rodent hepatocytes. Toxicology. 2011;288:8-17 pubmed publisher
  26. Apelberg B, Witter F, Herbstman J, Calafat A, Halden R, Needham L, et al. Cord serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in relation to weight and size at birth. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1670-6 pubmed
    ..Future studies should attempt to replicate these findings in other populations. ..
  27. Chan E, Burstyn I, Cherry N, Bamforth F, Martin J. Perfluorinated acids and hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women. Environ Res. 2011;111:559-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings do not support a causal link between PFA exposure and maternal hypothyroxinemia in the studied population...
  28. Sundström M, Ehresman D, Bignert A, Butenhoff J, Olsen G, Chang S, et al. A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden. Environ Int. 2011;37:178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The temporal concentration trends of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA observed in human milk are parallel to those reported in the general population serum concentrations. ..
  29. Shi X, Du Y, Lam P, Wu R, Zhou B. Developmental toxicity and alteration of gene expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to PFOS. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;230:23-32 pubmed publisher
  30. Ren H, Vallanat B, Nelson D, Yeung L, Guruge K, Lam P, et al. Evidence for the involvement of xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptors in transcriptional effects upon perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in diverse species. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:266-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we discuss evidence that human populations with greater CAR expression have lower body burdens of PFAAs...
  31. Grice M, Alexander B, Hoffbeck R, Kampa D. Self-reported medical conditions in perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride manufacturing workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49:722-9 pubmed
    ..We observed no association between working in a PFOS-exposed job and several cancers, common health conditions, and birth weight. ..
  32. Frisbee S, Shankar A, Knox S, Steenland K, Savitz D, Fletcher T, et al. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and serum lipids in children and adolescents: results from the C8 Health Project. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164:860-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are man-made compounds with widespread presence in human sera. In previous occupational and adult studies, PFOA and PFOS were positively associated with serum lipid levels...
  33. Pan G, You C. Sediment-water distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in Yangtze River Estuary. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:1363-7 pubmed publisher
    ..70 L g(-1). The study suggests that PFOS may be carried with the river water and transported for long distances before it reaches to the sea and largely scavenged to the sediment in the estuaries due to the dramatic change in salinity. ..
  34. Naile J, Khim J, Wang T, Chen C, Luo W, Kwon B, et al. Perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment, soil and biota from estuarine and coastal areas of Korea. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:1237-44 pubmed publisher
  35. Hu W, Jones P, DeCoen W, King L, Fraker P, Newsted J, et al. Alterations in cell membrane properties caused by perfluorinated compounds. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003;135:77-88 pubmed
    ..This suggests that PFOS effects membrane properties at concentrations below those associated with other adverse effects. ..
  36. Ma R, Shih K. Perfluorochemicals in wastewater treatment plants and sediments in Hong Kong. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:1354-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The dominance of even-chain length perfluoroalkyl carboxylates in all of the WWTP sludge samples investigated further suggests the strong aerobic degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols in WWTPs. ..
  37. Stein C, Savitz D, Dougan M. Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and pregnancy outcome. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170:837-46 pubmed publisher
  38. Joensen U, Bossi R, Leffers H, Jensen A, Skakkebaek N, Jørgensen N. Do perfluoroalkyl compounds impair human semen quality?. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:923-7 pubmed publisher
    ..High PFAA levels were associated with fewer normal sperm. Thus, high levels of PFAAs may contribute to the otherwise unexplained low semen quality often seen in young men. However, our findings need to be corroborated in larger studies. ..
  39. Paul A, Jones K, Sweetman A. A first global production, emission, and environmental inventory for perfluorooctane sulfonate. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:386-92 pubmed
    ..Since cessation of POSF production by 3M in 2002, a reduction in some compartments has been observed, although current and future exposure is dependent on emission routes, subsequent transport and degradation. ..
  40. Olsen G, Burlew M, Marshall J, Burris J, Mandel J. Analysis of episodes of care in a perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride production facility. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46:837-46 pubmed
    ..Non-a priori associations among the fluorochemical plant workers included benign colon polyps, malignant colorectal tumors, and malignant melanoma. ..
  41. Olsen G, Mair D, Church T, Ellefson M, Reagen W, Boyd T, et al. Decline in perfluorooctanesulfonate and other polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2006. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:4989-95 pubmed
    ..Direct and indirect exposure sources of PFOA could include historic and ongoing electrochemical cell fluorination (ECF) of PFOA, telomer production of PFOA, fluorotelomer-based precursors, and other fluoropoly-mer production...
  42. Houde M, Martin J, Letcher R, Solomon K, Muir D. Biological monitoring of polyfluoroalkyl substances: A review. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:3463-73 pubmed
    ..Continuous monitoring with key sentinel species and standardization of analytical methods are recommended. ..
  43. Alexander B, Olsen G. Bladder cancer in perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride manufacturing workers. Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17:471-8 pubmed
    ..30-12.06), and 1.52 (95% CI = 0.21-10.99). The results offer little support for an association between bladder cancer and PFOS exposure, but the limited size of the population prohibits a conclusive exposure response analysis. ..
  44. Yamashita N, Kannan K, Taniyasu S, Horii Y, Petrick G, Gamo T. A global survey of perfluorinated acids in oceans. Mar Pollut Bull. 2005;51:658-68 pubmed
    ..PFOA was the major contaminant detected in oceanic waters, followed by PFOS. Further studies are being conducted to elucidate the distribution and fate of perfluorinated acids in oceans. ..
  45. Halldorsson T, Fei C, Olsen J, Lipworth L, McLaughlin J, Olsen S. Dietary predictors of perfluorinated chemicals: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:8971-7 pubmed
    ..The observed associations in our study between dietary variables and maternal exposure further support that conclusion. ..
  46. Sakurai T, Serizawa S, Isobe T, Kobayashi J, Kodama K, Kume G, et al. Spatial, phase, and temporal distributions of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Tokyo Bay, Japan. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:4110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..2 (PFOS) and 3.5 (PFOA). Our analyses indicated no apparent time trends in the concentrations of these compounds during 2004-2006 in either the freshwater input or the bay. ..
  47. Qazi M, Abedi M, Nelson B, Depierre J, Abedi Valugerdi M. Dietary exposure to perfluorooctanoate or perfluorooctane sulfonate induces hypertrophy in centrilobular hepatocytes and alters the hepatic immune status in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:1420-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in mice, PFOA- and PFOS-induced hepatomegaly is associated with significant alterations in hepatic histophysiology and immune status, as well as induction of hepatic erythropoiesis. ..
  48. Goosey E, Harrad S. Perfluoroalkyl compounds in dust from Asian, Australian, European, and North American homes and UK cars, classrooms, and offices. Environ Int. 2011;37:86-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Even under high-end exposure scenarios for dust and diet, PFOS and PFOA exposures are well within the European Food Safety Authority tolerable daily intakes. ..
  49. Hanssen L, Röllin H, Odland J, Moe M, Sandanger T. Perfluorinated compounds in maternal serum and cord blood from selected areas of South Africa: results of a pilot study. J Environ Monit. 2010;12:1355-61 pubmed publisher
  50. Christensen K, Maisonet M, Rubin C, Holmes A, Calafat A, Kato K, et al. Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals during pregnancy is not associated with offspring age at menarche in a contemporary British cohort. Environ Int. 2011;37:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..0. ALSPAC study participants had nearly ubiquitous exposure to most PFCs examined, but PFC exposure did not appear to be associated with altered age at menarche of their offspring. ..
  51. Karrman A, Langlois I, van Bavel B, Lindstrom G, Oehme M. Identification and pattern of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in human serum and plasma. Environ Int. 2007;33:782-8 pubmed
    ..Significant higher content of L-PFOS (68%) in Swedish samples compared to Australia and the UK (59%) was also found, which may suggest differences in exposure sources for humans. ..
  52. Steenland K, Tinker S, Frisbee S, Ducatman A, Vaccarino V. Association of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate with serum lipids among adults living near a chemical plant. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170:1268-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Because these data are cross-sectional, causal inference is limited. Nonetheless, the associations between these compounds and lipids raise concerns, given their common presence in the general population. ..
  53. Inoue K, Okada F, Ito R, Kato S, Sasaki S, Nakajima S, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in human maternal and cord blood samples: assessment of PFOS exposure in a susceptible population during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:1204-7 pubmed
    ..Further investigation is required to determine the postnatal effects of fetal exposure to FOCs. Key words: cord blood, fluorinated organic compounds, human, PFOA, PFOS, PFOSA, pregnancy. ..