Summary: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Kool E, Park D, Crisalli P. Fast hydrazone reactants: electronic and acid/base effects strongly influence rate at biological pH. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:17663-6 pubmed publisher
    ..4 reveal that carbonyl compounds with neighboring acid/base groups form hydrazones at accelerated rates...
  2. Zorlu A, Yucel H, Yontar O, Karahan O, Tandogan I, Katrancioglu N, et al. Effect of levosimendan in patients with severe systolic heart failure and worsening renal function. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012;98:537-43 pubmed
    ..Consideration of this differential effect might help obtain beneficial renal outcomes. ..
  3. Xu L, Li Y, Li L, Zhou S, Hou T. Understanding microscopic binding of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with phenolic hydrazones by molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. Mol Biosyst. 2012;8:2260-73 pubmed
    ..In the current work, the interactions between MIF and a series of phenolic hydrazones were studied by molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, binding free energy calculations, and ..
  4. Reid A, Lord T, Stanger S, Roman S, McCluskey A, Robinson P, et al. Dynamin regulates specific membrane fusion events necessary for acrosomal exocytosis in mouse spermatozoa. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37659-72 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of our collective data, we propose that dynamin could regulate specific membrane fusion events necessary for acrosomal exocytosis in mouse spermatozoa. ..
  5. Abdel Aziz H, Aboul Fadl T, Al Obaid A, Ghazzali M, Al Dhfyan A, Contini A. Design, synthesis and pharmacophoric model building of novel substituted nicotinic acid hydrazones with potential antiproliferative activity. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:1543-52 pubmed publisher
    Novel 6-aryl-2-methylnicotinic acid hydrazides 4a-c and their corresponding hydrazones 5a-c and 6a-i were synthesized. X-ray single crystal diffraction of 6h confirmed the chemical structure of hydrazones 6a-i...
  6. Crisalli P, Kool E. Water-soluble organocatalysts for hydrazone and oxime formation. J Org Chem. 2013;78:1184-9 pubmed publisher
    The formation of oximes and hydrazones is widely used in chemistry and biology as a molecular conjugation strategy for achieving ligation, attachment, and bioconjugation...
  7. Xu X, Zavalij P, Hu W, Doyle M. Vinylogous reactivity of enol diazoacetates with donor-acceptor substituted hydrazones. Synthesis of substituted pyrazole derivatives. J Org Chem. 2013;78:1583-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Rashidian M, Mahmoodi M, Shah R, Dozier J, Wagner C, Distefano M. A highly efficient catalyst for oxime ligation and hydrazone-oxime exchange suitable for bioconjugation. Bioconjug Chem. 2013;24:333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This new catalyst should have a significant impact on the field of bioconjugation, where oxime ligation and hydrazone-oxime exchange are commonly employed...
  9. Crisalli P, Kool E. Importance of ortho proton donors in catalysis of hydrazone formation. Org Lett. 2013;15:1646-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The experiments show that 2-aminobenzenephosphonic acids are superior to anthranilic acids in catalyzing hydrazone formation with common aldehyde substrates...

More Information


  1. Hamdy N, Abdel Aziz H, Kamel G, Fakhr I. Convenient synthesis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activites of some new bis-hydrazones and pyrazole derivatives. Acta Pol Pharm. 2013;70:469-80 pubmed
    ..1a-c) with 2-chloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethanone (2a) or 2-bromo-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanone (2b) afforded bis-hydrazones 6a-d, while the reaction of la-c with 2-oxo-N-arylpropanehydrazonoyl chlorides (3a,b) furnished N-(aryl)..
  2. Coimbra E, Antinarelli L, Da Silva A, Bispo M, Kaiser C, De Souza M. 7-Chloro-4-quinolinyl hydrazones: a promising and potent class of antileishmanial compounds. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2013;81:658-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Appreciable activity of three compounds tested can be considered an important finding for the rational design of new leads for antileishmanial compounds. ..
  3. Grossini E, Molinari C, Pollesello P, Bellomo G, Valente G, Mary D, et al. Levosimendan protection against kidney ischemia/reperfusion injuries in anesthetized pigs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;342:376-88 pubmed publisher
  4. McKibbin C, Mares A, Piacenti M, Williams H, Roboti P, Puumalainen M, et al. Inhibition of protein translocation at the endoplasmic reticulum promotes activation of the unfolded protein response. Biochem J. 2012;442:639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the accumulation of non-translocated proteins in the cytosol may represent a novel mechanism that contributes to UPR activation. ..
  5. Caimmi P, Molinari C, Uberti F, Micalizzi E, Valente G, Mary D, et al. Intracoronary levosimendan prevents myocardial ischemic damages and activates survival signaling through ATP-sensitive potassium channel and nitric oxide. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;39:e59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support interesting implications for cardioprotection in interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery. ..
  6. Christoph A, Prondzinsky R, Russ M, Janusch M, Schlitt A, Lemm H, et al. Early and sustained haemodynamic improvement with levosimendan compared to intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. Acute Card Care. 2008;10:49-57 pubmed
    ..18+/-0.15 (+10%) for IABP). Infusion of levosimendan in acute CS results in early and sustained haemodynamic improvement. Short-term haemodynamic effects compare favourably with those seen after invasive IABP placement. ..
  7. Peterson Q, Hsu D, Goode D, Novotny C, Totten R, Hergenrother P. Procaspase-3 activation as an anti-cancer strategy: structure-activity relationship of procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1) and its cellular co-localization with caspase-3. J Med Chem. 2009;52:5721-31 pubmed publisher
  8. Parle N, Thomas M, Dembo L, Best M, Driscoll G. Repeated infusions of levosimendan: well tolerated and improves functional capacity in decompensated heart failure - a single-centre experience. Heart Lung Circ. 2008;17:206-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In selected patients it can be administered in the community. Further investigation is required to assess the efficacy and safety of this approach. ..
  9. Terada N, Ohno N, Saitoh S, Saitoh Y, Fujii Y, Kondo T, et al. Involvement of dynamin-2 in formation of discoid vesicles in urinary bladder umbrella cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;337:91-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment of bladders with dynasore inhibits E. coli invasion of UCs. Dyn2 thus contributes to the structural integrity of DVs and to the endocytic activity of UCs. ..
  10. Seervi M, Joseph J, Sobhan P, Bhavya B, Santhoshkumar T. Essential requirement of cytochrome c release for caspase activation by procaspase-activating compound defined by cellular models. Cell Death Dis. 2011;2:e207 pubmed publisher
    ..This study for the first time defines precise criteria for the validation of direct caspase-activating compounds using specialized cellular models that is expected to accelerate the discovery of potential direct caspase activators. ..
  11. Soeding P, Crack P, Wright C, Angus J, Royse C. Levosimendan preserves the contractile responsiveness of hypoxic human myocardium via mitochondrial K(ATP) channel and potential pERK 1/2 activation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;655:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The significant increase in the activity of prosurvival mediators ERK 1/2 and P38 following hypoxia indicates a potential mechanism of action for levosimendan-induced cardioprotection. ..
  12. Erbuyun K, Vatansever S, Tok D, Ok G, Türköz E, Aydede H, et al. Effects of levosimendan and dobutamine on experimental acute lung injury in rats. Acta Histochem. 2009;111:404-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this experimental sepsis model, treatment with levosimendan had a marked effect on attenuating or decreasing apoptosis and inflammation in the lung. ..
  13. Du Toit E, Genis A, Opie L, Pollesello P, Lochner A. A role for the RISK pathway and K(ATP) channels in pre- and post-conditioning induced by levosimendan in the isolated guinea pig heart. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:41-50 pubmed publisher
  14. Mebazaa A, Nieminen M, Packer M, Cohen Solal A, Kleber F, Pocock S, et al. Levosimendan vs dobutamine for patients with acute decompensated heart failure: the SURVIVE Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2007;297:1883-91 pubmed
    ..clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00348504. ..
  15. Ramaswamykanive H, Bihari D, Solano T. Myocardial depression associated with pneumococcal septic shock reversed by levosimendan. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2007;35:409-13 pubmed
    ..We report the use of levosimendan in a patient with invasive streptococcal septic shock. ..
  16. Leppikangas H, Järvelä K, Sisto T, Maaranen P, Virtanen M, Lehto P, et al. Preoperative levosimendan infusion in combined aortic valve and coronary bypass surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2011;106:298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Levosimendan improved haemodynamics compared with a placebo in patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery. The concentrations of levosimendan's metabolites were higher compared with earlier studies using perioperative dosing. ..
  17. Schwarte L, Schwartges I, Thomas K, Schober P, Picker O. The effects of levosimendan and glibenclamide on circulatory and metabolic variables in a canine model of acute hypoxia. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37:701-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, LEVO pretreatment may be an option to support the systemic circulation during hypoxia. ..
  18. Smetana P, Geppert A. Levosimendan in cardiogenic shock: the magic drug for every patient?. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:2862-4 pubmed
  19. Zemljic G, Bunc M, Yazdanbakhsh A, Vrtovec B. Levosimendan improves renal function in patients with advanced chronic heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation. J Card Fail. 2007;13:417-21 pubmed
    ..5 mg/dL occurred in 50% patients from LS Group compared with 10% of Controls (P = .005). Levosimendan improves long-term renal function in advanced chronic heart failure patients awaiting cardiac transplantation. ..
  20. Tasouli A, Papadopoulos K, Antoniou T, Kriaras I, Stavridis G, Degiannis D, et al. Efficacy and safety of perioperative infusion of levosimendan in patients with compromised cardiac function undergoing open-heart surgery: importance of early use. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;32:629-33 pubmed
    ..The shortening of hospitalisation and the trend for better outcome confirm its clear superiority when the infusion starts from the operating theatre. ..
  21. Lu W, Ma H, Sheng Z, Mochida S. Dynamin and activity regulate synaptic vesicle recycling in sympathetic neurons. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1930-7 pubmed publisher
  22. Landoni G, Mizzi A, Biondi Zoccai G, Bignami E, Prati P, Ajello V, et al. Levosimendan reduces mortality in critically ill patients. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Minerva Anestesiol. 2010;76:276-86 pubmed
    ..106/1093 [9.7%] in the control arm P=0.02). Levosimendan has cardioprotective effects that could result in a reduced mortality in critically ill patients. A large randomized controlled study is warranted in this setting. ..
  23. Roehl A, Hein M, Loetscher P, Rossaint J, Weis J, Rossaint R, et al. Neuroprotective properties of levosimendan in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury. BMC Neurol. 2010;10:97 pubmed publisher
    ..01 or 0.1 ?M levosimendan compared to vehicle-treated slices. Levosimendan represents a promising new pharmacological tool for neuroprotection after brain injury and warrants further investigation in an in vivo model. ..
  24. Yildiz O. Vasodilating mechanisms of levosimendan: involvement of K+ channels. J Pharmacol Sci. 2007;104:1-5 pubmed
    ..It also summarizes the current experimental and clinical knowledge of the use of levosimedan in the treatment of heart failure. ..
  25. Hayakawa M, Kawaguchi K, Kaizawa H, Koizumi T, Ohishi T, Yamano M, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of sulfonylhydrazone-substituted imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines as novel PI3 kinase p110alpha inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:5837-44 pubmed
    ..26 nM, respectively; to the best of our knowledge, these compounds are the most potent PI3K p110alpha inhibitors reported to date. Compound 8c was also stable in solution and exhibited significant anti-tumor effectiveness in vivo. ..
  26. Grossini E, Molinari C, Caimmi P, Uberti F, Vacca G. Levosimendan induces NO production through p38 MAPK, ERK and Akt in porcine coronary endothelial cells: role for mitochondrial K(ATP) channel. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;156:250-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In CEC levosimendan induced eNOS-dependent NO production through Akt, ERK and p38. This intracellular pathway is associated with the opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels and involves cAMP. ..
  27. Wang Q, Mora Jensen H, Weniger M, Perez Galan P, Wolford C, Hai T, et al. ERAD inhibitors integrate ER stress with an epigenetic mechanism to activate BH3-only protein NOXA in cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify a class of anticancer agents that integrate ER stress response with an epigenetic mechanism to induce cell death. ..
  28. Poelzl G, Zwick R, Grander W, Metzler B, Jonetzko P, Frick M, et al. Safety and effectiveness of levosimendan in patients with predominant right heart failure. Herz. 2008;33:368-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Augmentation in RVSWI indicates an increase in right ventricular contractility rather than reduction in afterload as a possible pathophysiological mechanism. ..
  29. Parissis J, Rafouli Stergiou P, Paraskevaidis I, Mebazaa A. Levosimendan: from basic science to clinical practice. Heart Fail Rev. 2009;14:265-75 pubmed publisher
  30. Salgin Gökşen U, Gökhan Kelekçi N, Goktas O, Köysal Y, Kiliç E, Isik S, et al. 1-Acylthiosemicarbazides, 1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thiones, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and hydrazones containing 5-methyl-2-benzoxazolinones: synthesis, analgesic-anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:5738-51 pubmed
    ..While most compounds were exhibiting high activity in the analgesic-anti-inflammatory field, most of them were found to be inactive against bacteria and fungi. ..
  31. Morelli A, Ertmer C, Pietropaoli P, Westphal M. Reducing the risk of major elective non-cardiac surgery: is there a role for levosimendan in the preoperative optimization of cardiac function?. Curr Drug Targets. 2009;10:863-71 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, large-scale trials are needed before final conclusions can be drawn on the use of levosimendan in this indication. ..
  32. West D, Qin Y, Peterson Q, Thomas D, Palchaudhuri R, Morrison K, et al. Differential effects of procaspase-3 activating compounds in the induction of cancer cell death. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:1425-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest strategies for anticancer clinical development, specifically bolus dosing for PAC-1 and continuous rate infusion for S-PAC-1. ..
  33. Oettinger C, D Souza M. Synergism in survival to endotoxic shock in rats given microencapsulated CNI-1493 and antisense oligomers to NF-kappaB. J Microencapsul. 2010;27:372-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple drugs acting at different sites in the synthesis of TNF may be useful in the treatment of disease states characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine release. ..
  34. Hasslacher J, Bijuklic K, Bertocchi C, Kountchev J, Bellmann R, Dunzendorfer S, et al. Levosimendan inhibits release of reactive oxygen species in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and in patients with acute heart failure and septic shock: a prospective observational study. Crit Care. 2011;15:R166 pubmed publisher
    ..01) respectively. Levosimendan appears to exert distinct immunomodulatory effects by decreasing oxidative burst activity of PMN. This property might contribute to the previously described cardioprotective effects of the drug. ..
  35. De Hert S, Lorsomradee S, Cromheecke S, Van der Linden P. The effects of levosimendan in cardiac surgery patients with poor left ventricular function. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:766-73 pubmed
    ..In cardiac surgery patients with a low preoperative ejection fraction, stroke volume was better maintained with the combination of dobutamine with levosimendan than with the combination of dobutamine with milrinone. ..
  36. Pollesello P, Papp Z. The cardioprotective effects of levosimendan: preclinical and clinical evidence. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2007;50:257-63 pubmed
    ..A therapeutic approach to acute heart failure that includes a cardioprotective strategy could have a clinically meaningful benefit on disease progression beyond alleviation of symptoms. ..
  37. Basheer C, Wong W, Makahleh A, Tameem A, Salhin A, Saad B, et al. Hydrazone-based ligands for micro-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in orange juice. J Chromatogr A. 2011;1218:4332-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The orange juices were characterized by the presence of relatively high levels of putrescine (range, 550-2210 ?g L(-1)) but tryptamine and phenylethylamine were not detected in any of the tested samples...
  38. Chung C, Barylko B, Leitz J, Liu X, Kavalali E. Acute dynamin inhibition dissects synaptic vesicle recycling pathways that drive spontaneous and evoked neurotransmission. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1363-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This result lends additional support to the notion that synapses harbor distinct vesicle populations with divergent release properties that maintain independent forms of neurotransmission. ..
  39. Gübbük I, Gup R, Ersoz M. Synthesis, characterization, and sorption properties of silica gel-immobilized Schiff base derivative. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2008;320:376-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Negative DeltaG values indicated that the sorption process for these three metal ions onto immobilized silica gel is spontaneous. ..
  40. Kirchhausen T, Macia E, Pelish H. Use of dynasore, the small molecule inhibitor of dynamin, in the regulation of endocytosis. Methods Enzymol. 2008;438:77-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present a detailed synthesis protocol for dynasore, and describe a series of experiments used to analyze the inhibitory effects of dynasore on dynamin in vitro and to study the effects of dynasore on endocytosis in cells. ..
  41. Fries M, Ince C, Rossaint R, Bleilevens C, Bickenbach J, Rex S, et al. Levosimendan but not norepinephrine improves microvascular oxygenation during experimental septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1886-91 pubmed publisher
    ..However, only levosimendan significantly improved microPO2, suggesting that a mechanism relatively independent of macrocirculatory hemodynamics and overall microvascular perfusion might account for these observations. ..
  42. Scheiermann P, Ahluwalia D, Hoegl S, Dolfen A, Revermann M, Zwissler B, et al. Effects of intravenous and inhaled levosimendan in severe rodent sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:1412-9 pubmed publisher
    ..v. and inh. LEVO equally attenuated arterial hypotension, metabolic acidosis and prolonged survival. Moreover, i.v. and inh. LEVO inhibited proinflammatory mediator release and reduced splenic caspase-3 expression. ..
  43. Yoshii H, Kamiyama H, Goto K, Oishi K, Katunuma N, Tanaka Y, et al. CD4-independent human immunodeficiency virus infection involves participation of endocytosis and cathepsin B. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19352 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that endocytosis, endosomal acidification, and cathepsin B activity are involved in the CD4-independent entry of HIV-1...
  44. Sriram D, Yogeeswari P, Vyas D, Senthilkumar P, Bhat P, Srividya M. 5-Nitro-2-furoic acid hydrazones: design, synthesis and in vitro antimycobacterial evaluation against log and starved phase cultures. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:4313-6 pubmed publisher
    Various 5-nitro-2-furoic acid hydrazones were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro activities against log and starved phase culture of two mycobacterial species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isocitrate lyase (ICL) enzyme ..
  45. Jain J, Kumar Y, Sinha R, Kumar R, Stables J. Menthone aryl acid hydrazones: a new class of anticonvulsants. Med Chem. 2011;7:56-61 pubmed
    ..menthone Schiff bases, menthone semicarbazides and thiosemicarbazides. ..
  46. Wang Q, Li L, Ye Y. Inhibition of p97-dependent protein degradation by Eeyarestatin I. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7445-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, p97-associated deubiquitination is also involved in degradation of a soluble substrate. Our analyses establish a role for a novel deubiquitinating process in proteasome-dependent protein turnover. ..
  47. Altenberger J, Parissis J, Ulmer H, Poelzl G. Rationale and design of the multicentre randomized trial investigating the efficacy and safety of pulsed infusions of levosimendan in outpatients with advanced heart failure (LevoRep study). Eur J Heart Fail. 2010;12:186-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are expected to promote the development of evidence-based recommendations for the ambulatory management of patients with end-stage heart failure. ..
  48. Blanden A, Mukherjee K, Dilek O, Loew M, Bane S. 4-aminophenylalanine as a biocompatible nucleophilic catalyst for hydrazone ligations at low temperature and neutral pH. Bioconjug Chem. 2011;22:1954-61 pubmed publisher
  49. Parissis J, Andreadou I, Markantonis S, Bistola V, Louka A, Pyriochou A, et al. Effects of Levosimendan on circulating markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress in patients with advanced heart failure. Atherosclerosis. 2007;195:e210-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover, levosimendan may exert its biologic action through non-cGMP-dependent biochemical pathways. ..
  50. Koudouna E, Xanthos T, Bassiakou E, Goulas S, Lelovas P, Papadimitriou D, et al. Levosimendan improves the initial outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a swine model of cardiac arrest. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51:1123-9 pubmed
    ..A calcium sensitizer agent, when administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, significantly improves initial resuscitation success and increases coronary perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. ..
  51. Lehtonen L, Põder P. The utility of levosimendan in the treatment of heart failure. Ann Med. 2007;39:2-17 pubmed
    ..The two trials showed that levosimendan improves the symptoms of heart failure, but does not improve survival. The results raise the question whether a 24-hour levosimendan infusion can be used without invasive hemodynamic monitoring. ..
  52. Järvelä K, Maaranen P, Sisto T, Ruokonen E. Levosimendan in aortic valve surgery: cardiac performance and recovery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;22:693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Levosimendan causes vasodilation and thereby decreases mean arterial pressure, but this can be controlled with the use of norepinephrine. ..
  53. Ristikankare A, Pöyhiä R, Eriksson H, Valtonen M, Leino K, Salmenperä M. Effects of levosimendan on renal function in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2012;26:591-5 pubmed publisher
    ..After coronary artery surgery, levosimendan did not have a significant influence on the kidney function measured with these specific kidney markers. ..
  54. De Luca L, Mebazaa A, Filippatos G, Parissis J, Bohm M, Voors A, et al. Overview of emerging pharmacologic agents for acute heart failure syndromes. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008;10:201-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In spite of these promising findings, no new agent has demonstrated a clear benefit in terms of long-term clinical outcomes compared to placebo or conventional therapies. ..
  55. Wang Q, Shinkre B, Lee J, Weniger M, Liu Y, Chen W, et al. The ERAD inhibitor Eeyarestatin I is a bifunctional compound with a membrane-binding domain and a p97/VCP inhibitory group. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15479 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also suggest that the AAA ATPase p97 may be a potential drug target for cancer therapeutics. ..
  56. Al Bogami A, Al Majid A, Al Saad M, Mousa A, Al Mazroa S, Alkhathlan H. Cyclization of hydrazones of 2-acetyl-1-naphthol and 1-acetyl-2-naphthol with triphosgene. Synthesis of Spiro naphthoxazine dimers. Molecules. 2009;14:2147-59 pubmed publisher
    Cyclization of hydrazones derived from 2-acetyl-1-naphthol and 1-acetyl-2-naphthol with triphosgene gave naphtho[1,2-e]-1,3-oxazines, naphtho[2,1-e]-1,3-oxazines or their spiro dimers depending on the molar ratio of triphosgene used for ..
  57. Landoni G, Mizzi A, Biondi Zoccai G, Bruno G, Bignami E, Corno L, et al. Reducing mortality in cardiac surgery with levosimendan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2010;24:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Levosimendan has cardioprotective effects that could result in a reduced postoperative mortality. A large randomized controlled study is warranted in this setting. ..
  58. Eriksson H, Jalonen J, Heikkinen L, Kivikko M, Laine M, Leino K, et al. Levosimendan facilitates weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with impaired left ventricular function. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87:448-54 pubmed publisher
    ..112). Levosimendan significantly enhanced primary weaning from CPB compared with placebo in patients undergoing 3-vessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. The need for additional inotropic or mechanical therapy was decreased. ..
  59. Yilmaz M, Yalta K, Yontar C, Karadas F, Erdem A, Turgut O, et al. Levosimendan improves renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure: comparison with dobutamine. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2007;21:431-5 pubmed
    ..09%) was seen. Both agents improved 24-h urinary output. Levosimendan seems to provide beneficial effects in terms of improvement in renal function compared to dobutamine in patients with heart failure who require inotropic therapy. ..
  60. Lafci B, Yasa H, Ilhan G, Ortac R, Yilik L, Kestelli M, et al. Protection of the spinal cord from ischemia: comparative effects of levosimendan and iloprost. Eur Surg Res. 2008;41:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that levosimendan, as well as iloprost, may reduce ischemic damage in transient spinal ischemia and provide better neurologic outcome. ..
  61. Ertmer C, Morelli A, Westphal M. Levo is in the air: take a deep breath!. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1979-81 pubmed publisher
  62. Hönisch A, Theuring N, Ebner B, Wagner C, Strasser R, Weinbrenner C. Postconditioning with levosimendan reduces the infarct size involving the PI3K pathway and KATP-channel activation but is independent of PDE-III inhibition. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010;105:155-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether the reduction of mortality in cardiogenic shock by levosimendan may in part be based on this postconditioning effect remains to be elucidated in clinical setting. ..
  63. Kalia J, Raines R. Hydrolytic stability of hydrazones and oximes. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47:7523-6 pubmed publisher
  64. Denault J, Drag M, Salvesen G, Alves J, Heidt A, Deveraux Q, et al. Small molecules not direct activators of caspases. Nat Chem Biol. 2007;3:519; author reply 520 pubmed
  65. Das B, Sarkar C. Pharmacological preconditioning by levosimendan is mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase and mitochondrial KATP channel activation in the in vivo anesthetized rabbit heart model. Vascul Pharmacol. 2007;47:248-56 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrates similarities between acute LEV treatment and IPC of the rabbit myocardium in terms of survival, cardioprotection, antiarrhythmic activity, and metabolic status. ..
  66. Caimmi P, Kapetanakis E, Beggino C, Molinari C, Giustini G, Crosio E, et al. Management of acute cardiac failure by intracoronary administration of levosimendan. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2011;58:246-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, IC Levosimendan administration in acute heart failure is safe and efficacious producing improved cardiac function without significant detrimental hypotension. ..
  67. Tritapepe L, De Santis V, Vitale D, Guarracino F, Pellegrini F, Pietropaoli P, et al. Levosimendan pre-treatment improves outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102:198-204 pubmed publisher
  68. Aletrari M, McKibbin C, Williams H, Pawar V, Pietroni P, Lord J, et al. Eeyarestatin 1 interferes with both retrograde and anterograde intracellular trafficking pathways. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22713 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated ESI as a potential inhibitor of toxin dislocation...
  69. Yilmaz M, Yontar C, Erdem A, Karadas F, Yalta K, Turgut O, et al. Comparative effects of levosimendan and dobutamine on right ventricular function in patients with biventricular heart failure. Heart Vessels. 2009;24:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Levosimendan seems to offer more beneficial effects compared to dobutamine in a specific group of patients with biventricular failure. ..
  70. Hein M, Roehl A, Baumert J, Scherer K, Steendijk P, Rossaint R. Anti-ischemic effects of inotropic agents in experimental right ventricular infarction. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53:941-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardioprotective properties of milrinone and levosimendan were demonstrated for the first time in a clinically relevant model of RV infarction. ..
  71. Douthitt H, Luo F, McCann S, Meriney S. Dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin, increases the probability of transmitter release. Neuroscience. 2011;172:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in interpreting effects of the dynamin inhibitor dynasore at synapses, one must be alert to potential increases in presynaptic calcium concentration and transmitter release probability. ..
  72. Dirksen A, Dawson P. Rapid oxime and hydrazone ligations with aromatic aldehydes for biomolecular labeling. Bioconjug Chem. 2008;19:2543-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The utility of the approach is demonstrated by the p-fluorobenzylation of human serum albumin and by the fluorescent labeling of an unprotected peptide with Alexa Fluor 488...
  73. Gilleron J, Carette D, Fiorini C, Dompierre J, Macia E, Denizot J, et al. The large GTPase dynamin2: a new player in connexin 43 gap junction endocytosis, recycling and degradation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:1208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These processes are magnified in response to carcinogen exposure underlining their potential importance during carcinogenesis. ..
  74. Chew M, Hawthorne W, Bendall J, Whereat S, Huang S, Ting I, et al. No beneficial effects of levosimendan in acute porcine endotoxaemia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2011;55:851-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperlactataemia, acidosis and increases in plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines were observed, the mechanisms and implications of which remain unclear. ..
  75. Mebazaa A, Nieminen M, Filippatos G, Cleland J, Salon J, Thakkar R, et al. Levosimendan vs. dobutamine: outcomes for acute heart failure patients on beta-blockers in SURVIVE. Eur J Heart Fail. 2009;11:304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are preliminary but important for planning future studies. ..
  76. Bravo M, Bravo M, Lopez P, Cabanas F, Pérez Rodríguez J, Pérez Fernández E, et al. Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: an observational study. Neonatology. 2011;99:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Levosimendan improves cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in critically ill infants suffering from LCOS. ..
  77. Wang B, Yang Z, Crewdson P, Wang D. Synthesis, crystal structure and DNA-binding studies of the Ln(III) complex with 6-hydroxychromone-3-carbaldehyde benzoyl hydrazone. J Inorg Biochem. 2007;101:1492-504 pubmed
    ..The intrinsic binding constants of complexes 1 and 2, and L were (7.62+/-0.56)x10(6), (3.70+/-0.47)x10(6) and (2.41+/-0.46)x10(6)M(-1), respectively. ..
  78. Cross B, McKibbin C, Callan A, Roboti P, Piacenti M, Rabu C, et al. Eeyarestatin I inhibits Sec61-mediated protein translocation at the endoplasmic reticulum. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:4393-400 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify a novel effect of ES(I), and suggest that the drug can modulate canonical protein transport from the cytosol into the mammalian ER both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  79. Pinto B, Rehberg S, Ertmer C, Westphal M. Role of levosimendan in sepsis and septic shock. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2008;21:168-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Future large-scale multicenter clinical trials are now needed to clarify whether levosimendan improves the overall outcome of patients with sepsis and septic shock. ..
  80. García Septien J, Lorente J, Delgado M, De Paula M, Nin N, Moscoso A, et al. Levosimendan increases portal blood flow and attenuates intestinal intramucosal acidosis in experimental septic shock. Shock. 2010;34:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with levosimendan in this animal model of sepsis attenuated pulmonary vasoconstriction and improved portal blood flow, intestinal mucosal oxygenation, pulmonary function, and vascular reactivity. ..
  81. Kovarikova P, Vavrova K, Tomalová K, Schöngut M, Hruskova K, Haskova P, et al. HPLC-DAD and MS/MS analysis of novel drug candidates from the group of aromatic hydrazones revealing the presence of geometric isomers. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;48:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..purity of peaks and revealed close but not identical UV spectra of putative impurities and corresponding hydrazones. The subsequent HPLC-MS/MS analyses using ESI and the ion trap mass analyzer showed the identical molecular ions ..
  82. Li F, Miao Y, Zhang L, Neuenswander S, Douglas J, Ma X. Metabolomic analysis reveals novel isoniazid metabolites and hydrazones in human urine. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2011;26:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight known and seven novel INH metabolites and hydrazones were identified in human urine. The novel products included two hydroxylated INH metabolites and five hydrazones...
  83. Samimi Fard S, Garcia Gonzalez M, Dominguez Rodriguez A, Abreu Gonzalez P. Effects of levosimendan versus dobutamine on long-term survival of patients with cardiogenic shock after primary coronary angioplasty. Int J Cardiol. 2008;127:284-7 pubmed
    ..24). Levosimendan compared to dobutamine did not improve long-term survival in STEMI patients revascularized by PCI who developed CS. ..
  84. Chen C, Hou W, Liu I, Hsiao G, Huang S, Huang J. Inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis enhance TGFbeta signaling and responses. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1863-71 pubmed publisher