butylated hydroxyanisole


Summary: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.

Top Publications

  1. Hayes J, Chanas S, Henderson C, McMahon M, Sun C, Moffat G, et al. The Nrf2 transcription factor contributes both to the basal expression of glutathione S-transferases in mouse liver and to their induction by the chemopreventive synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole and ethoxyquin. Biochem Soc Trans. 2000;28:33-41 pubmed
    ..leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 is involved in induction of GST by the phenolic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)...
  2. Saito M, Sakagami H, Fujisawa S. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Anticancer Res. 2003;23:4693-701 pubmed
    The cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BMP) and the mixture of BHA and BHT (BHA/BHT) (1:1, molar ratio) were investigated, using ..
  3. Vandghanooni S, Forouharmehr A, Eskandani M, Barzegari A, Kafil V, Kashanian S, et al. Cytotoxicity and DNA fragmentation properties of butylated hydroxyanisole. DNA Cell Biol. 2013;32:98-103 pubmed publisher
    b>Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic food additive that is used to prevent oils, fats, and shortenings from oxidative deterioration and rancidity...
  4. Abiko Y, Miura T, Phuc B, Shinkai Y, Kumagai Y. Participation of covalent modification of Keap1 in the activation of Nrf2 by tert-butylbenzoquinone, an electrophilic metabolite of butylated hydroxyanisole. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;255:32-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is an antioxidant and class-2B carcinogen. It is biotransformed to tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), which readily auto-oxidizes to the electrophilic metabolite tert-butylbenzoquinone (TBQ)...
  5. Yu R, Tan T, Kong A. Butylated hydroxyanisole and its metabolite tert-butylhydroquinone differentially regulate mitogen-activated protein kinases. The role of oxidative stress in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by phenolic antioxidants. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:28962-70 pubmed
    Phenolic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a commonly used food preservative with broad biological activities, including protection against acute toxicity of chemicals, modulation of macromolecule synthesis and immune response,..
  6. Ishii T, Itoh K, Akasaka J, Yanagawa T, Takahashi S, Yoshida H, et al. Induction of murine intestinal and hepatic peroxiredoxin MSP23 by dietary butylated hydroxyanisole. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21:1013-6 pubmed
    ..The induction of MSP23 may be important to protect the cells and tissues against toxic electrophiles and reactive oxygen species. ..
  7. Murakami Y, Shoji M, Hirata A, Tanaka S, Hanazawa S, Yokoe I, et al. An ortho dimer of butylated hydroxyanisole inhibits nuclear factor kappa B activation and gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;449:171-7 pubmed
    b>Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHA, is widely used as a potent antioxidant, but its adverse effects such as carcinogenesis and proinflammatory activity have been reported, which are possibly due to the prooxidant property of this compound...
  8. Slamenova D, Horvathova E, Robichova S, Hrusovská L, Gabelova A, Kleibl K, et al. Molecular and cellular influences of butylated hydroxyanisole on Chinese hamster V79 cells treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine: antimutagenicity of butylated hydroxyanisole. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2003;41:28-36 pubmed
    The antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a rodent carcinogen that also reduces the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of other agents...
  9. Nair S, Xu C, Shen G, Hebbar V, Gopalakrishnan A, Hu R, et al. Pharmacogenomics of phenolic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in the small intestine and liver of Nrf2 knockout and C57BL/6J mice. Pharm Res. 2006;23:2621-37 pubmed
    ..and the spatial regulation of global gene expression profiles elicited by cancer chemopreventive agent butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in mouse small intestine and liver as well as to identify BHA-modulated nuclear factor-E2-related ..

More Information


  1. Keum Y, Han Y, Liew C, Kim J, Xu C, Yuan X, et al. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD[P]H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by a phenolic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) in primary-cultured human and rat hepatocytes. Pharm Res. 2006;23:2586-94 pubmed
    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of a phenolic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) on the induction of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 proteins and their regulatory mechanisms ..
  2. Botterweck A, Verhagen H, Goldbohm R, Kleinjans J, van den Brandt P. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk: results from analyses in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000;38:599-605 pubmed
    Both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)...
  3. Kim J, Choi S, Kim J, Lee B, Lee K, Lee H. Differential regulation of the hydrogen-peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication by resveratrol and butylated hydroxyanisole. Mutat Res. 2009;671:40-4 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluate the effects of two different phenolic antioxidants, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication (..
  4. Nie X, Gu J, Lu J, Pan W, Yang Y. Effects of norfloxacin and butylated hydroxyanisole on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Ecotoxicology. 2009;18:677-84 pubmed publisher
    The toxic effects of norfloxacin (NOR) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) on the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus were assessed in terms of growth rate, concentration of chlorophyll a, activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-dealkylases (EROD), ..
  5. Hecht S, Kenney P, Wang M, Trushin N, Agarwal S, Rao A, et al. Evaluation of butylated hydroxyanisole, myo-inositol, curcumin, esculetin, resveratrol and lycopene as inhibitors of benzo[a]pyrene plus 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. Cancer Lett. 1999;137:123-30 pubmed
    The potential activities of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), myo-inositol, curcumin, esculetin, resveratrol and lycopene-enriched tomato oleoresin (LTO) as chemopreventive agents against lung tumor induction in A/J mice by the tobacco ..
  6. Tormin T, Gimenes D, Richter E, Munoz R. Fast and direct determination of butylated hydroxyanisole in biodiesel by batch injection analysis with amperometric detection. Talanta. 2011;85:1274-8 pubmed publisher
    ..batch injection analysis (BIA) with amperometric detection for determination of the phenolic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in biodiesel...
  7. Yuan X, Xu C, Pan Z, Keum Y, Kim J, Shen G, et al. Butylated hydroxyanisole regulates ARE-mediated gene expression via Nrf2 coupled with ERK and JNK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. Mol Carcinog. 2006;45:841-50 pubmed
    ..of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the regulation of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)-induced and Nrf2-dependent ARE transcriptional activity and ARE-mediated endogenous heme oxygenase-..
  8. Murakami Y, Shoji M, Ogiwara T, Tanaka S, Yokoe I, Fujisawa S. Preventive effect of ortho dimer of butylated hydroxyanisole on activator protein-1 activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages stimulated by fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis, an oral anaerobe. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:2915-20 pubmed
    b>Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA; a mixture of 2- and 3-BHA) is widely used as a potent antioxidant, but is reported to have adverse effects, such as carcinogenesis and pro-inflammatory activity, possibly due to the pro-oxidant property of ..
  9. Singh B, Mense S, Remotti F, Liu X, Bhat H. Antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole inhibits estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis in female ACI rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2009;23:202-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Female ACI rats were treated with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), or a combination of E(2) + BHA for up to 240 days...
  10. Festjens N, Kalai M, Smet J, Meeus A, Van Coster R, Saelens X, et al. Butylated hydroxyanisole is more than a reactive oxygen species scavenger. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:166-9 pubmed
  11. Moon H, Park W. Butylated hydroxyanisole inhibits the growth of HeLa cervical cancer cells via caspase-dependent apoptosis and GSH depletion. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;349:179-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a synthetic antioxidant is commonly used as a preservative in food and pharmaceutical agents. Despite the assumed low toxicity of BHA, it exerts a variety of effects on tissues and cell functions...
  12. Thomas S, Bodour A, Murray K, Inniss E. Sorption behavior of a synthetic antioxidant, polycyclic musk, and an organophosphate insecticide in wastewater sludge. Water Sci Technol. 2009;60:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Future investigations should evaluate WWTP processes for degrading ECs to harmless products and releases of ECs from sludge. ..
  13. Malpure P, Shah A, Juvekar A. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of extract obtained from Aspergillus candidus MTCC 2202 broth filtrate. Indian J Exp Biol. 2006;44:468-73 pubmed
    ..The exhibited antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract of A. candidus broth filtrate was comparable with BHA and ascorbic acid, while anti-inflammatory activity was comparable with standard diclofenac sodium. ..
  14. Felton L, Yang J, Shah K, Omidian H, Rocca J. A rapid technique to evaluate the oxidative stability of a model drug. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2007;33:683-9 pubmed
    ..b>Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was found to better stabilize the drug than butylated hydroxytoluene at equivalent concentrations...
  15. McLellan L, Judah D, Neal G, Hayes J. Regulation of aflatoxin B1-metabolizing aldehyde reductase and glutathione S-transferase by chemoprotectors. Biochem J. 1994;300 ( Pt 1):117-24 pubmed
    ..stress, that is invoked by both chemoprotectors and carcinogens, we have examined the effects of EQ, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), phenobarbital (PB), AFB1, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and ..
  16. Xiong Z, Wang L, Li N, Yu Y, Jia X. [Determination of antioxidant residues in polymer food package using gas chromatography]. Se Pu. 2011;29:273-6 pubmed
    A new method for the determination of antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in plastic food package by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (ECD) was ..
  17. Nagababu E, Lakshmaiah N. Inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation and monooxygenase activities by eugenol. Free Radic Res. 1994;20:253-66 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that eugenol has the potential to be used as a therapeutic antioxidant. Further evaluation may throw more light on this aspect. ..
  18. Bacsi A, Kannan S, Lee M, Hazra T, Boldogh I. Modulation of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity in chlorambucil-treated cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;39:1650-9 pubmed
    ..Data from these studies provide the first evidence that oxidative stress effects posttranslational modification and assembly of DNA-PK complex at DNA dsbs, and thereby repair of DNA dsbs. ..
  19. Criado S, Allevi C, Ceballos C, Garcia N. Visible-light promoted degradation of the commercial antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): a kinetic study. Redox Rep. 2007;12:282-8 pubmed
    Visible-light photo-irradiation of the commercial phenolic antioxidants (PhAs) butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in the presence of vitamin B2 (riboflavin, Rf), in methanolic solutions and under aerobic ..
  20. de Camargo J, Shirai T, Kato T, Asamoto M, Fukushima S. Summation effects of uracil and other promoters on epithelial lesion development in the F344 rat urinary bladder initiated by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1991;82:1220-5 pubmed
  21. Ansar S, Iqbal M. Antioxidant and nephroprotective potential of butylated hydroxyanisole against ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced oxidative stress and early tumor events. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2016;35:448-53 pubmed publisher
    The present study was aimed to study protective effect of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a phenolic antioxidant used in foods on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced nephrotoxicity...
  22. Prasad W, Khamrui K, Mandal S, Badola R. Anti-oxidative, physico-chemical and sensory attributes of burfi affected by incorporation of different herbs and its comparison with synthetic anti-oxidant (BHA). J Food Sci Technol. 2017;54:3802-3809 pubmed publisher
    ..milk product, for their ability to act as natural anti-oxidant and were compared against butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)...
  23. Wang J, Wu H, Chen Y, Zhai M, Qing X, Yu R. Quantitative determination of butylated hydroxyanisole and n-propyl gallate in cosmetics using three-dimensional fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration. Talanta. 2013;116:347-53 pubmed publisher
    This work presents a novel approach for simultaneous determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl gallate (PG) in a very interfering environment by combining the sensitivity of molecular fluorescence and the selectivity of ..
  24. Nomura Y, Iguchi M, Doi H, Tomioka K. A chiral ligand-mediated asymmetric addition of a lithium BHA ester enolate to an aldehyde. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002;50:1131-4 pubmed
    ..A variation of lithiating amide agent affected the selectivity, indicating involvement of an amine as a component of the mixed aggregate. Absolute configuration of some of the aldol products was determined by standard transformations. ..
  25. Sawai H, Ogiso H, Okazaki T. Differential changes in sphingolipids between TNF-induced necroptosis and apoptosis in U937 cells and necroptosis-resistant sublines. Leuk Res. 2015;39:964-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were elevated in both necroptosis and apoptosis, the treatment with butylated hydroxyanisole, an antioxidant, significantly inhibited increases in ceramide levels and PI-positive cells only in ..
  26. Marothu V, Yerramothu P, Gorrepati M, Majeti S, Mamidala S, Nellutla A. Application of HPLC to assess the compatibility of bisoprolol fumarate with selected excipients in mixtures by isothermal stress testing. Ann Pharm Fr. 2015;73:442-51 pubmed publisher
    ..compatibility between bisoprolol fumarate and selected excipients (ascorbic acid, citric acid anhydrous, butylated hydroxyanisole, polyvinylpyrrolidone, glycerol, mannitol and sorbitol) in mixtures (1:10 ratio of drug and excipient) ..
  27. Wang J, Wu D, Huang D, Lin W. TAK1 inhibition-induced RIP1-dependent apoptosis in murine macrophages relies on constitutive TNF-α signaling and ROS production. J Biomed Sci. 2015;22:76 pubmed publisher
    ..TAKI-induced cytotoxicity is cell context specific, and apoptosis observed in macrophages is dependent on the constitutive autocrine action of TNF-α for RIP1 activation and ROS production. ..
  28. Raharjo Y, Cheeke P, Arscott G. Effects of dietary butylated hydroxyanisole and cysteine on toxicity of Lathyrus odoratus to broiler and Japanese quail chicks. Poult Sci. 1988;67:153-5 pubmed
    The effect of .75% dietary butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and 1% cysteine on the toxicity of Lathyrus odoratus seed to Japanese quail and broiler chicks was examined...
  29. Gulcin I. Antioxidant activity of L-adrenaline: a structure-activity insight. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;179:71-80 pubmed publisher
    ..2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 30 microg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), alpha-tocopherol and trolox displayed 83.3, 82.1, 68.1 and 81...
  30. Hu J, Kulkarni A. [Lipoxygenase-mediated N-demethylation of pesticides in vitro]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2002;20:409-12 pubmed
    ..The inhibition of formaldehyde generation by butylated hydroxyanisole(BHT) and butylated hydroxy toluene(BHA) further supported this contention...
  31. Hashimoto K, Simmons A, Kajino Sakamoto R, Tsuji Y, Ninomiya Tsuji J. TAK1 Regulates the Nrf2 Antioxidant System Through Modulating p62/SQSTM1. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2016;25:953-964 pubmed
    ..In Tak1-deficient intestinal epithelium, a synthetic phenolic electrophile, butylated hydroxyanisole still effectively upregulated Nrf2 and reduced ROS...
  32. Naseem A, Tariq A, Imran M, Begum I, Rehman S, Kanwal F. Stabilization studies of sunflower oil with antioxidants extracted from green and black cardamom. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017;30:1317-1320 pubmed
    ..The results showed that green cardamom extracts were more effective compared to black cardamom extracts. However compared to BHA and BHT (200ppm), these were found to be effective at higher concentrations...
  33. Carriere A, Fernandez Y, Rigoulet M, Penicaud L, Casteilla L. Inhibition of preadipocyte proliferation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. FEBS Lett. 2003;550:163-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species can influence development of adipose tissue by affecting the size of the white preadipocyte pool. ..
  34. Lu H, Wu H, Hsia T, Chen W, Hung C, Chung J. Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on DNA adduct formation and arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in human bladder tumour cells. J Appl Toxicol. 2002;22:37-44 pubmed
    In this study, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used to determine the inhibition of arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and DNA adduct formation in human bladder tumour cell line T-24...
  35. Sauriasari R, Wang D, Takemura Y, Tsutsui K, Masuoka N, Sano K, et al. Cytotoxicity of lawsone and cytoprotective activity of antioxidants in catalase mutant Escherichia coli. Toxicology. 2007;235:103-11 pubmed
    ..We suggest that lawsone cytotoxicity is probably mediated, at least in part, by the release of O(2)(-), H(2)O(2) and OH(-)...
  36. Miyazaki I, Asanuma M, Diaz Corrales F, Fukuda M, Kitaichi K, Miyoshi K, et al. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is regulated by quinone-formation-related molecules. FASEB J. 2006;20:571-3 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, pretreatment of CATH.a cells with quinone reductase inducer, butylated hydroxyanisole, significantly and dose-dependently blocked METH-induced elevation of quinoprotein, and ameliorated METH-..
  37. Sato H, Takahashi M, Furukawa F, Miyakawa Y, Hasegawa R, Toyoda K, et al. Initiating potential of 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (AF-2), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin) in two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 1987;38:49-56 pubmed
    Tumor initiating activity of 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) (AF-2) acrylamide) were tested in a two-stage mouse skin ..
  38. Skowyra M, Gallego M, Segovia F, Almajano M. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions. Antioxidants (Basel). 2014;3:116-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0...
  39. Kumar S, Narayanan S. Mechanically immobilized nickel aquapentacyanoferrate modified electrode as an amperometric sensor for the determination of BHA. Talanta. 2008;76:54-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This modified electrode was also quite effective in the determination of BHA in commercial samples. ..
  40. Hung F, Chuang Y, Lee C, Chen Y, Yang J, Lin J, et al. Butylated hydroxyanisole affects immunomodulation and promotes macrophage phagocytosis in normal BALB/c mice. Mol Med Rep. 2012;5:683-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a synthetic antioxidant, has been used in fat and fatty foods to prevent oxidative deterioration. However, the functions of BHA on immune responses in normal mice remain elusive...
  41. Bhattarai H, Paudel B, Lee H, Oh H, Yim J. In vitro antioxidant capacities of two benzonaphthoxanthenones: ohioensins F and G, isolated from the Antarctic moss Polytrichastrum alpinum. Z Naturforsch C. 2009;64:197-200 pubmed
    ..Developments of laboratory mass culture techniques are anticipated to achieve bulk production of the active constituents for commercial application. ..
  42. Sariçoban C, Yilmaz M. Effect of thyme/cumin essential oils and butylated hydroxyl anisole/butylated hydroxyl toluene on physicochemical properties and oxidative/microbial stability of chicken patties. Poult Sci. 2014;93:456-63 pubmed publisher
  43. Micewicz E, Ratikan J, Waring A, Whitelegge J, McBride W, Ruchala P. Lipid-conjugated Smac analogues. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2015;25:4419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings suggest that lipidation may be a viable approach in the development of new Smac-based therapeutic leads. ..
  44. Garreton V, Carpinelli J, Jordana X, Holuigue L. The as-1 promoter element is an oxidative stress-responsive element and salicylic acid activates it via oxidative species. Plant Physiol. 2002;130:1516-26 pubmed
    ..The complex interplay between SA and reactive oxygen species in the transcriptional activation of defense genes is discussed. ..
  45. Ye L, Yang X, Yang Z, Gao S, Yin T, Liu W, et al. The role of efflux transporters on the transport of highly toxic aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and their hydrolysates, as determined in cultured Caco-2 and transfected MDCKII cells. Toxicol Lett. 2013;216:86-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together the results of Er values and intracellular amounts in the presence of inhibitors, P-gp and BCRP were involved in the transport of AC, MA and HA; and MRP2 might transport AC, MA, HA, BAC, BMA and BHA...
  46. Lafuse W, Alvarez G, Zwilling B. Role of MAP kinase activation in Nramp1 mRNA stability in RAW264.7 macrophages expressing Nramp1(Gly169). Cell Immunol. 2002;215:195-206 pubmed
    ..7-Nramp1(Gly169) cells than in RAW26.47-Nramp1(Asp169) cells. These results suggest that generation of oxidants by Nramp1 iron transport activates MAP kinase signaling cascades that result in stabilization of Nramp1 mRNA. ..
  47. Harvison P, Egan R, Gale P, Christian G, Hill B, Nelson S. Acetaminophen and analogs as cosubstrates and inhibitors of prostaglandin H synthase. Chem Biol Interact. 1988;64:251-66 pubmed
    ..The formation of all products was inhibited by indomethacin and the reductants, ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)...
  48. Yuan D, Huang S, Berger E, Liu L, Gross N, Heinzmann F, et al. Kupffer Cell-Derived Tnf Triggers Cholangiocellular Tumorigenesis through JNK due to Chronic Mitochondrial Dysfunction and ROS. Cancer Cell. 2017;31:771-789.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Kupffer cell-derived Tnf favors cholangiocellular proliferation/differentiation and carcinogenesis. Targeting the ROS/Tnf/JNK axis may provide opportunities for ICC therapy. ..
  49. Pino M, Billack B. Reduction of vesicant toxicity by butylated hydroxyanisole in A-431 skin cells. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2008;27:161-72 pubmed publisher
    Mechlorethamine (HN2) and 2-chloroethylethyl sulfide (CEES) are mustard vesicants. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a phenolic antioxidant...
  50. De Guidi G, Chillemi R, Costanzo L, Giuffrida S, Sortino S, Condorelli G. Molecular mechanism of drug photosensitization. 5. Photohemolysis sensitized by Suprofen. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1994;23:125-33 pubmed
  51. Li Y, Lam J, Diosady L, Jankowski S. Antioxidant system for the preservation of vitamin A in Ultra Rice. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30:82-9 pubmed
    ..The best results were obtained by using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in combination with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as the hydrophobic antioxidants and ascorbic ..
  52. Chernykh A, Bulantseva E, Shaposhnikov G, Serebrianyi A, Protsenko M, Sal kova E. [Effects of treatment with a composite preparation (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid and methacide) or butylated hydroxyanisole on ethylene release in apples]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2004;40:366-9 pubmed
    We studied the effect of a Russian composite preparation (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid and methacide) and butylated hydroxyanisole on ethylene release in whole fruit and peel disks of two apple cultivars, Antonovka obyknovennaya (..
  53. Minero V, Khadjavi A, Costelli P, Baccino F, Bonelli G. JNK activation is required for TNF?-induced apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;17:92-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, strategies aimed at enhancing both pathways should provide a profitable basis to overcome the resistance of hepatocarcinoma cells to TNF-dependent apoptosis. ..
  54. Pop A, Drugan T, Gutleb A, Lupu D, Cherfan J, Loghin F, et al. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives. Toxicol In Vitro. 2016;32:269-77 pubmed publisher
    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line...
  55. Mildner Szkudlarz S, Zawirska Wojtasiak R, Obuchowski W, Gośliński M. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of green tea extract and its effect on the biscuits lipid fraction oxidative stability. J Food Sci. 2009;74:S362-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The antioxidant activity of GTE was compared with commonly used synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Biscuits were prepared in 3 variations...
  56. Hu T, Xu F, Li Y, Luo J. Simvastatin inhibits leptin-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006;27:419-22 pubmed
    ..Simvastatin inhibits leptin-induced ROS-mediated hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Statin therapy may provide an effective means of improving cardiac dysfunction in obese humans. ..
  57. Cemeli E, Wagner E, Anderson D, Richardson S, Plewa M. Modulation of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the drinking water disinfection byproduct lodoacetic acid by suppressors of oxidative stress. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:1878-83 pubmed
    ..of oxidative stress in the toxicity of iodoacetic acid was analyzed with the antioxidants catalase and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)...
  58. Nanditha B, Prabhasankar P. Antioxidants in bakery products: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009;49:1-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence there is a wide scope for study under this direction in depth. ..
  59. Simonetti G, Simonetti N, Villa A. Increase of activity of tioconazole against resistant microorganisms by the addition of butylated hydroxyanisole. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2003;22:439-43 pubmed
    Tioconazole (TCZ) killed resistant Candida albicans in less than 3 min, after the addition of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a phenolic antioxidant, at subinhibitory concentrations...
  60. Ozen T, Korkmaz H. Modulatory effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) leaf extract on biotransformation enzyme systems, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in mice. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:405-15 pubmed
    ..and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were investigated, for phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, ..
  61. Mathieu J, Giraudier S, Lanotte M, Besancon F. Retinoid-induced activation of NF-kappaB in APL cells is not essential for granulocytic differentiation, but prolongs the life span of mature cells. Oncogene. 2005;24:7145-55 pubmed
    ..Our observations also suggest that NF-kappaB signalling may contribute to an accumulation of mature APL cells and participate in the development of ATRA syndrome. ..
  62. Franz A, Danielewicz M, Wong D, Anderson L, Boothe J. Phenotypic screening with oleaginous microalgae reveals modulators of lipid productivity. ACS Chem Biol. 2013;8:1053-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also determined that common antioxidants such as epigallocatechin gallate and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) increase lipid productivity and may represent new probes of oxidative signaling pathways for ..
  63. Hasegawa R, Furukawa F, Toyoda K, Takahashi M, Hayashi Y, Hirose M, et al. Inhibitory effects of antioxidants on N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine-induced lung carcinogenesis in rats. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1990;81:871-7 pubmed
    ..Although the incidences of lung adenomas were not affected, those of carcinomas were lowered by 2% butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, 2 rats/20 rats), 1% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 1/20), 0...
  64. Kim Y, Morgan M, Choksi S, Liu Z. TNF-induced activation of the Nox1 NADPH oxidase and its role in the induction of necrotic cell death. Mol Cell. 2007;26:675-87 pubmed
    ..Thus our study suggests that activation of Nox1 through forming a complex with TNF signaling components plays a key role in TNF-induced necrotic cell death. ..
  65. Waleh N, Calaoagan J, Murphy B, Knapp A, Sutherland R, Laderoute K. The redox-sensitive human antioxidant responsive element induces gene expression under low oxygen conditions. Carcinogenesis. 1998;19:1333-7 pubmed
    ..Co-ordinately regulated expression of ARE-dependent genes, such as phase II detoxification enzymes, may be an important phenotype of solid tumors containing significant regions of pathophysiological hypoxia. ..
  66. Caleja C, Barros L, Antonio A, Oliveira M, Ferreira I. A comparative study between natural and synthetic antioxidants: Evaluation of their performance after incorporation into biscuits. Food Chem. 2017;216:342-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, natural additives are a more convenient solution for consumers who prefer foods "free" from synthetic additives. Additionally, natural additives were obtained by aqueous extraction, an environment friendly and safe process. ..
  67. Jayaprakasha G, Jena B, Negi P, Sakariah K. Evaluation of antioxidant activities and antimutagenicity of turmeric oil: a byproduct from curcumin production. Z Naturforsch C. 2002;57:828-35 pubmed
    ..All the fractions and turmeric oil exhibited a markedly antimutagenicity but fraction III was the most effective. The antioxidant effects of turmeric oil and its fractions may provide an explanation for their antimutagenic action. ..
  68. Safford K, Hicok K, Safford S, Halvorsen Y, Wilkison W, Gimble J, et al. Neurogenic differentiation of murine and human adipose-derived stromal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;294:371-9 pubmed
    ..BalbC mice or from human liposuction tissue and induced neuronal differentiation with valproic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, insulin, and hydrocortisone...
  69. Hewitt S, Duffy P, Orton T, Garner R. Effect of tumour promoters and non-genotoxic carcinogens on terminal differentiation and proliferation in mouse teratoma XB2 cells cultured in low calcium medium. Carcinogenesis. 1990;11:371-5 pubmed
    ..and keratinization; mezerein-treated cells showed increased stratification at higher doses; butylated hydroxyanisole treatment resulted in hyperkeratinization and hyperstratification to lower levels than that seen with the ..
  70. Lau T, Chu W, Graham N. Reaction pathways and kinetics of butylated hydroxyanisole with UV, ozonation, and UV/O(3) processes. Water Res. 2007;41:765-74 pubmed
    The chemical degradation of the endocrine disrupting chemical, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), was investigated by different treatment processes including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, ozonation (O(3)), and UV/O(3)...
  71. Malato Y, Ehedego H, Al Masaoudi M, Cubero F, Bornemann J, Gassler N, et al. NF-?B essential modifier is required for hepatocyte proliferation and the oval cell reaction after partial hepatectomy in mice. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:1597-1608.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..Some mice were fed a diet that contained the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and others were given daily intraperitoneal injections of the oxidant phenetyl isothiocyanate (..
  72. Sayers T, Brooks A, Seki N, Smyth M, Yagita H, Blazar B, et al. T cell lysis of murine renal cancer: multiple signaling pathways for cell death via Fas. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:81-6 pubmed
    ..When the reactive oxygen scavenger butylated hydroxyanisole was used alone or in combination with ZVAD-FMK a substantial reduction of Renca lysis was observed...
  73. Silva Lima E, Silva Pinto A, Nogueira K, Rocha E Silva L, Oliveira de Almeida P, Carvalho de Vasconcellos M, et al. Stability and antioxidant activity of semi-synthetic derivatives of 4-nerolidylcatechol. Molecules. 2012;18:178-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point to the potential of derivatives of 4-NC as antioxidant compounds. ..
  74. Stoltz R, Abraham N, Laniado Schwartzman M. The role of NF-kappaB in the angiogenic response of coronary microvessel endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2832-7 pubmed
    ..in the binding activity of NF-kappaB, which was inhibitable by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine, butylated hydroxyanisole, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and was partially attenuated by the protein kinase C inhibitors, ..
  75. Gulcin I, Beydemir S, Alici H, Elmastas M, Buyukokuroglu M. In vitro antioxidant properties of morphine. Pharmacol Res. 2004;49:59-66 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, at 75 microgml(-1) concentration of standard antioxidant, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol, exhibited 88.7, 94.5 and 70...
  76. Ellis E, Judah D, Neal G, O CONNOR T, Hayes J. Regulation of carbonyl-reducing enzymes in rat liver by chemoprotectors. Cancer Res. 1996;56:2758-66 pubmed
    Feeding rats on diets containing the synthetic antioxidants ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxyanisole, and oltipraz results in 15-, 9-, and 6-fold increases, respectively, in the hepatic levels of aflatoxin B1-dialdehyde reductase (AFAR) ..
  77. Passone M, Ruffino M, Ponzio V, Resnik S, Etcheverry M. Postharvest control of peanut Aspergillus section Flavi populations by a formulation of food-grade antioxidants. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009;131:211-7 pubmed publisher
    The effect of a formulation containing butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl paraben (PP) on total mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in natural and inoculated stored peanuts was ..
  78. MacLeod A, Kelly V, Higgins L, Kelleher M, Price S, Bigley A, et al. Expression and localization of rat aldo-keto reductases and induction of the 1B13 and 1D2 isoforms by phenolic antioxidants. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..that expression of AKR7A1 is induced in response to dietary administration of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and ethoxyquin...
  79. Fujisawa S, Kadoma Y. Kinetic studies of the radical-scavenging activity of ebselen, a seleno-organic compound. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:3989-94 pubmed
    ..value was similar to that for mercaptomethylimidazole (MMI, a thiol) and 10-fold greater than that for butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)...
  80. Rodil R, Quintana J, Basaglia G, Pietrogrande M, Cela R. Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants and their metabolites in water samples by downscaled solid-phase extraction, silylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:6428-35 pubmed publisher
  81. Pecherskaia N, Baĭkov V, Kochetkova A, Bessonov V. [Comparative characteristics of the antioxidants of plant origin introduced in fat emulsion foods]. Vopr Pitan. 2006;75:20-2 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these studies the prospects of usage were shown epigallocatechina gallate in fatty products and the paths of further applying in creation of food products. ..
  82. Moch R. Forestomach lesions induced by butylated hydroxyanisole and ethylene dibromide: a scientific and regulatory perspective. Toxicol Pathol. 1988;16:172-83 pubmed
    Selected pathology lesions from 9 studies, 5 with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and 4 with ethylene dibromide (EDB) are reviewed and their relative importance in regulatory evaluation is discussed...
  83. Lu P, Blesch A, Tuszynski M. Induction of bone marrow stromal cells to neurons: differentiation, transdifferentiation, or artifact?. J Neurosci Res. 2004;77:174-91 pubmed
  84. Cauwels A, Bultinck J, Brouckaert P. Dual role of endogenous nitric oxide in tumor necrosis factor shock: induced NO tempers oxidative stress. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005;62:1632-40 pubmed
    ..Together, these in vivo results indicate that induced NO not only causes hemodynamic collapse, but is also essential for curbing TNF-induced oxidative stress, which appears to hinge on PLA2-dependent mechanisms. ..
  85. Nuñez de Gonzalez M, Boleman R, Miller R, Keeton J, Rhee K. Antioxidant properties of dried plum ingredients in raw and precooked pork sausage. J Food Sci. 2008;73:H63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..02% butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA/BHT) were (1) stored raw in chubs at 4 degrees C (RR) and evaluated weekly over 28 d, (2) cooked as ..
  86. Takakusa H, Masumoto H, Mitsuru A, Okazaki O, Sudo K. Markers of electrophilic stress caused by chemically reactive metabolites in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:816-23 pubmed publisher
  87. Ozcan M. Effect of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts on the oxidative stability of peanut oil. J Med Food. 2003;6:63-6 pubmed
    The antioxidant activities of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at various concentrations were tested in natural peanut oil stored at 65 degrees C for 35 days...
  88. Attene Ramos M, Wagner E, Gaskins H, Plewa M. Hydrogen sulfide induces direct radical-associated DNA damage. Mol Cancer Res. 2007;5:455-9 pubmed
    ..These observations highlight the possible role of sulfide as an environmental insult that, given a predisposing genetic background, may lead to genomic instability or the cumulative mutations characteristic of colorectal cancer. ..