methyl ethers


Summary: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.

Top Publications

  1. Zhang L, Zhang J, Yang L, Dong Y, Zhang Y, Xie Z. Isoflurane and sevoflurane increase interleukin-6 levels through the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway in neuroglioma cells. Br J Anaesth. 2013;110 Suppl 1:i82-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies in H4 cells suggest that the NF-?B signalling pathway could contribute to isoflurane or sevoflurane-induced neuroinflammation. This could lead to the targeted intervention of anaesthetic-induced neuroinflammation. ..
  2. Kim J, Lee J, Lee H, Koo B. Comparison of emergence time in children undergoing minor surgery according to anesthetic: desflurane and sevoflurane. Yonsei Med J. 2013;54:732-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Desflurane did not result in any differences in respiratory adverse events during recovery compared to sevoflurane. ..
  3. Ye X, Lian Q, Eckenhoff M, Eckenhoff R, Pan J. Differential general anesthetic effects on microglial cytokine expression. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52887 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that propofol may be a preferred anesthetic when it is desirable to minimize neuroinflammation. ..
  4. Callaway J, Jones N, Royse A, Royse C. Sevoflurane anesthesia does not impair acquisition learning or memory in the Morris water maze in young adult and aged rats. Anesthesiology. 2012;117:1091-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Retention memory measured using probe trials was not affected by exposure to sevoflurane in young adult or aged rats. Sevoflurane anesthesia did not impair acquisition learning and retention memory in young adult or aged rats. ..
  5. Kadota K, Iijima N, Ohe Hayashi Y, Takumi K, Higo S, Sakamoto A, et al. Time-dependent repression of mPer2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus by inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane. Neurosci Lett. 2012;528:153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation into the molecular events caused by anesthesia are required to explain atypical clinical signs observed in patients after surgical procedures, such as fatigue, sleep disorder, mood alteration and delirium. ..
  6. Bedirli N, Bağrıaçık E, Emmez H, Yilmaz G, Unal Y, Ozkose Z. Sevoflurane and isoflurane preconditioning provides neuroprotection by inhibition of apoptosis-related mRNA expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012;24:336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of proapoptotic molecules and upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules may be associated with this effect. ..
  7. Shen X, Dong Y, Xu Z, Wang H, Miao C, Soriano S, et al. Selective anesthesia-induced neuroinflammation in developing mouse brain and cognitive impairment. Anesthesiology. 2013;118:502-15 pubmed publisher
  8. Na H, Song I, Hwang J, Do S, Oh A. Emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: a comparison of sevoflurane vs. sevoflurane-remifentanil administration. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2013;57:100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Sevoflurane is widely used in paediatric anaesthesia but frequently causes emergence agitation (EA). This study evaluated whether limiting the sevoflurane concentration by combining remifentanil with sevoflurane reduced the incidence of EA...
  9. Dong Y, Meng L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Zhao G, Ma C. The effect of remifentanil on the incidence of agitation on emergence from sevoflurane anaesthesia in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2010;38:718-22 pubmed
    ..01). In preschool-aged children undergoing adenotonsillectomy with sevoflurane general anaesthesia, after propofol and fentanyl induction, intraoperative remifentanil decreased the incidence of emergence agitation...

More Information


  1. Liu X, Xue Q, Zeng Q, Li Q, Liu J, Feng X, et al. Sevoflurane impairs memory consolidation in rats, possibly through inhibiting phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? in the hippocampus. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010;94:461-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Sevoflurane-induced amnesia may be due, at least in part, to suppression of GSK-3? phosphorylation in the hippocampus. ..
  2. Landoni G, Bignami E, Oliviero F, Zangrillo A. Halogenated anaesthetics and cardiac protection in cardiac and non-cardiac anaesthesia. Ann Card Anaesth. 2009;12:4-9 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, evidence in non-coronary surgical settings is contradictory and will be reviewed in this paper together with the mechanisms of cardiac protection by volatile agents. ..
  3. Wang H, Lu S, Yu Q, Liang W, Gao H, Li P, et al. Sevoflurane preconditioning confers neuroprotection via anti-inflammatory effects. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2011;3:604-15 pubmed
    ..Thus, the data suggest that APC with sevoflurane confers neuroprotection against focal ischemic brain injury, at least in part, by the anti-inflammatory effects of sevoflurane. ..
  4. Shalbaf R, Behnam H, Sleigh J, Voss L. Measuring the effects of sevoflurane on electroencephalogram using sample entropy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012;56:880-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that sample entropy can estimate the sevoflurane drug effect on the EEG more effectively than the commercial RE index with a stronger noise resistance. ..
  5. Matsuse S, Hara Y, Ohkura T, Yahagi N. Quantitative analysis of changes in blood concentrations and 'presumed effect-site concentration' of sevoflurane during one-lung ventilation. Anaesthesia. 2012;67:1125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..3% but the mean (SD) presumed effect-site concentration declined initially from 58 (6.7) to 43 (4.7) ? (p=0.011) before slowly recovering. A period of insufficient depth of anaesthesia is thus a risk during one-lung ventilation. ..
  6. Ohtani N, Kida K, Shoji K, Yasui Y, Masaki E. Recovery profiles from dexmedetomidine as a general anesthetic adjuvant in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1871-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Postoperative cognitive function was not affected by dexmedetomidine administration. These results suggest dexmedetomidine may delay recovery when given as an adjuvant to propofol during total i.v. anesthesia. ..
  7. Codaccioni J, Velly L, Moubarik C, Bruder N, Pisano P, Guillet B. Sevoflurane preconditioning against focal cerebral ischemia: inhibition of apoptosis in the face of transient improvement of neurological outcome. Anesthesiology. 2009;110:1271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sevoflurane preconditioning also decreased ischemia-induced apoptosis in a more sustained way because it was observed up to 7 days after injury. ..
  8. Ko J, Gwak M, Choi S, Yang M, Kim M, Lee J, et al. The effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on hepatic and renal functions after right hepatectomy in living donors*. Transpl Int. 2010;23:736-44 pubmed publisher
  9. Zheng Z, Yang M, Zhang F, Yu J, Wang J, Ma L, et al. Gender-related difference of sevoflurane postconditioning in isolated rat hearts: focus on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling. J Surg Res. 2011;170:e3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The PI3K/Akt pathway may be involved in the cardioprotection by both sevoflurane postconditioning and gender. ..
  10. Lin T, Lu C, Kuo C, Hsu C, Huang G, Liu J, et al. Single vital-capacity and successive tidal-volume breathing of sevoflurane in induction of anesthesia for tracheal intubation in gynecologic patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2008;46:66-70 pubmed publisher
    ..5 minutes of tidal-volume ventilation did not suppress intubation-induced hemodynamic responses. Pretreatment with fentanyl helped to shorten the induction time and provide better hemodynamic control for tracheal intubation. ..
  11. Wiklund A, Granon S, Faure P, Sundman E, Changeux J, Eriksson L. Object memory in young and aged mice after sevoflurane anaesthesia. Neuroreport. 2009;20:1419-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Sevoflurane anaesthesia thus causes memory impairment in mice regardless of beta2 receptor-mediated nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission. ..
  12. Pieters B, Penn E, Nicklaus P, Bruegger D, Mehta B, Weatherly R. Emergence delirium and postoperative pain in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: a comparison of propofol vs sevoflurane anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010;20:944-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A PAED score of ? 10 was not useful in identifying patients with ED. However, propofol maintenance is associated with less need for pain medication in the recovery room and a lower incidence of PONV compared to sevoflurane anesthesia. ..
  13. Lili X, Jianjun S, Haiyan Z. The application of dexmedetomidine in children undergoing vitreoretinal surgery. J Anesth. 2012;26:556-61 pubmed publisher
    ..5 µg/kg had no effect on intraoperative hemodynamics or intraocular pressure, but attenuated the hemodynamic response to extubation and diminished emergence agitation in pediatric patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery. ..
  14. Chang D, Choi S, Choi Y, Min K. Effect of charcoal filter on the emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia in a semi-closed rebreathing circuit. Yonsei Med J. 2011;52:668-72 pubmed publisher
    ..1±3.8 vs. 14.8±3.0 min, p=0.007) and extubation (11.9±3.9 vs. 15.3±3.2 min, p=0.014), compared to the control group. A charcoal filter enhances the recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia with a semi-closed rebreathing circuit. ..
  15. Zhang Y, Zhang F, Meng C, Tian S, Wang Y, Zhao W, et al. Inhibition of sevoflurane postconditioning against cerebral ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative injury in rats. Molecules. 2011;17:341-54 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be concluded that sevoflurane postconditioning may decrease blood and brain oxidative injury and enhance immunity indexes in cerebral ischemia reperfusion rats. ..
  16. Liu S, Li Y, Sun B, Wang C, Gong Y, Zhou Y, et al. A comparison between vital capacity induction and tidal breathing induction techniques for the induction of anesthesia and compound A production. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:2336-40 pubmed
    ..019). For inhalation induction of anesthesia, the vital capacity induction was faster and produced fewer complications than that for tidal breathing induction, but increased compound A production in the circuit system. ..
  17. Sato M, Shirakami G, Tazuke Nishimura M, Matsuura S, Tanimoto K, Fukuda K. Effect of single-dose dexmedetomidine on emergence agitation and recovery profiles after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric ambulatory surgery. J Anesth. 2010;24:675-82 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective ?(2)-adrenoreceptor agonist, on emergence agitation (EA), recovery profiles, and parents' satisfaction after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric ambulatory surgery...
  18. Liang G, Ward C, Peng J, Zhao Y, Huang B, Wei H. Isoflurane causes greater neurodegeneration than an equivalent exposure of sevoflurane in the developing brain of neonatal mice. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:1325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..At equipotent exposures, isoflurane has a greater potency than sevoflurane to cause neurodegeneration in the developing brains of neonatal mice. ..
  19. Roesslein M, Frick M, Auwaerter V, Humar M, Goebel U, Schwer C, et al. Sevoflurane-mediated activation of p38-mitogen-activated stresskinase is independent of apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1150-60, table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that sevoflurane-induced p38 activation is not affected by caspase activation. Furthermore, sevoflurane-induced apoptosis is not dependent on p38 MAP kinase activation. ..
  20. Urner M, Limbach L, Herrmann I, Müller Edenborn B, Roth Z graggen B, Schlicker A, et al. Fluorinated groups mediate the immunomodulatory effects of volatile anesthetics in acute cell injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:617-24 pubmed publisher
  21. Kreuer S, Bruhn J, Walter E, Larsen R, Apfel C, Grundmann U, et al. Comparative pharmacodynamic modeling using bispectral and narcotrend-index with and without a pharmacodynamic plateau during sevoflurane anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1171-81, table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model consisting of two sigmoid curves with an intervening plateau describes the effect of sevoflurane on BIS and NCT indices better than a model with a single sigmoid curve. ..
  22. Li H, Wang J, Zeng Y, Yang C, Chen H, Wen X, et al. Sevoflurane post-conditioning protects against myocardial reperfusion injury by activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signal transduction. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2008;35:1043-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of sevoflurane plus ischaemic post-conditioning does not offer any additional benefit over either intervention alone. ..
  23. Lu X, Liu H, Wang L, Schaefer S. Activation of NF-kappaB is a critical element in the antiapoptotic effect of anesthetic preconditioning. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H1296-304 pubmed publisher
    ..APC reduces apoptosis and functional impairment by increasing Bcl-2 expression before I/R. Interventions that increase NF-kappaB activation before I/R should protect hearts from I/R injury. ..
  24. Yu L, Sun H, Yao L, Feng Y, Yang B. Comparison of effective inspired concentration of sevoflurane in preterm infants with different postconceptual ages. Paediatr Anaesth. 2011;21:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..v. accession. The EIC50 is lower, and the induction time is shorter in smaller aged patients compared with those in older ones. ..
  25. Inamura Y, Miyamae M, Sugioka S, Domae N, Kotani J. Sevoflurane postconditioning prevents activation of caspase 3 and 9 through antiapoptotic signaling after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. J Anesth. 2010;24:215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Sevoflurane postconditioning prevents activation of caspase 3 and 9, mediators of apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion injury. This caspase activation is mediated by phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. ..
  26. Ding Q, Wang Q, Deng J, Gu Q, Hu S, Li Y, et al. Sevoflurane preconditioning induces rapid ischemic tolerance against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rabbits. Anesth Analg. 2009;109:1263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that sevoflurane preconditioning might provide a new practical method for protecting perioperative spinal cord I/R. ..
  27. Le Freche H, Brouillette J, Fernandez Gomez F, Patin P, Caillierez R, Zommer N, et al. Tau phosphorylation and sevoflurane anesthesia: an association to postoperative cognitive impairment. Anesthesiology. 2012;116:779-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a correlation between exposures to this anesthetic agent and cognitive decline. ..
  28. Oose Y, Miura M, Inoue R, Andou N, Aosaki T, Nishimura K. Imbalanced suppression of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission onto mouse striatal projection neurons during induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane in vitro. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:1396-405 pubmed publisher
  29. Escobar A, Thiesen R, Vitaliano S, Belmonte E, Werther K, Nunes N, et al. Some cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane in crested caracara (Caracara plancus). Vet Anaesth Analg. 2009;36:436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the birds were apneic. Sevoflurane anesthesia is suitable for use in healthy members of this species, despite the moderate cardiovascular and respiratory depression produced. ..
  30. Eberspächer E, Eckel B, Engelhard K, Muller K, Hoffman W, Blobner M, et al. Effects of sevoflurane on cognitive deficit, motor function, and histopathology after cerebral ischemia in rats. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53:774-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data add to previous investigations showing that sevoflurane prevents a deficit in cognitive function and histopathological damage induced by cerebral ischemia in rats. ..
  31. Frädorf J, Huhn R, Weber N, Ebel D, Wingert N, Preckel B, et al. Sevoflurane-induced preconditioning: impact of protocol and aprotinin administration on infarct size and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation in the rat heart in vivo. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:1289-98 pubmed publisher
    ..SevoPC is strengthened by multiple preconditioning cycles, and phosphorylation of endothelial NOS is a crucial step in mediating SevoPC. These effects are abolished by aprotinin. ..
  32. Berns M, Zacharias R, Seeberg L, Schmidt M, Kerner T. Effects of sevoflurane on primary neuronal cultures of embryonic rats. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:597-602 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that sevoflurane does not cause neurodegeneration in primary cortical neurons of the rat following clinically relevant exposure times and concentrations. ..
  33. White P, Tang J, Wender R, Yumul R, Stokes O, Sloninsky A, et al. Desflurane versus sevoflurane for maintenance of outpatient anesthesia: the effect on early versus late recovery and perioperative coughing. Anesth Analg. 2009;109:387-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the faster initial recovery with desflurane, no significant differences were found between the two volatile anesthetics in the later recovery period. Both volatile anesthetics should be available for ambulatory anesthesia. ..
  34. Migliari M, Bellani G, Rona R, Isgrò S, Vergnano B, Mauri T, et al. Short-term evaluation of sedation with sevoflurane administered by the anesthetic conserving device in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:1240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Environmental pollution from sevoflurane was within the safety limits. Sevoflurane can be effectively and safely used for short-term sedation of ICU patients with stable hemodynamic conditions. ..
  35. Schwer C, Stoll P, Pietsch U, Stein P, Laqua J, Goebel U, et al. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 by sevoflurane is not dependent on Kupffer cells and associates with ERK1/2 and AP-1 activation in the rat liver. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:1876-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Since we could recently demonstrate significant hepatoprotective effects of HO-1 induced by isoflurane, the present results may help to establish new concepts in hepatic organ protection...
  36. Luo Y, Ma D, Ieong E, Sanders R, Yu B, Hossain M, et al. Xenon and sevoflurane protect against brain injury in a neonatal asphyxia model. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:782-9 pubmed publisher
  37. Belda J, Soro M, Badenes R, Meiser A, Garcia M, Aguilar G, et al. The predictive performance of a pharmacokinetic model for manually adjusted infusion of liquid sevofluorane for use with the Anesthetic-Conserving Device (AnaConDa): a clinical study. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1207-14, table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..5% groups were compared. There is an excellent 6-h predictive performance of a simplified pharmacokinetic model for manually adjusted infusion of liquid sevoflurane when using the AnaConDa to deliver sevoflurane to ICU patients. ..
  38. Yoon J, Kim Y, Kim T. Thiopental-induced burst suppression measured by the bispectral index is extended during propofol administration compared with sevoflurane. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012;24:146-51 pubmed publisher
    ..BIS may be an acceptable alternative to standard EEG monitoring when assessing burst suppression during temporary clipping. ..
  39. Kim E, Chang H. The effects of a single bolus of remifentanil on corrected QT interval change during sevoflurane induction. Yonsei Med J. 2011;52:333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..MAP and HR were significantly higher in the placebo group (p < 0.001). A single bolus of remifentanil is safe method to attenuate prolonged QTc associated with insertion of LMA. ..
  40. Sonkajarvi E, Alahuhta S, Suominen K, Hakalax N, Vakkuri A, Löppönen H, et al. Topographic electroencephalogram in children during mask induction of anaesthesia with sevoflurane. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..PED and burst suppression were synchronous over the whole cortex. Epileptiform activity was indiscernible from epileptiform waveforms without anaesthesia, such as the patterns seen in status epilepticus. ..
  41. Drenger B, Ostrovsky I, Barak M, Nechemia Arbely Y, Ziv E, Axelrod J. Diabetes blockade of sevoflurane postconditioning is not restored by insulin in the rat heart: phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated inhibition. Anesthesiology. 2011;114:1364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In diabetic rats, STAT3 activation was strongly reduced, as was postC cardioprotection, suggesting that the inability of insulin to restore postC may be attributed to diabetes-induced STAT3-mediated inhibition of PI3K signaling. ..
  42. Meybohm P, Gruenewald M, Albrecht M, Müller C, Zitta K, Foesel N, et al. Pharmacological postconditioning with sevoflurane after cardiopulmonary resuscitation reduces myocardial dysfunction. Crit Care. 2011;15:R241 pubmed publisher
    ..Early administration of SEVO may not, however, improve neurological recovery. ..
  43. Schilling T, Kozian A, Senturk M, Huth C, Reinhold A, Hedenstierna G, et al. Effects of volatile and intravenous anesthesia on the alveolar and systemic inflammatory response in thoracic surgical patients. Anesthesiology. 2011;115:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..OLV increases the alveolar concentrations of proinflammatory mediators in the ventilated lung. Both desflurane and sevoflurane suppress the local alveolar, but not the systemic, inflammatory responses to OLV and thoracic surgery. ..
  44. Soukup J, Schärff K, Kubosch K, Pohl C, Bomplitz M, Kompardt J. State of the art: sedation concepts with volatile anesthetics in critically Ill patients. J Crit Care. 2009;24:535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of volatile anesthetics on the ICU could adopt a permanent position in various intensive care analgosedation concepts in future. It may be possible thereby to optimize the treatment process both in medical and economical terms. ..
  45. Sieskiewicz A, Drozdowski A, Rogowski M. [The assessment of correlation between mean arterial pressure and intraoperative bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with low heart rate]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2010;64:225-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Keeping HR around 60 b/min there is no need to decrease the MAP to dangerously low levels to achieve good operative field conditions in great proportion of patients. ..
  46. Citerio G, Pesenti A, Latini R, Masson S, Barlera S, Gaspari F, et al. A multicentre, randomised, open-label, controlled trial evaluating equivalence of inhalational and intravenous anaesthesia during elective craniotomy. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2012;29:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Perioperative endocrine stress responses were significantly blunted with propofol-remifentanil and higher analgesic requirements were recorded in the remifentanil groups. Eudract 2007-005279-32. ..
  47. Lauta E, Abbinante C, Del Gaudio A, Aloj F, Fanelli M, de Vivo P, et al. Emergence times are similar with sevoflurane and total intravenous anesthesia: results of a multicenter RCT of patients scheduled for elective supratentorial craniotomy. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2010;22:110-8 pubmed publisher
  48. McKay R, Malhotra A, Cakmakkaya O, Hall K, McKay W, Apfel C. Effect of increased body mass index and anaesthetic duration on recovery of protective airway reflexes after sevoflurane vs desflurane. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104:175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..2 min (16 s) (R=0.10, P=0.44). Prolonged sevoflurane administration and greater BMI delay airway reflex recovery. The contribution of BMI to this delay is more pronounced after sevoflurane than desflurane. ..
  49. Enlund M, Kietzmann D, Bouillon T, Züchner K, Meineke I. Population pharmacokinetics of sevoflurane in conjunction with the AnaConDa: toward target-controlled infusion of volatiles into the breathing system. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:553-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies will focus on prospective testing and external validation of the model implemented in a target-controlled infusion device. ..
  50. Soehle M, Ellerkmann R, Grube M, Kuech M, Wirz S, Hoeft A, et al. Comparison between bispectral index and patient state index as measures of the electroencephalographic effects of sevoflurane. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:799-805 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite major differences in their algorithms and minor differences in their dose-response relations, both PSI and BIS predicted depth of sevoflurane anesthesia equally well. ..
  51. Fuentes R, Cortinez L, Struys M, Delfino A, Muñoz H. The dynamic relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations, bispectral index, and cerebral state index in children. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the anesthetic depth range studied, the rate of change of sevoflurane's effect was slower with the CSI. To adequately guide sevoflurane administration with these monitors in children, these differences should be considered. ..
  52. Cortinez L, Troconiz I, Fuentes R, Gambús P, Hsu Y, Altermatt F, et al. The influence of age on the dynamic relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations and bispectral index. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1566-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The predictive check analysis confirmed the adequacy of the model. Age significantly affects the dynamic relationship between sevoflurane C(ET) and its effect measured with BIS. ..
  53. Adamczyk S, Robin E, Simerabet M, Kipnis E, Tavernier B, Vallet B, et al. Sevoflurane pre- and post-conditioning protect the brain via the mitochondrial K ATP channel. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104:191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..DZX alone mimicked sevoflurane-induced pre- and post-conditioning. The pretreatment with sevoflurane or its early administration at reperfusion provides neuroprotection via mitoK(ATP) in a rat model of focal cerebral ischaemia. ..
  54. Istaphanous G, Howard J, Nan X, Hughes E, McCann J, McAuliffe J, et al. Comparison of the neuroapoptotic properties of equipotent anesthetic concentrations of desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane in neonatal mice. Anesthesiology. 2011;114:578-87 pubmed publisher
  55. Dexter F, Bayman E, Epstein R. Statistical modeling of average and variability of time to extubation for meta-analysis comparing desflurane to sevoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:570-80 pubmed publisher
  56. Yao Y, Li L, Chen L, Wang W, Li L, Gao C. Sevoflurane postconditioning protects isolated rat hearts against ischemia-reperfusion injury: the role of radical oxygen species, extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 and mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:2439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that sevoflurane postconditioning protected isolated rat hearts against ischemia-reperfusion injury via the recruitment of the ROS-ERK 1/2-mPTP signaling cascade. ..
  57. Yao Y, Fang N, Shi C, Li L. Sevoflurane postconditioning protects isolated rat hearts against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:1320-8 pubmed
    ..05). These findings demonstrate that PI3K, ERK 1/2, mitoK(ATP) and mPTP are key players in sevoflurane postconditioning induced cardioprotective mechanisms in isolated rat hearts subjected to MIRI. ..
  58. Rörtgen D, Kloos J, Fries M, Grottke O, Rex S, Rossaint R, et al. Comparison of early cognitive function and recovery after desflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia in the elderly: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the tests Well-being scale, DST, and Trail Making Test, emergence times, and patients' satisfaction were in favour of desflurane. ..
  59. Dahmani S, Stany I, Brasher C, Lejeune C, Bruneau B, Wood C, et al. Pharmacological prevention of sevoflurane- and desflurane-related emergence agitation in children: a meta-analysis of published studies. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This meta-analysis found that propofol, ketamine, fentanyl, and preoperative analgesia had a prophylactic effect in preventing EA. The analgesic properties of these drugs do not seem to have a role in this effect. ..
  60. Lin D, Li G, Zuo Z. Volatile anesthetic post-treatment induces protection via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3? in human neuron-like cells. Neuroscience. 2011;179:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Since phospho-GSK3? at Ser9 decreases GSK3? activity, our results suggest that volatile anesthetic post-conditioning in human neuron-like cells may be mediated by GSK3? inhibition. ..
  61. Kong H, Zhu S, Wang L, He Y, Xie H, Zheng S. Sevoflurane protects against acute kidney injury in a small-size liver transplantation model. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32:347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..1 ± 1.5 ?mol·l?¹) compared with the chloral hydrate group. Sevoflurane anesthesia can attenuate renal injury and modulate inflammatory cascades in small-size liver transplantation using rat models. ..
  62. Lesage S, Drolet P, Donati F, Racine S, Fortier L, Audy D. Low-dose fentanyl-midazolam combination improves sevoflurane induction in adults. Can J Anaesth. 2009;56:733-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, premedication was associated with a lower RR and increased EtCO(2) values following PLMA insertion, in spite of lower EtSevo concentrations. ( ID NCT00723164). ..
  63. Annecke T, Chappell D, Chen C, Jacob M, Welsch U, Sommerhoff C, et al. Sevoflurane preserves the endothelial glycocalyx against ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104:414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism seems to involve attenuation of lysosomal cathepsin B release and to be independent from tissue mast cell degranulation. ..
  64. Fukui K, Morioka T, Hashiguchi K, Kawamura T, Irita K, Hoka S, et al. Relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and electrocorticographic activities under sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;27:110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..During sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia <2.5 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration, rCBF is affected by ECoG activities rather than pharmacologic action of inhalational anesthetics. ..
  65. Yuki K, Astrof N, Bracken C, Soriano S, Shimaoka M. Sevoflurane binds and allosterically blocks integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:600-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The allosteric mode of action exemplified by sevoflurane and isoflurane via LFA-1 might represent one of the underlying mechanisms of anesthetic-mediated immunomodulation. ..
  66. Bein B, Renner J, Caliebe D, Hanss R, Bauer M, Fraund S, et al. The effects of interrupted or continuous administration of sevoflurane on preconditioning before cardio-pulmonary bypass in coronary artery surgery: comparison with continuous propofol. Anaesthesia. 2008;63:1046-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that prior interrupted sevoflurane administration confers some cardioprotection as compared with continuous sevoflurane administration or propofol-based anaesthesia. ..
  67. Edwards D, Shah H, Cao W, Gravenstein N, Seubert C, Martynyuk A. Bumetanide alleviates epileptogenic and neurotoxic effects of sevoflurane in neonatal rat brain. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the possibility that excitatory output of sevoflurane-potentiated gamma-aminobutyric acid type A/glycine systems may contribute to epileptogenic and neurotoxic effects in early postnatal rats. ..
  68. Ye R, Yang Q, Kong X, Li N, Zhang Y, Han J, et al. Sevoflurane preconditioning improves mitochondrial function and long-term neurologic sequelae after transient cerebral ischemia: role of mitochondrial permeability transition. Crit Care Med. 2012;40:2685-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening is a crucial step in mediating the neuroprotection of sevoflurane preconditioning. ..
  69. Meng Q, Xia Z, Luo T, Wu Y, Tang L, Zhao B, et al. Dexmedetomidine reduces emergence agitation after tonsillectomy in children by sevoflurane anesthesia: a case-control study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76:1036-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine for emergence agitation after tonsillectomy in children...
  70. Yang Q, Dong H, Deng J, Wang Q, Ye R, Li X, et al. Sevoflurane preconditioning induces neuroprotection through reactive oxygen species-mediated up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes in rats. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:931-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum GSH-px activity could be developed as a marker to assess the effectiveness of sevoflurane preconditioning before ischemia. ..
  71. Schoen J, Husemann L, Tiemeyer C, Lueloh A, Sedemund Adib B, Berger K, et al. Cognitive function after sevoflurane- vs propofol-based anaesthesia for on-pump cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Anaesth. 2011;106:840-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A sevoflurane-based anaesthesia was associated with better short-term postoperative cognitive performance than propofol. ..
  72. Nishikawa K. [Roles of glutamatergic and GABAergic nervous system in hypnotic and analgesic actions of general anesthetics]. Masui. 2011;60:534-43 pubmed
    ..In this mini review, the relative contributions of extrasynaptic GABA receptors in behavioral actions of isoflurane and sevoflurane will be discussed. ..
  73. Bedirli N, Demirtaş C, Akkaya T, Salman B, Alper M, Bedirli A, et al. Volatile anesthetic preconditioning attenuated sepsis induced lung inflammation. J Surg Res. 2012;178:e17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, sevoflurane was more effective in modulating sepsis induced inflammatory response at the chosen concentration in sepsis model. ..
  74. Satomoto M, Satoh Y, Terui K, Miyao H, Takishima K, Ito M, et al. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces abnormal social behaviors and deficits in fear conditioning in mice. Anesthesiology. 2009;110:628-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that exposure of neonatal mice to inhaled sevoflurane could cause not only learning deficits but also abnormal social behaviors resembling autism spectrum disorder. ..