Summary: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.

Top Publications

  1. Kanematsu S, Yoshizawa K, Uehara N, Miki H, Sasaki T, Kuro M, et al. Sulforaphane inhibits the growth of KPL-1 human breast cancer cells in vitro and suppresses the growth and metastasis of orthotopically transplanted KPL-1 cells in female athymic mice. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:603-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Gaona Gaona L, Molina Jijón E, Tapia E, Zazueta C, Hernandez Pando R, Calderon Oliver M, et al. Protective effect of sulforaphane pretreatment against cisplatin-induced liver and mitochondrial oxidant damage in rats. Toxicology. 2011;286:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The hepatoprotective effect of SFN was associated to the preservation of mitochondrial function, antioxidant enzymes and prevention of liver and mitochondrial oxidant stress. ..
  3. Saha S, Hollands W, Teucher B, Needs P, Narbad A, Ortori C, et al. Isothiocyanate concentrations and interconversion of sulforaphane to erucin in human subjects after consumption of commercial frozen broccoli compared to fresh broccoli. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56:1906-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the bioavailability and metabolism of sulforaphane from portions of lightly cooked fresh or frozen broccoli, and investigated the bioconversion of sulforaphane to erucin...
  4. Hong Y, Yan W, Chen S, Sun C, Zhang J. The role of Nrf2 signaling in the regulation of antioxidants and detoxifying enzymes after traumatic brain injury in rats and mice. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:1421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, pharmacological activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway by small molecule inducers such as SFN attenuated oxidative stress and neuronal damage following TBI. ..
  5. Melchini A, Traka M. Biological profile of erucin: a new promising anticancer agent from cruciferous vegetables. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:593-612 pubmed publisher
    ..These mechanisms include modulation of phase I, II and III detoxification, regulation of cell growth by induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, induction of ROS-mechanisms and regulation androgen receptor pathways...
  6. Chang G, Guo Y, Jia Y, Duan W, Li B, Yu J, et al. Protective effect of combination of sulforaphane and riluzole on glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:1477-83 pubmed
    ..When used at low doses, the combination is better than each agent used alone. In conclusion, these results suggest the potential utility of combination use of SF and riluzole for protection of motor neuron against excitotoxicity. ..
  7. Srivastava R, Tang S, Zhu W, Meeker D, Shankar S. Sulforaphane synergizes with quercetin to inhibit self-renewal capacity of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2011;3:515-28 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that SFN either alone or in combination with quercetin can eliminate cancer stem cell-characteristics. ..
  8. Negi G, Kumar A, Sharma S. Nrf2 and NF-?B modulation by sulforaphane counteracts multiple manifestations of diabetic neuropathy in rats and high glucose-induced changes. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2011;8:294-304 pubmed
    ..This study supports the defensive role of Nrf2 in neurons under conditions of oxidative stress and also suggests that the NF-?B pathway is an important modulator of inflammatory damage in diabetic neuropathy. ..
  9. Yehuda H, Soroka Y, Zlotkin Frušić M, Gilhar A, Milner Y, Tamir S. Isothiocyanates inhibit psoriasis-related proinflammatory factors in human skin. Inflamm Res. 2012;61:735-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from these models indicate the potential of rocket seed ITCs as biological agents in the therapy of psoriasis and inflammation-related skin diseases. ..

More Information


  1. Oh C, Kim J, Min A, Park K, Harris R, Kim H, et al. Sulforaphane attenuates hepatic fibrosis via NF-E2-related factor 2-mediated inhibition of transforming growth factor-?/Smad signaling. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:671-682 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results show that SFN elicits an antifibrotic effect on hepatic fibrosis through Nrf2-mediated inhibition of the TGF-?/Smad signaling and subsequent suppression of HSC activation and fibrogenic gene expression. ..
  2. Meeran S, Patel S, Li Y, Shukla S, Tollefsbol T. Bioactive dietary supplements reactivate ER expression in ER-negative breast cancer cells by active chromatin modifications. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37748 pubmed publisher
  3. Guerrero Beltrán C, Calderon Oliver M, Pedraza Chaverri J, Chirino Y. Protective effect of sulforaphane against oxidative stress: recent advances. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2012;64:503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, sulforaphane is a promising antioxidant agent that is effective to attenuate oxidative stress and tissue/cell damage in different in vivo and in vitro experimental paradigms. ..
  4. Mizuno K, Kume T, Muto C, Takada Takatori Y, Izumi Y, Sugimoto H, et al. Glutathione biosynthesis via activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)--antioxidant-response element (ARE) pathway is essential for neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane and 6-(methylsulfinyl) hexyl isothiocyanate. J Pharmacol Sci. 2011;115:320-8 pubmed
  5. Balasubramanian S, Chew Y, Eckert R. Sulforaphane suppresses polycomb group protein level via a proteasome-dependent mechanism in skin cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;80:870-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that dietary isothiocyanates may suppress cancer progression by reducing PcG protein level via a proteasome-dependent mechanism, thereby inhibiting PcG-dependent pro-survival epigenetic events. ..
  6. Kallifatidis G, Labsch S, Rausch V, Mattern J, Gladkich J, Moldenhauer G, et al. Sulforaphane increases drug-mediated cytotoxicity toward cancer stem-like cells of pancreas and prostate. Mol Ther. 2011;19:188-95 pubmed publisher
    ..No pronounced side effects were observed in normal cells or mice. Our data suggest that SF increases the effectiveness of various cytotoxic drugs against CSCs without inducing additional toxicity in mice. ..
  7. Gan N, Wu Y, Brunet M, Garrido C, Chung F, Dai C, et al. Sulforaphane activates heat shock response and enhances proteasome activity through up-regulation of Hsp27. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to show that heat shock response by SFN, in addition to the antioxidant response mediated by the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, may contribute to cytoprotection. ..
  8. Li Y, Wicha M, Schwartz S, Sun D. Implications of cancer stem cell theory for cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary compounds. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:799-806 pubmed publisher
    ..This may enable us to discover more preventive strategies for cancer management by reducing cancer resistance and recurrence and improving patient survival. ..
  9. Clarke J, Hsu A, Yu Z, Dashwood R, Ho E. Differential effects of sulforaphane on histone deacetylases, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in normal prostate cells versus hyperplastic and cancerous prostate cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:999-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..SFN exerts differential effects on cell proliferation, HDAC activity and downstream targets in normal and cancer cells. ..
  10. Steinmaus C, Miller M, Cushing L, Blount B, Smith A. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-08. Environ Res. 2013;123:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. ..
  11. Xiang J, Alesi G, Zhou N, Keep R. Protective effects of isothiocyanates on blood-CSF barrier disruption induced by oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;303:R1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus isothiocyanates, as diet or medicine, may be a method for protecting BCSFB in neurological disorders. ..
  12. Veeranki O, Bhattacharya A, Marshall J, Zhang Y. Organ-specific exposure and response to sulforaphane, a key chemopreventive ingredient in broccoli: implications for cancer prevention. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may provide a basis for prioritising organs for further chemopreventive study of SF. ..
  13. Clarke J, Hsu A, Riedl K, Bella D, Schwartz S, Stevens J, et al. Bioavailability and inter-conversion of sulforaphane and erucin in human subjects consuming broccoli sprouts or broccoli supplement in a cross-over study design. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:456-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This has implications for people who consume the recommended serving size (1 pill) of a broccoli supplement and believe they are getting equivalent doses of isothiocyanates...
  14. Kim H, Kim H, Ehrlich H, Choi S, Kim D, Kim Y. Amelioration of Alzheimer's disease by neuroprotective effect of sulforaphane in animal model. Amyloid. 2013;20:7-12 pubmed publisher
    ..While the exact mechanism of interaction of SFN in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that SFN can aid in cognitive impairment and may protect the brain from amyloidogenic damages. ..
  15. Silveira G, Ferreira M, Fernandes L, Moraski G, Cho S, Hwang C, et al. Allylic thiocyanates as a new class of antitubercular agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:6486-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we report on the synthesis of a diverse panel of 41 aryl allylic azides, thiocyanates, isothiouronium salts, and N,N'-diacetylisothioureas that were evaluated for their in vitro activity against ..
  16. Greco T, Fiskum G. Brain mitochondria from rats treated with sulforaphane are resistant to redox-regulated permeability transition. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2010;42:491-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that SFP confers resistance of brain mitochondria to redox-regulated PTP opening, which could contribute to neuroprotection observed with SFP. ..
  17. Abbaoui B, Riedl K, Ralston R, Thomas Ahner J, Schwartz S, Clinton S, et al. Inhibition of bladder cancer by broccoli isothiocyanates sulforaphane and erucin: characterization, metabolism, and interconversion. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56:1675-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objectives are to investigate these observations and determine the role of isothiocyanates in primary or secondary bladder cancer prevention...
  18. Egner P, Chen J, Wang J, Wu Y, Sun Y, Lu J, et al. Bioavailability of Sulforaphane from two broccoli sprout beverages: results of a short-term, cross-over clinical trial in Qidong, China. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:384-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer Prev Res; 4(3); 384-95. ©2011 AACR. ..
  19. Bergström P, Andersson H, Gao Y, Karlsson J, Nodin C, Anderson M, et al. Repeated transient sulforaphane stimulation in astrocytes leads to prolonged Nrf2-mediated gene expression and protection from superoxide-induced damage. Neuropharmacology. 2011;60:343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings also demonstrate that part of this response can be built up by repeated transient stimulation, possibly explaining how intermittent intake of sulforaphane can result in long-term protection from radical-induced disease. ..
  20. Zheng H, Whitman S, Wu W, Wondrak G, Wong P, Fang D, et al. Therapeutic potential of Nrf2 activators in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2011;60:3055-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide experimental evidence indicating that dietary compounds targeting Nrf2 activation can be used therapeutically to improve metabolic disorder and relieve renal damage induced by diabetes. ..
  21. Benedict A, Mountney A, Hurtado A, Bryan K, Schnaar R, Dinkova Kostova A, et al. Neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane after contusive spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:2576-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that SF provides neuroprotective effects in the spinal cord after injury, and could be a candidate for therapy of SCI. ..
  22. Jazwa A, Rojo A, Innamorato N, Hesse M, Fernandez Ruiz J, Cuadrado A. Pharmacological targeting of the transcription factor Nrf2 at the basal ganglia provides disease modifying therapy for experimental parkinsonism. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;14:2347-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide strong pharmacokinetic and biochemical evidence for activation of Nrf2 and phase II genes in the brain and also offer a neuroprotective strategy that may have clinical relevance for PD therapy. ..
  23. Mervish N, Blount B, Valentin Blasini L, Brenner B, Galvez M, Wolff M, et al. Temporal variability in urinary concentrations of perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and iodide among children. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012;22:212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Surrogate analysis show that single-spot urine samples reliably categorize participant's exposure providing support for the use of a single sample as an exposure measure in epidemiological studies that use relative ranking of exposure. ..
  24. Silva L, Justino C, Lopes I, Pereira R, Freitas A, Calado R, et al. Optical fiber based methodology for assessment of thiocyanate in seawater. J Environ Monit. 2011;13:1811-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The OF based methodology was of compact design and easy operation. This simple system has the potential to be used as a sensing approach for SCN(-) in seawater. ..
  25. Kanematsu S, Uehara N, Miki H, Yoshizawa K, Kawanaka A, Yuri T, et al. Autophagy inhibition enhances sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:3381-90 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a cytoprotective role of autophagy against SFN-induced apoptosis and that the combination of SFN treatment with autophagy inhibition may be a promising strategy for breast cancer control. ..
  26. Deng C, Tao R, Yu S, Jin H. Sulforaphane protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cytotoxicity by increasing expression of heme oxygenase-1 in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner. Mol Med Rep. 2012;5:847-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SF inhibits 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity through increasing HO-1 expression in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner. ..
  27. Clarke J, Hsu A, Williams D, Dashwood R, Stevens J, Yamamoto M, et al. Metabolism and tissue distribution of sulforaphane in Nrf2 knockout and wild-type mice. Pharm Res. 2011;28:3171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide further evidence that sulforaphane is bioavailable and may be an effective dietary chemoprevention agent for several tissue sites. ..
  28. Sakao K, Singh S. D,L-sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells is regulated by the adapter protein p66Shc. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:599-610 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study provides new insight into the mechanism of SFN-induced apoptosis involving PKC? -mediated S36 phosphorylation of p66(shc). ..
  29. Gould N, Gauthier S, Kariya C, Min E, Huang J, Brian D. Hypertonic saline increases lung epithelial lining fluid glutathione and thiocyanate: two protective CFTR-dependent thiols against oxidative injury. Respir Res. 2010;11:119 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggests that CFTR has important roles in exporting GSH and SCN which are protective against oxidants and that hypertonic saline treatment may have beneficial effects by increasing their levels in the lung. ..
  30. Zhou C, Poulton E, Grün F, Bammler T, Blumberg B, Thummel K, et al. The dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphane is an antagonist of the human steroid and xenobiotic nuclear receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:220-9 pubmed
    ..g., lack of efficacy), which are a major public health problem, this discovery could lead to the development of important new therapeutic and dietary approaches to reduce the frequency of undesirable inducer-drug interactions. ..
  31. Kim H, Barajas B, Wang M, Nel A. Nrf2 activation by sulforaphane restores the age-related decrease of T(H)1 immunity: role of dendritic cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:1255-1261.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of DCs from old animals with SFN or NAC ex vivo restored the in vivo challenge response. SFN and NAC upregulate T(H)1 immunity in aging through a restoration of redox equilibrium. ..
  32. Lin W, Wu R, Wu T, Khor T, Wang H, Kong A. Sulforaphane suppressed LPS-induced inflammation in mouse peritoneal macrophages through Nrf2 dependent pathway. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;76:967-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory effect was attenuated in Nrf2 (-/-) primary peritoneal macrophages. We concluded that SFN exerts its anti-inflammatory activity mainly via activation of Nrf2 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. ..
  33. Pappa G, Bartsch H, Gerhauser C. Biphasic modulation of cell proliferation by sulforaphane at physiologically relevant exposure times in a human colon cancer cell line. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51:977-84 pubmed
    ..Depletion of GSH does not seem to play a role in SFN-mediated apoptosis induction. Our data clearly contribute to a better understanding of the kinetics of antiproliferative activity of SFN. ..
  34. Fafarman A, Webb L, Chuang J, Boxer S. Site-specific conversion of cysteine thiols into thiocyanate creates an IR probe for electric fields in proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:13356-7 pubmed
    ..Vibrational Stark effect spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the modified proteins demonstrated that thiocyanate residues are a highly general tool for probing electrostatic fields in proteins. ..
  35. Vauzour D, Buonfiglio M, Corona G, Chirafisi J, Vafeiadou K, Angeloni C, et al. Sulforaphane protects cortical neurons against 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine-induced toxicity through the activation of ERK1/2, Nrf-2 and the upregulation of detoxification enzymes. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that SFN stimulates the NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway of antioxidant gene expression in neurons and may protect against neuronal injury relevant to the aetiology of Parkinson's disease. ..
  36. Meeran S, Patel S, Tollefsbol T. Sulforaphane causes epigenetic repression of hTERT expression in human breast cancer cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11457 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results provide novel insights into SFN-mediated epigenetic down-regulation of telomerase in breast cancer prevention and may open new avenues for approaches to SFN-mediated cancer prevention. ..
  37. Bozonet S, Scott Thomas A, Nagy P, Vissers M. Hypothiocyanous acid is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis and caspase 3 activation in endothelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:1054-63 pubmed publisher
  38. Shin D, Park H, Jung K, Choi H, Kim J, Kim D, et al. The NRF2-heme oxygenase-1 system modulates cyclosporin A-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:1051-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that the NRF2-HO-1 system plays a protective role against CsA-induced renal fibrosis by modulating EMT gene changes. ..
  39. Zhang Y, Tang L. Discovery and development of sulforaphane as a cancer chemopreventive phytochemical. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2007;28:1343-54 pubmed
  40. Nagy P, Jameson G, Winterbourn C. Kinetics and mechanisms of the reaction of hypothiocyanous acid with 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid and reduced glutathione. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1833-40 pubmed publisher
    ..As the reaction occurs strictly with the thiolate, this oxidant should selectively target proteins containing low pK(a) thiols. ..
  41. Hanlon N, Coldham N, Sauer M, Ioannides C. Up-regulation of the CYP1 family in rat and human liver by the aliphatic isothiocyanates erucin and sulforaphane. Toxicology. 2008;252:92-8 pubmed publisher
  42. Song M, Kim E, Moon W, Park J, Kim H, So H, et al. Sulforaphane protects against cytokine- and streptozotocin-induced beta-cell damage by suppressing the NF-kappaB pathway. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;235:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, pretreatment with SFN blocked the development of type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin-treated mice. ..
  43. Tope A, Rogers P. Evaluation of protective effects of sulforaphane on DNA damage caused by exposure to low levels of pesticide mixture using comet assay. J Environ Sci Health B. 2009;44:657-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is not clear whether SFN is involved in quenching of the free radicals generated by the pesticide mixture or it is involved in DNA repair mechanism. ..
  44. Valentin Blasini L, Blount B, Delinsky A. Quantification of iodide and sodium-iodide symporter inhibitors in human urine using ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1155:40-6 pubmed
    ..Measurement of these four toxicologically-related analytes in one assay will provide useful information for assessing potential linkage between exposure and health effects...
  45. Higgins L, Kelleher M, Eggleston I, Itoh K, Yamamoto M, Hayes J. Transcription factor Nrf2 mediates an adaptive response to sulforaphane that protects fibroblasts in vitro against the cytotoxic effects of electrophiles, peroxides and redox-cycling agents. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;237:267-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Nrf2-dependent up-regulation of GSH is the principal mechanism by which sulforaphane pre-treatment induced resistance to acrolein, CuOOH and chlorambucil, but not menadione...
  46. Soane L, Li Dai W, Fiskum G, Bambrick L. Sulforaphane protects immature hippocampal neurons against death caused by exposure to hemin or to oxygen and glucose deprivation. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:1355-63 pubmed publisher
  47. Hawkins C. The role of hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) in biological systems. Free Radic Res. 2009;43:1147-58 pubmed
    ..This review will outline the formation and reactivity of HOSCN and the role of this oxidant in biological systems. ..
  48. Singh S, Warin R, Xiao D, Powolny A, Stan S, Arlotti J, et al. Sulforaphane inhibits prostate carcinogenesis and pulmonary metastasis in TRAMP mice in association with increased cytotoxicity of natural killer cells. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that SFN administration inhibits prostate cancer progression and pulmonary metastasis in TRAMP mice by reducing cell proliferation and augmenting NK cell lytic activity. ..
  49. Kallifatidis G, Rausch V, Baumann B, Apel A, Beckermann B, Groth A, et al. Sulforaphane targets pancreatic tumour-initiating cells by NF-kappaB-induced antiapoptotic signalling. Gut. 2009;58:949-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The data provide new insights into resistance mechanisms of TICs and suggest the combination of sulforaphane with TRAIL as a promising strategy for targeting of pancreatic TICs. ..
  50. Chaudhuri D, Orsulic S, Ashok B. Antiproliferative activity of sulforaphane in Akt-overexpressing ovarian cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:334-45 pubmed
  51. Chuang L, Moqattash S, Gretz H, Nezhat F, Rahaman J, Chiao J. Sulforaphane induces growth arrest and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86:1263-8 pubmed
    ..These results clearly demonstrated an effect of SFN in inducing growth arrest and apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cell lines. ..
  52. Liu Y, Hsieh C, Weng Y, Chuang S, Hsieh C, Wung B. Sulforaphane inhibition of monocyte adhesion via the suppression of ICAM-1 and NF-kappaB is dependent upon glutathione depletion in endothelial cells. Vascul Pharmacol. 2008;48:54-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the use of BSO to decrease intracellular GSH levels further enhanced the effects of SFN. These data thus suggest that the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of SFN are dependent upon intracellular glutathione level. ..
  53. Choi S, Lew K, Xiao H, Herman Antosiewicz A, Xiao D, Brown C, et al. D,L-Sulforaphane-induced cell death in human prostate cancer cells is regulated by inhibitor of apoptosis family proteins and Apaf-1. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:151-62 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the present study reveals a complex signaling mechanism involving Bax activation, downregulation of IAP family proteins and Apaf-1 induction in regulation of SFN-induced cell death. ..
  54. Nishikawa T, Tsuno N, Okaji Y, Sunami E, Shuno Y, Sasaki K, et al. The inhibition of autophagy potentiates anti-angiogenic effects of sulforaphane by inducing apoptosis. Angiogenesis. 2010;13:227-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings open premises for the use of autophagy inhibitors in combination with anti-angiogenic agents. ..
  55. Hunakova L, Sedlakova O, Cholujova D, Gronesova P, Duraj J, Sedlak J. Modulation of markers associated with aggressive phenotype in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells by sulforaphane. Neoplasma. 2009;56:548-56 pubmed
  56. Cheung K, Khor T, Kong A. Synergistic effect of combination of phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane or curcumin and sulforaphane in the inhibition of inflammation. Pharm Res. 2009;26:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that CUR + SFN and PEITC + SFN combinations could be more effective than used alone in preventing inflammation and possibly its associated diseases including cancer. ..
  57. Trinh K, Moore K, Wes P, Muchowski P, Dey J, Andrews L, et al. Induction of the phase II detoxification pathway suppresses neuron loss in Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci. 2008;28:465-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that oxidative stress is a feature of alpha-synuclein toxicity and that induction of the phase II detoxification pathway represents a potential preventative therapy for PD. ..
  58. Harris K, Jeffery E. Sulforaphane and erucin increase MRP1 and MRP2 in human carcinoma cell lines. J Nutr Biochem. 2008;19:246-54 pubmed
  59. Myzak M, Tong P, Dashwood W, Dashwood R, Ho E. Sulforaphane retards the growth of human PC-3 xenografts and inhibits HDAC activity in human subjects. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232:227-34 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the data suggest that HDAC activity in PBMC may be used as a biomarker for assessing exposure to novel dietary HDAC inhibitors in human subjects. ..
  60. Keum Y, Yu S, Chang P, Yuan X, Kim J, Xu C, et al. Mechanism of action of sulforaphane: inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms contributing to the induction of antioxidant response element-mediated heme oxygenase-1 in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:8804-13 pubmed
    ..In addition, our study shows that p38 MAPK can phosphorylate Nrf2 and promotes the association between Nrf2 and Keap1 proteins, thereby potentially inhibiting nuclear translocation of Nrf2. ..
  61. Kim S, Singh S. D,L-Sulforaphane causes transcriptional repression of androgen receptor in human prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:1946-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that SFN treatment causes transcriptional repression of AR and inhibition of its nuclear localization in human prostate cancer cells...
  62. Siebert A, Desai V, Chandrasekaran K, Fiskum G, Jafri M. Nrf2 activators provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in rat organotypic nigrostriatal cocultures. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1659-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results suggest that Nrf2 may play an important role in cellular protection in neurodegenerative diseases and may be a viable therapeutic target in the future. ..
  63. Vermeulen M, Klöpping Ketelaars I, van den Berg R, Vaes W. Bioavailability and kinetics of sulforaphane in humans after consumption of cooked versus raw broccoli. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5). This study gives complete kinetic data and shows that consumption of raw broccoli results in faster absorption, higher bioavailability, and higher peak plasma amounts of sulforaphane, compared to cooked broccoli. ..
  64. Khor T, Hu R, Shen G, Jeong W, Hebbar V, Chen C, et al. Pharmacogenomics of cancer chemopreventive isothiocyanate compound sulforaphane in the intestinal polyps of ApcMin/+ mice. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2006;27:407-20 pubmed
  65. Tan X, Shi M, Tang H, Han W, Spivack S. Candidate dietary phytochemicals modulate expression of phase II enzymes GSTP1 and NQO1 in human lung cells. J Nutr. 2010;140:1404-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that modulation of lung cell phase II metabolism by chemopreventive agents requires cell- and agent-specific discovery and testing. ..
  66. Wu X, Qu L, Quan K, Jiang Y, Tang X. [Effect of tBHQ and sulforaphane on Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway of Caco2 cells]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;39:17-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, the results provide experimental evidence for choosing the dose and frequency of the inducer in cancer chemoprevention study and in developing inhibitors of Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. ..
  67. Pattison D, Hawkins C, Davies M. What are the plasma targets of the oxidant hypochlorous acid? A kinetic modeling approach. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:807-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations support the hypothesis that MPO-generated HOSCN is a key agent in smoking-enhanced atherosclerosis. ..
  68. Innamorato N, Rojo A, García Yagüe A, Yamamoto M, De Ceballos M, Cuadrado A. The transcription factor Nrf2 is a therapeutic target against brain inflammation. J Immunol. 2008;181:680-9 pubmed
    ..This study opens the possibility of targeting Nrf2 in brain as a means to modulate neuroinflammation. ..
  69. Lloyd M, van Reyk D, Davies M, Hawkins C. Hypothiocyanous acid is a more potent inducer of apoptosis and protein thiol depletion in murine macrophage cells than hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid. Biochem J. 2008;414:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This induction of damage by HOSCN may be of critical importance in people with elevated levels of SCN(-) (thiocyanate ions) arising from cigarette smoking, and plays a role in the pathologies associated with this biological insult...