Summary: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.

Top Publications

  1. Hoffman W, Cheng C, Passmore G, Carroll J, Hess D. Acetoacetate increases expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Neurosci Lett. 2002;334:71-4 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that activation of HBMEC is involved in the acute complications of DKA, and that ketone bodies and hyperglycemia are factors in the perturbed membrane function. ..
  2. Bateman R, Bhanumoorthy P, Witte J, McClard R, Grompe M, Timm D. Mechanistic inferences from the crystal structure of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase with a bound phosphorus-based inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:15284-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results advance the understanding of an essential catabolic reaction associated with a fatal metabolic disease and provide insight into the structure-based development of FAH inhibitors. ..
  3. Massieu L, Del Rio P, Montiel T. Neurotoxicity of glutamate uptake inhibition in vivo: correlation with succinate dehydrogenase activity and prevention by energy substrates. Neuroscience. 2001;106:669-77 pubmed
    ..We believe that the present results might be of relevance for the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for ischemic neuronal death and its prevention. ..
  4. Massieu L, Haces M, Montiel T, Hernández Fonseca K. Acetoacetate protects hippocampal neurons against glutamate-mediated neuronal damage during glycolysis inhibition. Neuroscience. 2003;120:365-78 pubmed
    ..Results show that acetoacetate efficiently protects against glutamate neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro probably by a mechanism involving its role as an energy substrate. ..
  5. Ernst M, Kaup B, Muller M, Bringer Meyer S, Sahm H. Enantioselective reduction of carbonyl compounds by whole-cell biotransformation, combining a formate dehydrogenase and a (R)-specific alcohol dehydrogenase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;66:629-34 pubmed
  6. Noh H, Hah Y, Nilufar R, Han J, Bong J, Kang S, et al. Acetoacetate protects neuronal cells from oxidative glutamate toxicity. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83:702-9 pubmed
  7. Maalouf M, Sullivan P, Davis L, Kim D, Rho J. Ketones inhibit mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species production following glutamate excitotoxicity by increasing NADH oxidation. Neuroscience. 2007;145:256-64 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may, in part, contribute to the neuroprotective activity of ketones by restoring normal bioenergetic function in the face of oxidative stress...
  8. MacDonald M, Longacre M, Stoker S, Brown L, Hasan N, Kendrick M. Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in combination with other metabolites release insulin from INS-1 cells and provide clues about pathways in insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C442-50 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that, besides citrate, some of the products of anaplerosis are SC-CoAs, which may be precursors of molecules involved in insulin secretion. ..
  9. Siedler S, Bringer S, Blank L, Bott M. Engineering yield and rate of reductive biotransformation in Escherichia coli by partial cyclization of the pentose phosphate pathway and PTS-independent glucose transport. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:1459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, metabolic engineering strategies are presented for improving yield and rate of reductive redox biocatalysis by partial cyclization of the PPP and by increasing glucose uptake, respectively...

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Schroer K, Zelic B, Oldiges M, Lutz S. Metabolomics for biotransformations: Intracellular redox cofactor analysis and enzyme kinetics offer insight into whole cell processes. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;104:251-60 pubmed publisher
  2. Steward K, Johnson J. Asymmetric synthesis of ?-keto esters via Cu(II)-catalyzed aerobic deacylation of acetoacetate alkylation products: an unusually simple synthetic equivalent to the glyoxylate anion synthon. Org Lett. 2011;13:2426-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The mild conditions do not induce racemization of the incipient enolizable ?-keto ester. The reaction is tolerant of esters, certain ketones, ketals, and nitro groups and utilizes inexpensive, readily available materials. ..
  3. Xiang J, Li H, Yang K, Yi L, Xu Y, Dang Q, et al. Synthesis of novel 4H-pyrimido[1,6-a]pyrimidines via a one-pot three-component condensation. Mol Divers. 2012;16:173-81 pubmed publisher
  4. Squires J, Sun J, Caffrey J, Yoshishige D, Mallet R. Acetoacetate augments beta-adrenergic inotropism of stunned myocardium by an antioxidant mechanism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H1340-7 pubmed
    ..Thus acetoacetate increased contractile performance and potentiated beta-adrenergic inotropism in stunned myocardium without increasing energy reserves, suggesting its antioxidant character is central to its beneficial actions. ..
  5. Zhou Y, Li C, Wang Z. [Studies on the antioxidant activities of leaves from Senecio argunensis]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2008;31:1355-7 pubmed
    ..The extracts of the three parts of S. argunensis all have antioxidant activities. Among these extracts, extracts with acetoacetate have the highest antioxidant activity. ..
  6. Zecheru T, Filmon R, Rusen E, Marculescu B, Zerroukhi A, Cincu C, et al. Biomimetic potential of some methacrylate-based copolymers: a comparative study. Biopolymers. 2009;91:966-73 pubmed publisher
    ..GlyMA and MOETAC-containing copolymers show promising results for further in vivo mineralization tests, as a potential alternative to the classical bone grafts, in bone tissue engineering. ..
  7. Valera A, Pelegrin M, Asins G, Fillat C, Sabater J, Pujol A, et al. Overexpression of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase in transgenic mice causes hepatic hyperketogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:6267-70 pubmed
    ..This animal model thus shows that the overexpression of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase causes ketone body overproduction, suggesting that this enzyme may be a regulatory step in liver ketogenesis. ..
  8. Labrou N. Affinity labeling of oxaloacetate decarboxylase by novel dichlorotriazine linked alpha-ketoacids. J Protein Chem. 1999;18:729-33 pubmed
    ..8, indicating a possible histidine derivatization by the label. These results show that APOD and MPD demonstrate the characteristics of an active-site probe towards the oxaloacetate binding site of oxaloacetate decarboxylase. ..
  9. Polakof S, Ceinos R, Fernández Durán B, Míguez J, Soengas J. Daily changes in parameters of energy metabolism in brain of rainbow trout: dependence on feeding. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007;146:265-73 pubmed
  10. Hu S, Yoshihara H, Bok R, Zhou J, Zhu M, Kurhanewicz J, et al. Use of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and [2-13C]pyruvate to probe the effects of the anticancer agent dichloroacetate on mitochondrial metabolism in vivo in the normal rat. Magn Reson Imaging. 2012;30:1367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..004), acetoacetate (+504±281%, P=.009) and acetylcarnitine (+377±157%, P=.003) were detected when [2-(13)C]pyruvate was used. ..
  11. Royer L, Knudsen F, de Oliveira M, Tavares M, Bechara E. Peroxynitrite-initiated oxidation of acetoacetate and 2-methylacetoacetate esters by oxygen: potential sources of reactive intermediates in keto acidoses. Chem Res Toxicol. 2004;17:1725-32 pubmed
    ..The free radicals and electronically excited species generated in the oxidation of EAA and EMAA may help shed further light on the molecular basis of these diseases. ..
  12. Teresiński G, Buszewicz G, Madro R. In vitro co-metabolism of acetoacetate and ethanol in human hepatic mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. Chem Biol Interact. 2005;156:125-30 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that further investigations are necessary to assess the clinical importance of this metabolic system. ..
  13. Shah T, Hickey M, Capasso K, Palenchar J. The characterization of a unique Trypanosoma brucei ?-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;179:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon knockdown of Tb?HBDH, a small reduction in parasite growth was observed suggesting ?HBDH has an important physiological role in T. brucei. ..
  14. Azain M, Ontko J. Ketone body utilization for lipogenesis in the perfused liver of the obese Zucker rat. Horm Metab Res. 1990;22:561-5 pubmed
  15. Kiyohara Y, Shirasawa K, Shin M, Sano K, Umezawa C. Tryptophan metabolism by the isolated rat liver cells--effects of leucine and its metabolites. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1989;59:85-92 pubmed
  16. Jeong E, Jeon B, Shin H, Kim N, Lee D, Kim H, et al. Ketogenic diet-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation decreases neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus after kainic acid-induced seizures. Exp Neurol. 2011;232:195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the KD may inhibit neuroinflammation by suppressing a COX-2-dependent pathway via activation of PPAR? by the KD or AA. ..
  17. Godlewska Żyłkiewicz B, Zambrzycka E, Leśniewska B, Wilczewska A. Separation of ruthenium from environmental samples on polymeric sorbent based on imprinted Ru(III)-allyl acetoacetate complex. Talanta. 2012;89:352-9 pubmed publisher
  18. Hong J, Hunt A, Masters P, Lieberman M. Requirements of acetyl phosphate for the binding protein-dependent transport systems in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:1213-7 pubmed
    ..Thus acetyl phosphate has been implicated in active transport. Evidence is also presented that neither the protonmotive force nor the ecf gene product is required for the shock-sensitive transport systems. ..
  19. Chalhoub E, Hanson R, Belovich J. A computer model of gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism in the perfused liver. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1676-86 pubmed
    ..5-4 min) and the dynamic behavior of substrate and product fluxes. It is expected that this model will be a useful tool for analyzing the complex relationships between carbohydrate and fat metabolism. ..
  20. Deng S, Zhang G, Kasumov T, Roe C, Brunengraber H. Interrelations between C4 ketogenesis, C5 ketogenesis, and anaplerosis in the perfused rat liver. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27799-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Anaplerosis and gluconeogenesis from heptanoate are inhibited by octanoate. The data have implications for the design of diets for the treatment of long chain fatty acid oxidation disorders, such as the triheptanoin-based diet. ..
  21. Leoncini R, Vannoni D, Di Pietro M, Guerranti R, Rosi F, Pagani R, et al. Restoration of rat liver L-threonine dehydratase activity by pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate: the half-transaminating activity of L-threonine dehydratase and its regulatory role. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1425:411-8 pubmed
    ..Half-transamination has the biological role of keeping the activity of the 'true' l-TDH constant and of regulating intracellular levels of pyruvate, alanine, oxobutyric acid, l-aminobutyric acid, l-threonine and l-serine. ..
  22. Patricelli M, Patterson J, Boger D, Cravatt B. An endogenous sleep-inducing compound is a novel competitive inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 1998;8:613-8 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the characterization of gamma-halo beta-keto esters as powerful FAAH inhibitors near physiological pH may aid in future studies of the enzymology and biological properties of FAAH. ..
  23. Xu Z, Liu Y, Fang L, Jiang X, Jing K, Cen P. Construction of a two-strain system for asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate to (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ethyl ester. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;70:40-6 pubmed
    ..6% when initial concentration of COBE was 36.9 mM. The coupling reactions between two different strains were further explored by determining the profile of NADPH in the reaction broth. ..
  24. Hazen S, Waheed A, Sly W, LaNoue K, Lynch C. Effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition and acetoacetate on anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylase activity in cultured rat astrocytes. Dev Neurosci. 1997;19:162-71 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, both SCAIs and ketogenic diets are used to treat adolescent forms of epilepsy. The possibility that these treatments might ultimately work by affecting anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylase activity in the brain is discussed. ..
  25. Walker V, Mills G, Mellor J, Langley G, Farrant R. A novel pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid and acetoacetic acid adduct in hyperprolinaemia type II. Clin Chim Acta. 2003;331:7-17 pubmed
    ..Evidence suggests it formed in vivo. The biological significance of this novel reaction of aldehydes and ketones merits investigation. ..
  26. Hong Y, Huang J, Hu H. Effects of a novel allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on the ultrastructure and pigment composition of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009;83:502-8 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa was stressed by EMA with the occurrence of cyanophycin granules and the photosynthesis pigments and ultrastructure of M. aeruginosa were quickly destroyed by EMA with exposure time increasing. ..
  27. Wang M, Zhang X, Liu Y. [Acetoacetate extract from Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb inhibits growth of RFP-xenografted human liver carcinoma]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2012;20:377-80 pubmed publisher
    ..05). COT significantly inhibited the proliferation of human HCC in a nude mouse model. Early treatment with COT produced a more robust inhibitory effect, which was very similar to that achieved with oxaliplatin treatment. ..
  28. Jörg G, Bertau M. Fungal aerobic reductive dechlorination of ethyl 2-chloroacetoacetate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: mechanism of a novel type of microbial dehalogenation. Chembiochem. 2004;5:87-92 pubmed
    ..Being effective under aerobic conditions and catalysed by a fungus, this reductive dechlorination of an aliphatic substrate is an outstanding example of a novel, glutathione-mediated microbial dehalogenation. ..
  29. Prenen G, Go K, Zuiderveen F, Paans A, Vaalburg W. An improved synthesis of carbon-11 labeled acetoacetic acid and an evaluation of its potential for the investigation of cerebral pathology by positron emission tomography. Int J Rad Appl Instrum A. 1990;41:1209-16 pubmed
    ..When the tracer was injected into cats, 3 weeks after inflicting a unilateral freezing lesion upon the brain, accumulation of 1-11C-acetoacetic acid in the ipsilateral brain hemisphere was observed. ..
  30. Kanikarla Marie P, Jain S. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits oxidative stress and monocyte adhesion by mediating the upregulation of GCLC and GSH in endothelial cells treated with acetoacetate (ketosis). J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;159:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence for the biochemical mechanism through which VD supplementation may reduce the excess monocyte adhesion to endothelium and inflammation associated with T1D. ..
  31. Ornoy A, Zaken V, Kohen R. Role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the diabetes-induced anomalies in rat embryos in vitro: reduction in antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular-weight antioxidants (LMWA) may be the causative factor for increased anomalies. Teratology. 1999;60:376-86 pubmed
    ..This, in turn, may be embryotoxic. ..
  32. Horak D, Svobodova Z, Autebert J, Coudert B, Plichta Z, Královec K, et al. Albumin-coated monodisperse magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres with immobilized antibodies: application to the capture of epithelial cancer cells. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013;101:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..A very good rejection of lymphocytes was achieved. Thus, albumin-coated monodisperse magnetic PGMA microspheres with immobilized anti-EpCAM seem to be promising for capture of CTCs in a microfluidic device. ..
  33. Magnoni L, Miguez J, Soengas J. Glucagon effects on brain carbohydrate and ketone body metabolism of rainbow trout. J Exp Zool. 2001;290:662-71 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these in vivo results suggest that glucagon may play a role (direct or indirect) in the regulation of carbohydrate and ketone body metabolism in brain of rainbow trout. ..
  34. Ungerfeld E, Rust S, Burnett R. Use of some novel alternative electron sinks to inhibit ruminal methanogenesis. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2003;43:189-202 pubmed
    ..0 to 29.3%. More accurate measurements of the disappearance of some of the compounds studied are needed to better understand how they are metabolized and how they affect fermentation. ..
  35. Hellerud C, Wramner N, Erikson A, Johansson A, Samuelson G, Lindstedt S. Glycerol kinase deficiency: follow-up during 20 years, genetics, biochemistry and prognosis. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:911-21 pubmed
    ..With meals at frequent intervals, access to glucose and avoidance of strenuous sports, the prognosis is good for a normal adult life of a young child with isolated GKD and symptoms of hypoglycaemia. ..
  36. Nylen K, Likhodii S, Hum K, Burnham W. A ketogenic diet and diallyl sulfide do not elevate afterdischarge thresholds in adult kindled rats. Epilepsy Res. 2006;71:23-31 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that adult rats are not ideal subjects for modeling the anticonvulsant actions of the KD. ..
  37. Cao H, Mi L, Ye Q, Zang G, Yan M, Wang Y, et al. Purification and characterization of a novel NADH-dependent carbonyl reductase from Pichia stipitis involved in biosynthesis of optically pure ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:1733-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this enzyme exhibited broad substrate specificity for several ?-keto esters using NADH as the coenzyme. The properties of PsCRII with those of other carbonyl reductases from yeasts were also compared in this study. ..
  38. Chen J, Wang K, Houng J, Lee S. Design of the pH profile for asymmetric bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutyrate on the basis of a data-driven method. Biotechnol Prog. 2002;18:1414-22 pubmed
    ..The proposed method can be applied to the required dynamic profile in the bioreactor process to effectively improve the product quality, given good design directions and the advantage of the traditional statistical approach. ..
  39. Langer V, Scholtzová E, Milata V, Solcan T. (E)-Methyl 2-anilinomethylene-3-oxobutanoate: X-ray and density functional theory studies. Acta Crystallogr C. 2007;63:o552-4 pubmed
    ..O type. This paper also reports the theoretical investigation of the hydrogen bonding and electronic structure of the title compound using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. ..
  40. Panten U, Willenborg M, Schumacher K, Hamada A, Ghaly H, Rustenbeck I. Acute metabolic amplification of insulin secretion in mouse islets is mediated by mitochondrial export of metabolites, but not by mitochondrial energy generation. Metabolism. 2013;62:1375-86 pubmed publisher
  41. Jain S, Kannan K, Lim G, Matthews Greer J, McVie R, Bocchini J. Elevated blood interleukin-6 levels in hyperketonemic type 1 diabetic patients and secretion by acetoacetate-treated cultured U937 monocytes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2139-43 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that hyperketonemia increases IL-6 levels in the blood of type 1 diabetic patients and that NAC can inhibit IL-6 secretion by U937 monocytic cells cultured in a ketotic medium. ..
  42. Carrier J, Stewart S, Godden S, Fetrow J, Rapnicki P. Evaluation and use of three cowside tests for detection of subclinical ketosis in early postpartum cows. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:3725-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, given their relative imprecision, use of any of these individual cowside tests to estimate herd prevalence must be done cautiously, especially when only a small number of animals are sampled. ..
  43. Barrena H, Gazola V, Furlan M, Garcia R, de Souza H, Bazotte R. Ketogenesis evaluation in perfused liver of diabetic rats submitted to short-term insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Cell Biochem Funct. 2009;27:383-7 pubmed publisher
  44. Zhao F, Pei X, Ren Z, Wu Z. Rapid asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate using a thermostabilized mutant of ketoreductase ChKRED20. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:3567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..At a substrate/catalyst ratio of 100 (w/w), the mutant catalyzed the complete conversion of 300 g/l substrate within 1 h to yield enantiopure (S)-CHBE with an isolated yield of 95 %, corresponding to a space-time yield of 1824 mM/h. ..
  45. Bergstrom J, Wong G, Edwards P, Edmond J. The regulation of acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase activity by modulators of cholesterol synthesis in vivo and the utilization of acetoacetate for cholesterogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:14548-53 pubmed
    ..The evidence suggests that the regulation of acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase activity and the utilization of acetoacetate for lipogenesis is closely linked to the regulation of cholesterogenesis. ..
  46. Li F, Cuddon P, Song J, Wood S, Patterson J, Shelton G, et al. Canine spongiform leukoencephalomyelopathy is associated with a missense mutation in cytochrome b. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;21:35-42 pubmed
    ..Western blot analysis showed increased levels of core I and core II but decreased level of cytochrome c1 of the complex III and cytochrome c oxidase of the complex IV of the respiratory chain. ..
  47. Chen X, Tsiang M, Yu F, Hung M, Jones G, Zeynalzadegan A, et al. Modeling, analysis, and validation of a novel HIV integrase structure provide insights into the binding modes of potent integrase inhibitors. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:504-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have a binding model that is applicable to a wide range of potent integrase inhibitors and is consistent with the available resistant mutation data. ..
  48. Pifferi F, Tremblay S, Plourde M, Tremblay Mercier J, Bentourkia M, Cunnane S. Ketones and brain function: possible link to polyunsaturated fatty acids and availability of a new brain PET tracer, 11C-acetoacetate. Epilepsia. 2008;49 Suppl 8:76-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In rats and humans, paired PET scans ((11)C-AcAc followed immediately by(18)fluorodeoxyglucose) will be conducted to assess the uptake of AcAc and glucose by the brain while on the KD and in neurological disorders associated with aging. ..
  49. Juge N, Gray J, Omote H, Miyaji T, Inoue T, Hara C, et al. Metabolic control of vesicular glutamate transport and release. Neuron. 2010;68:99-112 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate an unsuspected link between metabolic state and excitatory neurotransmission through anion-dependent regulation of VGLUT activity. ..
  50. Koçyiğit K, Rollas S. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antituberculosis activity of some hydrazones. Farmaco. 2002;57:595-9 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis, respectively. ..
  51. Saratani Y, Uheda E, Yamamoto H, Nishimura A, Yoshizako F. Purification and properties of a carbonyl reductase involved in stereoselective reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate from Cylindrocarpon sclerotigenum IFO 31855. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003;67:1417-20 pubmed
    ..The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme (P-Q-G-I-P-T-A-S-R-L) showed no apparent similarity with those of other oxidoreductases. ..
  52. Sawai M, Yashiro M, Nishiguchi Y, Ohira M, Hirakawa K. Growth-inhibitory effects of the ketone body, monoacetoacetin, on human gastric cancer cells with succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (SCOT) deficiency. Anticancer Res. 2004;24:2213-7 pubmed
    ..SCOT mRNA was expressed in MKN-45, MKN-74 and normal fibroblasts, but not in MKN-28 or OCUM-2M. Parenteral nutrition with MAA may provide preferential energy for patients with some types of gastric cancer with SCOT deficiency. ..
  53. Hoque M, Shimizu S, Juan E, Sato Y, Hossain M, Yamamoto T, et al. Structure of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase prepared in the presence of the substrate D-3-hydroxybutyrate and NAD+. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:331-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These structural features strongly support the previously proposed reaction mechanism of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, which was based on the acetate-bound complex structure...
  54. Lindsey J, Ptaszek M, Taniguchi M. Simple formation of an abiotic porphyrinogen in aqueous solution. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2009;39:495-515 pubmed publisher
  55. Kawamura T, Okubo T, Sato K, Fujita S, Goto K, Hamaoka T, et al. Glycerophosphocholine enhances growth hormone secretion and fat oxidation in young adults. Nutrition. 2012;28:1122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that a single dose of GPC increases growth hormone secretion and hepatic fat oxidation, with concomitant increases in choline levels, in young adults. ..
  56. Li Y, Ding H, Wang X, Liu L, Huang D, Zhang R, et al. High levels of acetoacetate and glucose increase expression of cytokines in bovine hepatocytes, through activation of the NF-?B signalling pathway. J Dairy Res. 2016;83:51-7 pubmed publisher
  57. Jenkins L, Nunn W. Regulation of the ato operon by the atoC gene in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:2096-102 pubmed
    ..This indicated that the atoC+ and atoCc gene products act at the level of transcription, stimulating the expression of the ato operon. A working model consistent with these results is presented. ..
  58. Haney P, Bolinger L, Raefsky C, Patel M. Turnover of succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA-transferase in glioma and neuroblastoma cells. Specific influence of acetoacetate in neuroblastoma cells. Biochem J. 1984;224:67-74 pubmed
    ..025) in these cells on day 3, suggesting that substrate-mediated induction of enzyme synthesis is a mechanism of regulation of 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase. ..
  59. Fallin C, Christopher M. In vitro effect of ketones and hyperglycemia on feline hemoglobin oxidation and D- and L-lactate production. Am J Vet Res. 1996;57:463-7 pubmed
    ..High glucose concentration and ketosis do not account directly for oxidative damage and glyoxalase induction in feline erythrocytes in vitro, although high concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate may stimulate D-lactate formation. ..
  60. Xin L, Hong Ying H, Jia Y, Yin Hu W. Enhancement effect of ethyl-2-methyl acetoacetate on triacylglycerols production by a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:9819-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, exposing algal cells with trace amount of EMA offers a viable method to enhance the TAGs production in Scenedesmus sp. LX1. ..
  61. Snorek M, Hodyc D, Sedivy V, Durišová J, Skoumalova A, Wilhelm J, et al. Short-term fasting reduces the extent of myocardial infarction and incidence of reperfusion arrhythmias in rats. Physiol Res. 2012;61:567-74 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to find out whether these beneficial effects can be linked to altered mitochondrial redox state resulting from increased ketogenesis. ..
  62. Orczyk Pawilowicz M, Jawień E, Deja S, Hirnle L, Ząbek A, Mlynarz P. Metabolomics of Human Amniotic Fluid and Maternal Plasma during Normal Pregnancy. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152740 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future, these results might be a useful reference point for analysis of complicated pregnancies. ..
  63. Kiefer P, Copley S. Characterization of the initial steps in the reductive dehalogenation catalyzed by tetrachlorohydroquinone dehalogenase. Biochemistry. 2002;41:1315-22 pubmed
    ..Possible similarities between this mechanism and the mechanism for isomerization of maleylacetoacetate and maleylpyruvate are discussed. ..
  64. Laun R, Rapsch B, Abel W, Schroder O, Roher H, Ekkernkamp A, et al. The determination of ketone bodies: preanalytical, analytical and physiological considerations. Clin Exp Med. 2001;1:201-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that central venous blood can safely be substituted for arterial blood for determination of the ketone body ratio. ..
  65. McClerren A, Cooper L, Quan C, Thomas P, Kelleher N, van der Donk W. Discovery and in vitro biosynthesis of haloduracin, a two-component lantibiotic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17243-8 pubmed
    ..The structures of the two mature haloduracin peptides Halalpha and Halbeta were investigated, indicating that they have similarities as well as some distinct differences compared with other two-component lantibiotics. ..
  66. Jeromin G. Superabsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase--a new catalyst for asymmetric reductions. Biotechnol Lett. 2009;31:1717-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Yields of chiral (R) and (S)-alcohols from 97-100% were achieved within 18 to 48 h with enantiomeric excesses of >99%. The superabsorbed ADH was easily separated by filtration and could be reused at least four times. ..
  67. Xia J, Zhang K. Synthesis of N-substituted acridinediones and polyhydroquinoline derivatives in refluxing water. Molecules. 2012;17:5339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an environmentally friendly and efficient procedure providing  good to excellent yields. ..
  68. Owen O, Morgan A, Kemp H, Sullivan J, Herrera M, Cahill G. Brain metabolism during fasting. J Clin Invest. 1967;46:1589-95 pubmed
    ..A strikingly low respiratory quotient was also observed, suggesting a carboxylation mechanism as a means of disposing of some of the carbon of the consumed substrates. ..
  69. Kashiwaya Y, Sato K, Tsuchiya N, Thomas S, Fell D, Veech R, et al. Control of glucose utilization in working perfused rat heart. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:25502-14 pubmed
  70. Pluymers W, Pais G, Van Maele B, Pannecouque C, Fikkert V, Burke T, et al. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration by diketo derivatives. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:3292-7 pubmed
    ..In cell culture, addition of L-708,906 could be postponed for 7 h after infection, a moment coinciding with HIV integration. Inhibition of integration in cell culture was confirmed by quantitative Alu-PCR. ..
  71. Yamamoto H, Mitsuhashi K, Kimoto N, Matsuyama A, Esaki N, Kobayashi Y. A novel NADH-dependent carbonyl reductase from Kluyveromyces aestuarii and comparison of NADH-regeneration system for the synthesis of ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004;68:638-49 pubmed
    ..6 g/l of (S)-ECHB from 50 g/l of ECAA and E. coli cells coexpressing FDH, alternatively, produced only 19.0 g/l. The low productivity in the case of FDH was suggested to result from the low activity and instability of FDH. ..
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