keto acids


Summary: Carboxylic acids that contain a KETONE group.

Top Publications

  1. Angata T, Varki A. Chemical diversity in the sialic acids and related alpha-keto acids: an evolutionary perspective. Chem Rev. 2002;102:439-69 pubmed
  2. Parra D, Gonzalez A, García Villarreal L, Martinez J. Methodological characterization of the 2-keto [1-13C]isocaproate breath test to measure in vivo human mitochondrial function: application in alcoholic liver disease assessment. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27:1293-8 pubmed
  3. Garneata L, Mircescu G. Effect of low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids on progression of chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. 2013;23:210-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the keto-diet could be a link in the integrated care model. Careful selection of patients, nutritional monitoring, and dietary counseling are required. ..
  4. Chambellon E, Rijnen L, Lorquet F, Gitton C, van Hylckama Vlieg J, Wouters J, et al. The D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase incorrectly annotated PanE is the sole reduction system for branched-chain 2-keto acids in Lactococcus lactis. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:873-81 pubmed publisher
    ..dehydrogenases of lactic acid bacteria, which catalyze the stereospecific reduction of branched-chain 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids, are of interest in a variety of fields, including cheese flavor formation via amino acid ..
  5. Magarvey N, Ehling Schulz M, Walsh C. Characterization of the cereulide NRPS alpha-hydroxy acid specifying modules: activation of alpha-keto acids and chiral reduction on the assembly line. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:10698-9 pubmed
    ..The logic used by the cereulide NRPS is likely at work in the valinomycin NRPS and may be the general strategy used in bacterial NRPSs to form alpha-hydroxy acid containing natural products. ..
  6. Funchal C, Latini A, Jacques Silva M, Dos Santos A, Buzin L, Gottfried C, et al. Morphological alterations and induction of oxidative stress in glial cells caused by the branched-chain alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease. Neurochem Int. 2006;49:640-50 pubmed inherited neurometabolic disorder biochemically characterized by the accumulation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) alpha-ketoisocaproic (KIC), alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric (KMV) and alpha-ketoisovaleric (KIV) and their ..
  7. Di Santo R, Costi R, Roux A, Artico M, Lavecchia A, Marinelli L, et al. Novel bifunctional quinolonyl diketo acid derivatives as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors: design, synthesis, biological activities, and mechanism of action. J Med Chem. 2006;49:1939-45 pubmed
    ..Molecular modeling studies provide a plausible mechanism of action, which is consistent with ligand SARs and enzyme photo-cross-linking experiments. ..
  8. Kand Ár R, Záková P, Jirosová J, Sladká M. Determination of branched chain amino acids, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and alpha-keto acids in plasma and dried blood samples using HPLC with fluorescence detection. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:565-72 pubmed publisher
    The determination of branched chain amino acids [BCAA; valine (Val), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile)], alpha-keto acids derived from BCAA [BCKA; alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV), alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), alpha-ketomethylvaleric ..
  9. Funchal C, Dos Santos A, Jacques Silva M, Zamoner A, Gottfried C, Wajner M, et al. Branched-chain alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease induce reorganization of phosphorylated GFAP in C6-glioma cells. Metab Brain Dis. 2005;20:205-17 pubmed
    In this study we investigate the effects of the branched-chain keto acids (BCKA) alpha-ketoisocaproic (KIC), alpha-ketoisovaleric (KIV), and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric (KMV) acids, metabolites accumulating in maple syrup urine disease (..

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  1. Ola M, Hosoya K, LaNoue K. Regulation of glutamate metabolism by hydrocortisone and branched chain keto acids in cultured rat retinal Müller cells (TR-MUL). Neurochem Int. 2011;59:656-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of branched chain keto acids (BCKAs) increased lactate and aspartate formation from glutamate and also oxidation of glutamate to CO(2) and H(..
  2. Funchal C, Gottfried C, de Almeida L, Wajner M, Pessoa Pureur R. Evidence that the branched-chain alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease induce morphological alterations and death in cultured astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Glia. 2004;48:230-40 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the effects of the branched-chain keto acids (BCKA) alpha-ketoisocaproic (KIC), alpha-ketoisovaleric (KIV), and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric (KMV), which ..
  3. Taylor N, Heazlewood J, Day D, Millar A. Lipoic acid-dependent oxidative catabolism of alpha-keto acids in mitochondria provides evidence for branched-chain amino acid catabolism in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:838-48 pubmed
    ..The substrate-dependent reduction of NAD(+) was analyzed by spectrophotometry using specific alpha-keto acids. Pyruvate- and alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent reactions were measured in all three species...
  4. Zhang X, Pais G, Svarovskaia E, Marchand C, Johnson A, Karki R, et al. Azido-containing aryl beta-diketo acid HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003;13:1215-9 pubmed
    ..The ability of azido-containing inhibitors to exhibit potent inhibition of IN and antiviral protection in HIV-infected cells, renders the azide group of potential value in the further development of ADK-based IN inhibitors. ..
  5. Smit B, Engels W, Alewijn M, Lommerse G, Kippersluijs E, Wouters J, et al. Chemical conversion of alpha-keto acids in relation to flavor formation in fermented foods. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:1263-8 pubmed
    Formation of flavor compounds from branched-chain alpha-keto acids in fermented foods such as cheese is believed to be mainly an enzymatic process, while the conversion of phenyl pyruvic acid, which is derived from phenylalanine, also ..
  6. Schonberger S, Schweiger B, Schwahn B, Schwarz M, Wendel U. Dysmyelination in the brain of adolescents and young adults with maple syrup urine disease. Mol Genet Metab. 2004;82:69-75 pubmed
    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with increased branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), their keto acids (BCKA), and acute or chronic encephalopathy...
  7. Bridi R, Braun C, Zorzi G, Wannmacher C, Wajner M, Lissi E, et al. alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease stimulate lipid peroxidation and reduce antioxidant defences in cerebral cortex from young rats. Metab Brain Dis. 2005;20:155-67 pubmed
    ..alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity which leads to tissue accumulation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKAs) alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV) and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (..
  8. Candelli M, Cazzato I, Zocco M, Nista E, Fini L, Armuzzi A, et al. 13C-breath tests in the study of mitochondrial liver function. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2004;8:23-31 pubmed
  9. Loï C, Nakib S, Neveux N, Arnaud Battandier F, Cynober L. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate metabolism in the healthy rat in the postabsorptive state. Metabolism. 2005;54:1108-14 pubmed
    ..Particular attention was paid to keto acids (alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain keto acids)...
  10. Mir S, Ozkayin N, Akgun A. The role of keto acids in the supportive treatment of children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:950-5 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and applicability of conservative therapy with a protein-restricted diet supplemented with keto acids in the management of chronic renal insufficiency or failure.
  11. Berthold H, Giesen T, Gouni Berthold I. The stable isotope ketoisocaproic acid breath test as a measure of hepatic decarboxylation capacity: a quantitative analysis in normal subjects after oral and intravenous administration. Liver Int. 2009;29:1356-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The comparison between oral and intravenous results provides robust evidence that the KIC breath test measures predominantly hepatic and not muscle decarboxylation and is thus a highly specific liver function test. ..
  12. Henry Riyad H, Lee C, Purohit V, Romo D. Bicyclic- and tricyclic-beta-lactones via organonucleophile-promoted bis-cyclizations of keto acids: Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-dihydroplakevulin. Org Lett. 2006;8:4363-6 pubmed
    ..This and related processes may be revealing a subtle interplay between [2+2] cycloaddition and nucleophile-catalyzed aldol lactonization (NCAL) reaction manifolds. ..
  13. Mühling J, Fuchs M, Campos M, Gonter J, Engel J, Sablotzki A, et al. Quantitative determination of free intracellular alpha-keto acids in neutrophils. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003;789:383-92 pubmed
    ..This method can satisfy the rigorous demands for an ultra-sensitive, comprehensive and rapid intracellular alpha-keto acid analysis in particularly for the surveillance of severe diseases as well as cellular or organ dysfunction. ..
  14. Ganesan B, Seefeldt K, Weimer B. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:6385-93 pubmed
    ..of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-..
  15. Sgaravatti A, Rosa R, Schuck P, Ribeiro C, Wannmacher C, Wyse A, et al. Inhibition of brain energy metabolism by the alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1639:232-8 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the effect of the in vitro effect of the branched chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) accumulating in MSUD on some parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex of rats...
  16. Funchal C, Tramontina F, Quincozes dos Santos A, Fraga de Souza D, Goncalves C, Pessoa Pureur R, et al. Effect of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease on S100B release from glial cells. J Neurol Sci. 2007;260:87-94 pubmed
    Accumulation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA), alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMV) and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV) and their respective branched-chain alpha-amino acids (BCAA) occurs ..
  17. Patel M, Auerbach V, Grover W, Wilbur D. Effect of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids on pyruvate metabolism by homogenates of human brain. J Neurochem. 1973;20:1793-6 pubmed
  18. Kunz D, Chen J, Pan G. Accumulation of alpha-keto acids as essential components in cyanide assimilation by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998;64:4452-9 pubmed
    ..L. Chen and D. A. Kunz, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156:61-67, 1997). The accumulation of keto acids in the medium paralleled the increase in cyanide-removing activity, with maximal activity (760 micromol of ..
  19. Ward D, Ross R, van der Weijden C, Snoep J, Claiborne A. Catabolism of branched-chain alpha-keto acids in Enterococcus faecalis: the bkd gene cluster, enzymes, and metabolic route. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5433-42 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the bkd gene cluster encodes the enzymes that constitute a catabolic pathway for branched-chain alpha-keto acids that was previously unidentified in E. faecalis.
  20. Patel M. Inhibition by the branched-chain 2-oxo acids of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in developing rat and human brain. Biochem J. 1974;144:91-7 pubmed
  21. Wang Z, Vince R. Design and synthesis of dual inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase and integrase: introducing a diketoacid functionality into delavirdine. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16:3587-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Balanced activities were observed with C-3 halogenated inhibitors. ..
  22. Lichtenecker R, Coudevylle N, Konrat R, Schmid W. Selective isotope labelling of leucine residues by using ?-ketoacid precursor compounds. Chembiochem. 2013;14:818-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The protocol provides selectively labelled macromolecules well suited for probing structure and dynamics in high-molecular-weight proteins by NMR spectroscopy. ..
  23. Summa V, Petrocchi A, Pace P, Matassa V, De Francesco R, Altamura S, et al. Discovery of alpha,gamma-diketo acids as potent selective and reversible inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS5b RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J Med Chem. 2004;47:14-7 pubmed
    ..Optimization led to the identification of a DKA inhibitor of NS5b polymerase with IC(50) = 45 nM, one of the most potent HCV NS5b polymerase inhibitors reported. ..
  24. Tivendale N, Jewett E, Hegeman A, Cohen J. Extraction, purification, methylation and GC-MS analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids for metabolic flux analysis. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016;1028:165-174 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracts are then subject to reduction (to stabilize ?-keto acids), purified by strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and methylated with methanolic HCl...
  25. Vilela T, Scaini G, Furlanetto C, Pasquali M, Santos J, Gelain D, et al. Apoptotic signaling pathways induced by acute administration of branched-chain amino acids in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease. Metab Brain Dis. 2017;32:115-122 pubmed publisher
    ..of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids...
  26. Xu S, Evans R, Liu T, Zhang G, Demas J, Trindle C, et al. Aromatic difluoroboron ?-diketonate complexes: effects of ?-conjugation and media on optical properties. Inorg Chem. 2013;52:3597-610 pubmed publisher
    ..Electron-donating methoxyl groups on the aromatic rings lead to enhanced fluorescence quantum yields. For certain dyes, phosphorescence is detected at low temperature or under a nitrogen atmosphere in PLA matrices. ..
  27. Lin J, Ortsäter H, Fakhrai Rad H, Galli J, Luthman H, Bergsten P. Phenotyping of individual pancreatic islets locates genetic defects in stimulus secretion coupling to Niddm1i within the major diabetes locus in GK rats. Diabetes. 2001;50:2737-43 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that Niddm1i carries alleles of gene(s) that reduce glucose-induced insulin release and that are amenable to molecular identification by genetic fine mapping. ..
  28. Wang Q, Xu K, Jiang Y, Liu Y, Sun B, Zeng C. Electrocatalytic Minisci Acylation Reaction of N-Heteroarenes Mediated by NH4I. Org Lett. 2017;19:5517-5520 pubmed publisher
    An electrochemical C-H acylation of electron-deficient N-heteroarenes with ?-keto acids is reported. This first electrochemical Minisci acylation reaction proceeded using NH4I as a redox catalyst...
  29. Wang W, Li Q, Yang B, Liu X, Yang Y, Su W. Photocatalytic reversible amination of ?-keto acids on a ZnS surface: implications for the prebiotic metabolism. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:2146-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Given its prevalence in the waters of early Earth, we suggest that the mineral-based photochemistry might have catalyzed the homeostasis of prebiotic metabolic systems. ..
  30. Toth M, MacCoss M, Poehlman E, Matthews D. Recovery of (13)CO(2) from infused [1-(13)C]leucine and [1,2-(13)C(2)]leucine in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281:E233-41 pubmed
  31. Felnagle E, Chaubey A, Noey E, Houk K, Liao J. Engineering synthetic recursive pathways to generate non-natural small molecules. Nat Chem Biol. 2012;8:518-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Recursive carbon-chain elongation pathways in nature produce fatty acids, polyketides, isoprenoids and ?-keto acids (?KAs), which all use modular or iterative approaches for chain elongation...
  32. Xu X, Tang Z, Wang Y, Luo S, Cun L, Gong L. Asymmetric organocatalytic direct aldol reactions of ketones with alpha-keto acids and their application to the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactones. J Org Chem. 2007;72:9905-13 pubmed
    A variety of organocatalysts for the asymmetric direct aldol reactions of ketones with alpha-keto acids were designed on the basis of molecular recognition and prepared from proline and aminopyridines...
  33. Ruschak A, Kay L. Methyl groups as probes of supra-molecular structure, dynamics and function. J Biomol NMR. 2010;46:75-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Areas where future innovations will lead to yet further improvements are highlighted as well. ..
  34. Patterson S, Flatt P, Brennan L, Newsholme P, McClenaghan N. Detrimental actions of metabolic syndrome risk factor, homocysteine, on pancreatic beta-cell glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. J Endocrinol. 2006;189:301-10 pubmed
    ..The participation of homocysteine in possible beta-cell demise merits further investigation. ..
  35. Tanaka H, Yamamoto A, Ishida T, Horiike K. Simultaneous measurement of D-serine dehydratase and d-amino acid oxidase activities by the detection of 2-oxo-acid formation with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem. 2007;362:83-8 pubmed
    ..First, the keto acids produced from D-serine were derivatized with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone to stable azines...
  36. Bera S, Pandey K, Vora A, Grandgenett D. HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitors stabilize an integrase-single blunt-ended DNA complex. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:831-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, the apparent binding and dissociation properties of each STI influenced the production of the ISD complex. ..
  37. Sayama K, Imagawa A, Okita K, Uno S, Moriwaki M, Kozawa J, et al. Pancreatic beta and alpha cells are both decreased in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes: a morphometrical assessment. Diabetologia. 2005;48:1560-4 pubmed
    ..In addition to the lack of Fas and Fas ligand expression, the results suggest that the mechanism of beta cell destruction in fulminant type 1 diabetes is different from that in autoimmune type 1 diabetes. ..
  38. Yang L, Kombu R, Kasumov T, Zhu S, Cendrowski A, David F, et al. Metabolomic and mass isotopomer analysis of liver gluconeogenesis and citric acid cycle. I. Interrelation between gluconeogenesis and cataplerosis; formation of methoxamates from aminooxyacetate and ketoacids. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21978-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These adducts may exert metabolic effects unrelated to their effect on gluconeogenesis. ..
  39. Beck H, Hansen A, Lauritsen F. Catabolism of leucine to branched-chain fatty acids in Staphylococcus xylosus. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;96:1185-93 pubmed
    ..The metabolic information obtained is extremely important in connection with a future biotechnological design of starter cultures for production of fermented meat. ..
  40. Pusterla I, Bode J. The mechanism of the ?-ketoacid-hydroxylamine amide-forming ligation. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012;51:513-6 pubmed publisher
  41. Zhang Y, Ma Q, Dong M, Zhang X, Chen Y, Gao X, et al. Essential role of amino acid position 71 in substrate preference by meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase from Symbiobacterium thermophilum IAM14863. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2018;111:57-62 pubmed publisher Arg at position 71 of StDAPDH, the CgA69R mutant showed higher catalytic efficiencies toward a series of 2-keto acids, ranging from 1.2- to 1.5-fold...
  42. Matsuzaki K, Kato H, Sakai R, Toue S, Amao M, Kimura T. Transcriptomics and metabolomics of dietary leucine excess. J Nutr. 2005;135:1571S-5S pubmed publisher
    ..The data seem consistent with excess leucine exerting its effects through the overloading of nitrogen metabolism and that urea or alpha-ketoisocaproate could be an early marker for the upper limit of adequate intake. ..
  43. Yeung J, Telford J, Shidmoossavee F, Bennet A, Taylor G, Moore M. Kinetic and structural evaluation of selected active site mutants of the Aspergillus fumigatus KDNase (sialidase). Biochemistry. 2013;52:9177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, whether a sialidase is primarily a KDNase or a neuraminidase is due in part to the presence of an amino acid that creates a steric clash with the N-acetyl group. ..
  44. Duan Z, Han J, Qian P, Zhang Z, Wang Y, Pan Y. Enantioselective synthesis of 3-hydroxy oxindoles by ytterbium-catalysed decarboxylative addition of ?-ketoacids to isatins. Org Biomol Chem. 2013;11:6456-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A ytterbium(III)-indapybox catalysed enantioselective decarboxylative addition reaction of ?-ketoacids to isatins is described. The biologically important 3-hydroxy oxindoles were obtained in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. ..
  45. Han S, Park E, Dong J, Shin J. Active-Site Engineering of ω-Transaminase for Production of Unnatural Amino Acids Carrying a Side Chain Bulkier than an Ethyl Substituent. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81:6994-7002 pubmed publisher
    Transaminase (ω-TA) is a promising enzyme for use in the production of unnatural amino acids from keto acids using cheap amino donors such as isopropylamine...
  46. Dayam R, Sanchez T, Neamati N. Diketo acid pharmacophore. 2. Discovery of structurally diverse inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase. J Med Chem. 2005;48:8009-15 pubmed
    ..Out of the 27 compounds, 13 compounds inhibited strand transfer activity of IN with an IC50 value less than 30 microM. These compounds are novel, druglike, and readily amenable for synthetic optimization. ..
  47. Silk P, Macaulay J. Stereoselective biosynthesis of chloroarylpropane diols by the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta. Chemosphere. 2003;52:503-12 pubmed
  48. Feiten S, Draibe S, Watanabe R, Duenhas M, Baxmann A, Nerbass F, et al. Short-term effects of a very-low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:129-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, VLPD+KA can constitute another efficient therapeutic alternative in the treatment of CKD patients. ..
  49. Zhang D, Zhang P, Jiang Q, Kong Y, Zhu M, Zhang T. A novel ion-pair RP-HPLC method for determination of five components in compound ?-ketoacid tablets. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;66:387-91 pubmed publisher
    ..80, 19.80, 10.32, 12.00 and 5.44 ng mL(-1) for HMACa, KILCa, KVCa, KLCa and KPACa, respectively. The method is simple and accurate for quality control of the compound ?-ketoacid tablets. ..
  50. Zhou W, Deng C, Long H, Xiao W, Hu H. [Effects of alpha-keto acid on the expression of neuropeptide Y in malnutrition rats with chronic renal failure]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:1387-9 pubmed
    ..alpha-keto acid capsule can improve malnutrition in rats with renal insufficiency possibly by up-regulating neuropeptide Y mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and reducing the level of blood neuropeptide Y. ..
  51. Knill T, Schuster J, Reichelt M, Gershenzon J, Binder S. Arabidopsis branched-chain aminotransferase 3 functions in both amino acid and glucosinolate biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 2008;146:1028-39 pubmed
    ..Our results show the interdependence of amino acid and glucosinolate metabolism and demonstrate that a single enzyme plays a role in both processes. ..
  52. Sechi M, Sannia L, Carta F, Palomba M, Dallocchio R, Dessì A, et al. Design of novel bioisosteres of beta-diketo acid inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2005;16:41-61 pubmed
    ..Results suggested that some of the tested compounds could be considered as lead compounds and suitable for further optimization. ..
  53. Guo Parke H, McCluskey J, Kelly C, Hamid M, McClenaghan N, Flatt P. Configuration of electrofusion-derived human insulin-secreting cell line as pseudoislets enhances functionality and therapeutic utility. J Endocrinol. 2012;214:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Pseudoislets comprising engineered electrofusion-derived human ? cells provide an attractive model for islet research and drug testing as well as offering novel therapeutic application through transplantation. ..
  54. Aparicio M, Bellizzi V, Chauveau P, Cupisti A, Ecder T, Fouque D, et al. Protein-restricted diets plus keto/amino acids--a valid therapeutic approach for chronic kidney disease patients. J Ren Nutr. 2012;22:S1-21 pubmed publisher
  55. Balagopal P, Sweeten S, Mauras N. Increased synthesis rate of fibrinogen as a basis for its elevated plasma levels in obese female adolescents. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E899-904 pubmed
    ..This finding may have important implications in the design of therapies for modulating plasma fibrinogen levels in obesity and/or CVD in childhood. ..
  56. Itoh K, Yamamura M, Takasaki W, Sasaki T, Masubuchi A, Tanaka Y. Species differences in enantioselective 2-oxidations of RS-8359, a selective and reversible MAO-A inhibitor, and cinchona alkaloids by aldehyde oxidase. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2006;27:133-9 pubmed
    ..Rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase was suggested to have characteristic properties around the active site. ..
  57. Pechlivanis A, Kostidis S, Saraslanidis P, Petridou A, Tsalis G, Mougios V, et al. (1)H NMR-based metabonomic investigation of the effect of two different exercise sessions on the metabolic fingerprint of human urine. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:6405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Metabonomics provides a powerful methodology to gain insight in metabolic changes induced by specific training protocols and may thus advance our knowledge of exercise biochemistry. ..
  58. Gonin S, Arnoux P, Pierru B, Lavergne J, Alonso B, Sabaty M, et al. Crystal structures of an Extracytoplasmic Solute Receptor from a TRAP transporter in its open and closed forms reveal a helix-swapped dimer requiring a cation for alpha-keto acid binding. BMC Struct Biol. 2007;7:11 pubmed publisher
    ..In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, TakP (previously named SmoM) is an ESR from a TRAP transporter and binds alpha-keto acids in vitro. ..
  59. Shestopalov A, Kristal B. Branched chain keto-acids exert biphasic effects on alpha-ketoglutarate-stimulated respiration in intact rat liver mitochondria. Neurochem Res. 2007;32:947-51 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that physiological concentrations of the BCKAs may modulate mitochondrial respiration. ..
  60. Si D, Urano N, Shimizu S, Kataoka M. Cloning and overexpression of ketopantoic acid reductase gene from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and its application to stereospecific production of D-pantoic acid. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:1619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..coli transformant cells coexpressing KPA reductase together with cofactor regeneration enzyme gene was also performed. The conversion yield of KPA to D-pantoic acid reached over 88% with a substrate concentration up to 1.17 M. ..
  61. Li H, Wang C, Sanchez T, Tan Y, Jiang C, Neamati N, et al. Amide-containing diketoacids as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors: synthesis, structure-activity relationship analysis, and biological activity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:2913-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, 17 amide-containing novel diketoacids were designed and synthesized, and their ability to inhibit HIV-1 integrase was tested. The structure-activity relationships were also analyzed. ..
  62. Nair V, Chi G, Ptak R, Neamati N. HIV integrase inhibitors with nucleobase scaffolds: discovery of a highly potent anti-HIV agent. J Med Chem. 2006;49:445-7 pubmed
    ..The in vitro anti-HIV data of this inhibitor were remarkable as exemplified by its highly potent antiviral therapeutic efficacy against HIV(TEKI) and HIV-1(NL4)(-)(3) replication in PBMC (TI >4,000 and >10,000, respectively). ..
  63. Lorenz E, Klatte S, Wendisch V. Reductive amination by recombinant Escherichia coli: whole cell biotransformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to L-isoleucine. J Biotechnol. 2013;168:289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Strains lacking the NuoG subunit of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) or aceA encoding the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase exhibited increased biotransformation rates. ..
  64. She P, Van Horn C, Reid T, Hutson S, Cooney R, Lynch C. Obesity-related elevations in plasma leucine are associated with alterations in enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1552-63 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the idea that tissue-specific alterations in BCAA metabolism, in liver and adipose tissue but not in muscle, may contribute to the rise in plasma BCAAs in obesity. ..
  65. Balhana R, Swanston S, Coade S, Withers M, Sikder M, Stoker N, et al. bkaR is a TetR-type repressor that controls an operon associated with branched-chain keto-acid metabolism in Mycobacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013;345:132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..A conserved operator motif was identified, and binding of purified recombinant M. tuberculosis BkaR to the motif was demonstrated. Analysis of the stoichiometry of binding showed that BkaR binds to the motif as a dimer...
  66. Ogawa J, Kodera T, Smirnov S, Hibi M, Samsonova N, Koyama R, et al. A novel L-isoleucine metabolism in Bacillus thuringiensis generating (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine, a potential insulinotropic and anti-obesity amino acid. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;89:1929-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel findings pave a new way for the commercial production of HIL and also for AMKP. ..
  67. Murakami T, Matsuo M, Shimizu A, Shimomura Y. Dissociation of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) from branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) by BDK inhibitors. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2005;51:48-50 pubmed
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