phosphoenolpyruvate

Summary

Summary: A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in GLYCOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS; and other pathways.

Top Publications

  1. Alice A, Perez Martinez G, Sanchez Rivas C. Phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system and N-acetylglucosamine metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus. Microbiology. 2003;149:1687-98 pubmed
    ..Both HPr and EI proteins were fully functional for phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent transphosphorylation in complementation assays using extracts from Staphylococcus aureus mutants ..
  2. Fischer E, Sauer U. A novel metabolic cycle catalyzes glucose oxidation and anaplerosis in hungry Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46446-51 pubmed
  3. Flores N, Xiao J, Berry A, Bolivar F, Valle F. Pathway engineering for the production of aromatic compounds in Escherichia coli. Nat Biotechnol. 1996;14:620-3 pubmed
    ..formation of glucose-6-phosphate through the glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS), one molecule of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is consumed...
  4. Rodríguez J, Kaandorp J, Dobrzynski M, Blom J. Spatial stochastic modelling of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase (PTS) pathway in Escherichia coli. Bioinformatics. 2006;22:1895-901 pubmed
    ..As case studies for the GMP method we used a simple gene expression system and the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system pathway. The source code for the GMP method is available at http://www...
  5. Wagner T, Kretsinger R, Bauerle R, Tolbert W. 3-Deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. Model of binding of phosphoenolpyruvate and D-arabinose-5-phosphate. J Mol Biol. 2000;301:233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..coli KDOPS, grown in 24 % (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1500 in the presence of the substrates, 2-phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and d-arabinose-5-phosphate (A5P), are also in space group I23 (a=118...
  6. Flores S, Flores N, de Anda R, Gonzalez A, Escalante A, Sigala J, et al. Nutrient-scavenging stress response in an Escherichia coli strain lacking the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system, as explored by gene expression profile analysis. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;10:51-63 pubmed
    The physiological role of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been studied in Escherichia coli...
  7. Burnell J, Hatch M. Photosynthesis in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants: pathways of C4 acid decarboxylation in bundle sheath cells of Urochloa panicoides. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988;260:187-99 pubmed
    ..mechanism of C4 acid decarboxylation was studied in bundle sheath cell strands from Urochloa panicoides, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)-type C4 plant...
  8. Kao K, Tran L, Liao J. A global regulatory role of gluconeogenic genes in Escherichia coli revealed by transcriptome network analysis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:36079-87 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the gluconeogenic flux to phosphoenolpyruvate is important for full activation of adenylate cyclase through the phosphorylated enzyme IIA(glu) of the ..
  9. Petek M, Baebler S, Kuzman D, Rotter A, Podlesek Z, Gruden K, et al. Revealing fosfomycin primary effect on Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome: modulation of cell envelope biosynthesis and phosphoenolpyruvate induced starvation. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:159 pubmed publisher
    ..Fosfomycin is a potent irreversible inhibitor of MurA, an enolpyruvyl transferase that uses phosphoenolpyruvate as substrate...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Meadow N, Mattoo R, Savtchenko R, Roseman S. Transient state kinetics of Enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli: equilibrium and second-order rate constants for the phosphotransfer reactions with phosphoenolpyruvate and HPr. Biochemistry. 2005;44:12790-6 pubmed
    The first two reactions in the phosphotransfer sequence of bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase systems are the autophosphorylation of Enzyme I by phosphoenolpyruvate followed by the transfer of the phospho group to ..
  2. Charrier V, Buckley E, Parsonage D, Galinier A, Darbon E, Jaquinod M, et al. Cloning and sequencing of two enterococcal glpK genes and regulation of the encoded glycerol kinases by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent, phosphotransferase system-catalyzed phosphorylation of a single histidyl residue. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:14166-74 pubmed
    ..were purified and were found to be phosphorylated by enzyme I and the histidine-containing protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system...
  3. Teplyakov A, Lim K, Zhu P, Kapadia G, Chen C, Schwartz J, et al. Structure of phosphorylated enzyme I, the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system sugar translocation signal protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16218-23 pubmed
    Bacterial transport of many sugars, coupled to their phosphorylation, is carried out by the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):sugar phosphotransferase system and involves five phosphoryl group transfer reactions...
  4. Tjaden B, Plagens A, Dörr C, Siebers B, Hensel R. Phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase and pyruvate, phosphate dikinase of Thermoproteus tenax: key pieces in the puzzle of archaeal carbohydrate metabolism. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:287-98 pubmed
    The interconversion of phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate represents an important control point of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway in Bacteria and Eucarya, but little is known about this site of regulation in Archaea...
  5. Al Zaid Siddiquee K, Arauzo Bravo M, Shimizu K. Metabolic flux analysis of pykF gene knockout Escherichia coli based on 13C-labeling experiments together with measurements of enzyme activities and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;63:407-17 pubmed
    ..To clarify the metabolism quantitatively, it was found to be quite important to integrate the information on intracellular metabolic flux distribution, enzyme activities and intracellular metabolite concentrations. ..
  6. Chen L, Omiya T, Hata S, Izui K. Molecular characterization of a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus vulcanus with unusual allosteric properties. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:159-69 pubmed
    A gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) was isolated from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus vulcanus, by screening a genomic DNA library using the coding region of Anacystis nidulans 6301 PEPC as a probe. The S...
  7. Siebold C, Flükiger K, Beutler R, Erni B. Carbohydrate transporters of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). FEBS Lett. 2001;504:104-11 pubmed
    ..Purified, cyclized IIA(Glc) and IICB(Glc) had 100% and 30% of wild-type glucose phosphotransferase activity, respectively. Cyclized IIA(Glc) displayed increased stability against temperature and GuHCl-induced unfolding. ..
  8. Nanchen A, Schicker A, Revelles O, Sauer U. Cyclic AMP-dependent catabolite repression is the dominant control mechanism of metabolic fluxes under glucose limitation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2323-30 pubmed publisher
    ..most relevant control mechanism was cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent catabolite repression as the inducer of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-glyoxylate cycle and thus low tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes...
  9. Fischer K, Arbinger B, Kammerer B, Busch C, Brink S, Wallmeier H, et al. Cloning and in vivo expression of functional triose phosphate/phosphate translocators from C3- and C4-plants: evidence for the putative participation of specific amino acid residues in the recognition of phosphoenolpyruvate. Plant J. 1994;5:215-26 pubmed
    ..between the recombinant translocator proteins from the two cell types with respect to the transport of phosphoenolpyruvate. Comparison of the cTPT sequences from F. pringlei and F...
  10. Zelle R, Trueheart J, Harrison J, Pronk J, van Maris A. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase as the sole anaplerotic enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:5383-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In several succinate-producing prokaryotes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) fulfills this anaplerotic role. However, the S...
  11. Baily C, Cason R, Vadvalkar S, Matsuzaki S, Humphries K. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by phosphoenolpyruvate. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;514:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we examine the effects of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), a glycolytic intermediate, on mitochondrial function...
  12. Yebra M, Monedero V, Zúñiga M, Deutscher J, Perez Martinez G. Molecular analysis of the glucose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate : sugar phosphotransferase system from Lactobacillus casei and its links with the control of sugar metabolism. Microbiology. 2006;152:95-104 pubmed
    Lactobacillus casei transports glucose preferentially by a mannose-class phosphoenolpyruvate : sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The genomic analysis of L...
  13. Ogawa T, Mori H, Tomita M, Yoshino M. Inhibitory effect of phosphoenolpyruvate on glycolytic enzymes in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2007;158:159-63 pubmed
    ..coli K12 W3110 that were constructed with the vector pCA24N. Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) acted as an effective inhibitor of enzymes of the preparatory phase in glycolysis...
  14. Gunawan J, Simard D, Gilbert M, Lovering A, Wakarchuk W, Tanner M, et al. Structural and mechanistic analysis of sialic acid synthase NeuB from Neisseria meningitidis in complex with Mn2+, phosphoenolpyruvate, and N-acetylmannosaminitol. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3555-63 pubmed publisher
    ..NeuB catalyzes the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and N-acetylmannosamine, directly forming N-acetylneuraminic acid (or sialic acid)...
  15. Cheng K, Nowak T. Arginine residues at the active site of avian liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:3317-24 pubmed
    The presence of arginine at the active site of avian liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was studied by chemical modification followed by a characterization of the modified enzyme...
  16. Streatfield S, Weber A, Kinsman E, Häusler R, Li J, Post Beittenmiller D, et al. The phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator is required for phenolic metabolism, palisade cell development, and plastid-dependent nuclear gene expression. Plant Cell. 1999;11:1609-22 pubmed
    ..In this study, we determine that CUE1 encodes the plastid inner envelope phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (PPT) and define amino acid residues that are critical for translocator function...
  17. Chandran S, Yi J, Draths K, von Daeniken R, Weber W, Frost J. Phosphoenolpyruvate availability and the biosynthesis of shikimic acid. Biotechnol Prog. 2003;19:808-14 pubmed
    The impact of increased availability of phosphoenolpyruvate during shikimic acid biosynthesis has been examined in Escherichia coli K-12 constructs carrying plasmid-localized aroF(FBR) and tktA inserts encoding, respectively, feedback-..
  18. Fischer K, Kammerer B, Gutensohn M, Arbinger B, Weber A, Häusler R, et al. A new class of plastidic phosphate translocators: a putative link between primary and secondary metabolism by the phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate antiporter. Plant Cell. 1997;9:453-62 pubmed
    ..transport of inorganic phosphate in exchange with C3 compounds phosphorylated at C-atom 2, particularly phosphoenolpyruvate, which is required inside the plastids for the synthesis of, for example, aromatic amino acids...
  19. Cvitkovitch D, Boyd D, Thevenot T, Hamilton I. Glucose transport by a mutant of Streptococcus mutans unable to accumulate sugars via the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:2251-8 pubmed
    Streptococcus mutans transports glucose via the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS)...
  20. Manes N, El Maghrabi M. The kinase activity of human brain 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase is regulated via inhibition by phosphoenolpyruvate. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;438:125-36 pubmed
    ..Instead, these phosphorylations and mutations decreased the sensitivity of the 6PF2K to a potent allosteric inhibitor, phosphoenolpyruvate, which appears to be the major regulatory mechanism.
  21. Dunten P, Belunis C, Crowther R, Hollfelder K, Kammlott U, Levin W, et al. Crystal structure of human cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase reveals a new GTP-binding site. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:257-64 pubmed
    We report crystal structures of the human enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) with and without bound substrates...
  22. Viana R, Perez Martinez G, Deutscher J, Monedero V. The glycolytic genes pfk and pyk from Lactobacillus casei are induced by sugars transported by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system and repressed by CcpA. Arch Microbiol. 2005;183:385-93 pubmed
    ..casei BL23, phosphofructokinase activity was higher in cells utilizing sugars transported by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The phosphofructokinase gene (pfk) was cloned from L...
  23. Kovacs J, Low P, Pacz A, Horvath I, Olah J, Ovadi J. Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent tubulin-pyruvate kinase interaction at different organizational levels. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7126-30 pubmed
    Evidence for the direct binding of pyruvate kinase to tubulin/microtubule and for the inhibitory effect of phosphoenolpyruvate on tubulin-enzyme hetero-association were provided by surface plasmon resonance and pelleting experiments...
  24. Tcherkez G, Mahé A, Boex Fontvieille E, Gout E, Guérard F, Bligny R. Experimental evidence of phosphoenolpyruvate resynthesis from pyruvate in illuminated leaves. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..acid synthesis, but pyruvate metabolism is not well documented, and neither is the possible resynthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)...
  25. Dimitrova M, Peterkofsky A, Ginsburg A. Opposing effects of phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate with Mg(2+) on the conformational stability and dimerization of phosphotransferase enzyme I from Escherichia coli. Protein Sci. 2003;12:2047-56 pubmed
    ..The binding of PEP to EI(H189A) is synergistic with that of Mg(2+). Thus, physiological concentrations of PEP and Mg(2+) increase, whereas pyruvate and Mg(2+) decrease the amount of dimeric, active, dephospho-enzyme I. ..
  26. Stark R, Pasquel F, Turcu A, Pongratz R, Roden M, Cline G, et al. Phosphoenolpyruvate cycling via mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase links anaplerosis and mitochondrial GTP with insulin secretion. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26578-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have investigated whether the mitochondrial isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) is the GTPase linking hydrolysis of mtGTP made by succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS-GTP) ..
  27. Fukuda W, Fukui T, Atomi H, Imanaka T. First characterization of an archaeal GTP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4620-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK), which catalyzes the nucleotide-dependent, reversible decarboxylation of oxaloacetate to yield phosphoenolpyruvate and CO2, is one of the important enzymes in the interconversion between C3 and C4 ..
  28. Sigala J, Flores S, Flores N, Aguilar C, de Anda R, Gosset G, et al. Acetate metabolism in Escherichia coli strains lacking phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system; evidence of carbon recycling strategies and futile cycles. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;16:224-35 pubmed publisher
    ..recovered its growth capacity on glucose by an adaptive evolution process (PB12, PTS(-)Glc(+)), part of the phosphoenolpyruvate not used in glucose transport has been utilized for the synthesis of aromatic compounds...
  29. Salleh H, Patel M, Woodard R. Essential cysteines in 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli: analysis by chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis. Biochemistry. 1996;35:8942-7 pubmed
    ..1. 2.16) (KDO 8-P synthase) that catalyzes the condensation of D-arabinose 5-phosphate (A 5-P) with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to give 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate (KDO 8-P) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) was ..
  30. Hogema B, Arents J, Bader R, Eijkemans K, Yoshida H, Takahashi H, et al. Inducer exclusion in Escherichia coli by non-PTS substrates: the role of the PEP to pyruvate ratio in determining the phosphorylation state of enzyme IIAGlc. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:487-98 pubmed
    ..repression in Escherichia coli is the dephosphorylation of enzyme IIAGlc, one of the enzymes of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS)...
  31. Kondo Y, Ishitsuka Y, Kadowaki D, Fukumoto Y, Miyamoto Y, Irikura M, et al. Phosphoenolpyruvate, a glycolytic intermediate, as a cytoprotectant and antioxidant in ex-vivo cold-preserved mouse liver: a potential application for organ preservation. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013;65:390-401 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), a glycolytic intermediate, on organ damage during cold preservation of liver...
  32. Vander Heiden M, Locasale J, Swanson K, Sharfi H, Heffron G, Amador Noguez D, et al. Evidence for an alternative glycolytic pathway in rapidly proliferating cells. Science. 2010;329:1492-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the substrate for pyruvate kinase in cells, can act as a phosphate donor in mammalian cells because ..
  33. Kubis S, Pike M, Everett C, Hill L, Rawsthorne S. The import of phosphoenolpyruvate by plastids from developing embryos of oilseed rape, Brassica napus (L.), and its potential as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis. J Exp Bot. 2004;55:1455-62 pubmed
    The plastidial phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)/phosphate translocator (PPT) is expressed in the developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)...
  34. Garcia Alles L, Siebold C, Nyffeler T, Flükiger Brühwiler K, Schneider P, Bürgi H, et al. Phosphoenolpyruvate- and ATP-dependent dihydroxyacetone kinases: covalent substrate-binding and kinetic mechanism. Biochemistry. 2004;43:13037-45 pubmed
    ..two different phosphoryldonors, ATP in animals, plants, and some bacteria, and a multiphosphoprotein of the phosphoenolpyruvate carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) in most bacteria...
  35. Sauer U, Eikmanns B. The PEP-pyruvate-oxaloacetate node as the switch point for carbon flux distribution in bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2005;29:765-94 pubmed
    In many organisms, metabolite interconversion at the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-pyruvate-oxaloacetate node involves a structurally entangled set of reactions that interconnects the major pathways of carbon metabolism and thus, is ..
  36. Nanchen A, Schicker A, Sauer U. Nonlinear dependency of intracellular fluxes on growth rate in miniaturized continuous cultures of Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:1164-72 pubmed
    ..this glyoxylate shunt activity is best understood from a network perspective as the recently described phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-glyoxylate cycle that oxidizes PEP (or pyruvate) to CO2...
  37. Haverkorn van Rijsewijk B, Nanchen A, Nallet S, Kleijn R, Sauer U. Large-scale 13C-flux analysis reveals distinct transcriptional control of respiratory and fermentative metabolism in Escherichia coli. Mol Syst Biol. 2011;7:477 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, E. coli actively limits its galactose catabolism at the expense of otherwise possible faster growth. ..
  38. Fenton A, Reinhart G. Disentangling the web of allosteric communication in a homotetramer: heterotropic inhibition in phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2009;48:12323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of each of the four unique inhibiting heterotropic interactions between the allosteric inhibitor, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), and the substrate, fructose 6-phosphate (Fru-6-P), in phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli (..
  39. Zhu T, Bailey M, Angley L, Cooper T, Dobson R. The quaternary structure of pyruvate kinase type 1 from Escherichia coli at low nanomolar concentrations. Biochimie. 2010;92:116-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that, unlike some other PK isoenzymes, the modulation of oligomeric state by the allosteric effectors FBP and PEP does not occur at a concentration of 10 nM or above. ..
  40. Li Z, Sau A, Furdui C, Anderson K. Probing the role of tightly bound phosphoenolpyruvate in Escherichia coli 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase catalysis using quantitative time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the millisecond time range. Anal Biochem. 2005;343:35-47 pubmed
    Escherichia coli 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate (KDO8P) synthase catalyzes the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and D-arabinose 5-phosphate (A5P) to produce KDO8P and inorganic phosphate...
  41. Karna E, Palka J. Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent inhibition of collagen biosynthesis, alpha2beta1 integrin and IGF-I receptor signaling in cultured fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;315:61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that prolidase plays an important role in collagen biosynthesis and phosphoenolpyruvate inhibits prolidase activity "in vitro" led to evaluate its effect on collagen biosynthesis in ..
  42. Wang F, Xiao X, Saito A, Schrempf H. Streptomyces olivaceoviridis possesses a phosphotransferase system that mediates specific, phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent uptake of N-acetylglucosamine. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002;268:344-51 pubmed
    ..This phenotype can now be attributed to a functional phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS)...
  43. Walker R, Chen Z, Acheson R, Leegood R. Effects of phosphorylation on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from the C4 plant Guinea grass. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:165-72 pubmed
    In the C4 plant Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is phosphorylated in darkened leaves and dephosphorylated in illuminated leaves...
  44. Prabhakar V, Löttgert T, Geimer S, Dormann P, Krüger S, Vijayakumar V, et al. Phosphoenolpyruvate provision to plastids is essential for gametophyte and sporophyte development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2010;22:2594-617 pubmed publisher
    Restriction of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) supply to plastids causes lethality of female and male gametophytes in Arabidopsis thaliana defective in both a phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (PPT) of the inner envelope membrane and ..
  45. Wagner T, Shumilin I, Bauerle R, Kretsinger R. Structure of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli: comparison of the Mn(2+)*2-phosphoglycolate and the Pb(2+)*2-phosphoenolpyruvate complexes and implications for catalysis. J Mol Biol. 2000;301:389-99 pubmed
    ..distorted octahedral coordination sphere of the metal is completed by PGL, which replaces the substrate, 2-phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), in the active site...
  46. Pickl A, Johnsen U, Sch nheit P. Fructose degradation in the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii involves a bacterial type phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system, fructose-1-phosphate kinase, and class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:3088-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of the functional involvement of a bacterial-like PTS and of class II FBA in the sugar metabolism of archaea...
  47. Zhang E, Brewer J, Minor W, Carreira L, Lebioda L. Mechanism of enolase: the crystal structure of asymmetric dimer enolase-2-phospho-D-glycerate/enolase-phosphoenolpyruvate at 2.0 A resolution. Biochemistry. 1997;36:12526-34 pubmed
    Enolase, a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phospho-d-glycerate (PGA) to form phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), is a homodimer in all eukaryotes and many prokaryotes...
  48. Holyoak T, Nowak T. pH Dependence of the reaction catalyzed by avian mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Biochemistry. 2004;43:7054-65 pubmed
    The pH dependence of the reaction catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) provides significant insight into the chemical mechanism...
  49. Doménech R, Martinez Rodriguez S, Velazquez Campoy A, Neira J. Peptides as inhibitors of the first phosphorylation step of the Streptomyces coelicolor phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system. Biochemistry. 2012;51:7393-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the affinity of intact EIN(sc) for the whole HPr(sc) is 12 ?M, we suggest that the assayed peptides might be considered as good hit compounds for inhibiting the interaction between HPr(sc) and EIN(sc)...
  50. Shumilin I, Bauerle R, Kretsinger R. The high-resolution structure of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase reveals a twist in the plane of bound phosphoenolpyruvate. Biochemistry. 2003;42:3766-76 pubmed
    ..of the aromatic biosynthetic pathway in microorganisms and plants, catalyzes the aldol-like condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and D-erythrose 4-phosphate (E4P) with the formation of DAHP...
  51. Kremling A, Bettenbrock K, Gilles E. Analysis of global control of Escherichia coli carbohydrate uptake. BMC Syst Biol. 2007;1:42 pubmed
    ..The glycolytic flux that is measured by this sensor is a good indicator to represent the nutritional status of the cell. ..
  52. Loiseau P, Gayral P, Petek F. Purification and properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Molinema dessetae (Nematoda: Filarioidea). Parasitology. 1993;106 ( Pt 1):55-61 pubmed
    The presence of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31), an enzyme at the branchpoint of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle was detected in the Filaria Molinema dessetae...
  53. MacDonald M, McKenzie D, Walker T, Kaysen J. Lack of glyconeogenesis in pancreatic islets: expression of gluconeogenic enzyme genes in islets. Horm Metab Res. 1992;24:158-60 pubmed
    ..pyruvate carboxylase mRNA, but even islets from rats which had been starved (a condition which induces phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in liver, kidney and adipose tissue) showed no PEPCK mRNA...