Summary: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.

Top Publications

  1. Hwang J, Chen J, Chan Y. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on salicylate-induced tinnitus, expression of NMDA receptor and inflammatory genes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58215 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes...
  2. Hwang J, Chen J, Yang S, Wang M, Chan Y. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus in salicylate-induced tinnitus. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:30 pubmed publisher
  3. Shen Z, Pu X, Zhang Q. Salicylate functions as an efflux pump inducer and promotes the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni mutants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:7128-33 pubmed publisher
  4. Aizman E, Mor A, Levy A, George J, Kloog Y. Ras inhibition by FTS attenuates brain tumor growth in mice by direct antitumor activity and enhanced reactivity of cytotoxic lymphocytes. Oncotarget. 2012;3:144-57 pubmed
    ..These results are important as they might explain some of the major beneficial effects of Ras inhibitors. They may provide an experimental framework for examination of the impact of other anticancer drugs on cancer and the immune system...
  5. Barkan B, Kloog Y, Ehrlich M. Phenotypic reversion of invasive neurofibromin-deficient schwannoma by FTS: Ras inhibition reduces BMP4/Erk/Smad signaling. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011;10:1317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the therapeutic potential of FTS, in conjuncture with BMP and TGF-? pathway inhibitors, toward the inhibition of mitogenic and morphogenic signaling pathways and the alleviation of NF1 symptoms. ..
  6. Scelza M, Linhares A, da Silva L, Granjeiro J, Alves G. A multiparametric assay to compare the cytotoxicity of endodontic sealers with primary human osteoblasts. Int Endod J. 2012;45:12-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Silva E, Accorsi Mendonça T, Almeida J, Ferraz C, Gomes B, Zaia A. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and up-regulation of gelatinases in human fibroblast cells by four root canal sealers. Int Endod J. 2012;45:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity and gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human fibroblasts...
  8. Turkez H, Toğar B, Arabaci T. Evaluation of genotoxicity after application of Listerine(R) on human lymphocytes by micronucleus and single cell gel electrophoresis assays. Toxicol Ind Health. 2012;28:271-5 pubmed publisher
    ..05) between the control group and the groups treated with LN alone in both analysed endpoints. In conclusion, our result first demonstrated the absence of genotoxicity of LN on human lymphocytes. ..
  9. Borges R, Sousa Neto M, Versiani M, Rached Júnior F, de Deus G, Miranda C, et al. Changes in the surface of four calcium silicate-containing endodontic materials and an epoxy resin-based sealer after a solubility test. Int Endod J. 2012;45:419-28 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Goldberg L, Israeli R, Kloog Y. FTS and 2-DG induce pancreatic cancer cell death and tumor shrinkage in mice. Cell Death Dis. 2012;3:e284 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results suggest a possible new treatment of pancreatic tumors by the combined administration of FTS and 2-DG, which together induce pancreatic tumor cell death and tumor shrinkage under non-toxic conditions. ..
  2. Laheru D, Shah P, Rajeshkumar N, McAllister F, Taylor G, Goldsweig H, et al. Integrated preclinical and clinical development of S-trans, trans-Farnesylthiosalicylic Acid (FTS, Salirasib) in pancreatic cancer. Invest New Drugs. 2012;30:2391-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the activity, safety, and toxicity of salirasib in preclinical models and patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  3. Scelza M, Coil J, Alves G. Effect of time of extraction on the biocompatibility of endodontic sealers with primary human fibroblasts. Braz Oral Res. 2012;26:424-30 pubmed
    ..All materials presented some level of cytotoxicity to fibroblasts, while GuttaFlow was the least cytotoxic sealer tested. However, the cytotoxicity of all materials seemed to decrease similarly in a time-dependent manner...
  4. He Y, Zeng L, Yu Z, He R, Liu S, Zhang Z. Bicyclic benzofuran and indole-based salicylic acids as protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:1940-6 pubmed publisher
  5. Starkel P, Charette N, Borbath I, Schneider Merck T, De Saeger C, Abarca J, et al. Ras inhibition in hepatocarcinoma by S-trans-trans-farnesylthiosalicyclic acid: association of its tumor preventive effect with cell proliferation, cell cycle events, and angiogenesis. Mol Carcinog. 2012;51:816-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This re-adjustment of the proliferation balance likely contributes to the tumor preventive of FTS in the context of Ras inhibition in hepatocarcinogenesis. ..
  6. Mor A, Kloog Y, Keren G, George J. Ras inhibition increases the frequency and function of regulatory T cells and attenuates type-1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;616:301-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Ras inhibition might therefore be worth developing as a new treatment modality in patients with type 1 diabetes...
  7. Levy R, Grafi Cohen M, Kraiem Z, Kloog Y. Galectin-3 promotes chronic activation of K-Ras and differentiation block in malignant thyroid carcinomas. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:2208-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that wild-type K-Ras.GTP in association with Gal-3 contributes to thyroid carcinoma malignancy and that Ras inhibition might be a useful treatment strategy against these deadly tumors. ..
  8. Schneider Merck T, Borbath I, Charette N, De Saeger C, Abarca J, Leclercq I, et al. The Ras inhibitor farnesylthiosalicyclic acid (FTS) prevents nodule formation and development of preneoplastic foci of altered hepatocytes in rats. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:2050-60 pubmed publisher
    ..FTS inhibits Ras activation and prevents preneoplastic liver nodule development by inducing apoptosis in transformed hepatocytes through activation of the Fas/Fas ligand system. FTS might be new molecule for HCC treatment. ..
  9. Harrison A, Yu M, Gårdenborg T, Middleditch M, Ramsay R, Baker E, et al. The structure of MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of the siderophore mycobactin, reveals it to be a salicylate synthase. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:6081-91 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis. ..
  10. Goldfine A, Fonseca V, Jablonski K, Pyle L, Staten M, Shoelson S. The effects of salsalate on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:346-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal and cardiac safety of the drug require further evaluation. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health. ..
  11. Gomes Filho J, Bernabe P, Nery M, Otoboni Filho J, Dezan Junior E, de Moraes Costa M, et al. Reaction of rat connective tissue to a new calcium hydroxide-based sealer. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106:e71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Mineralization of the subcutaneous tissue of the rats was observed only with Sealapex. ..
  12. Mor A, Keren G, Kloog Y, George J. N-Ras or K-Ras inhibition increases the number and enhances the function of Foxp3 regulatory T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:1493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, inhibition of the N- or K-Ras isoform triggers an anti-inflammatory effect by up-regulating, via Foxp3 elevation, the numbers and functional suppressive properties of Treg...
  13. Wu N, Kong Y, Fu Y, Zu Y, Yang Z, Yang M, et al. In vitro antioxidant properties, DNA damage protective activity, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of cajaninstilbene acid, a stilbene compound derived from pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:437-43 pubmed publisher
    ..71 kcal mol(-1)). On the basis of the results, we conclude that CSA represents a valuable natural antioxidant source and may potentially be applicable in health food industry...
  14. Vang T, Xie Y, Liu W, Vidović D, Liu Y, Wu S, et al. Inhibition of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase by benzofuran salicylic acids. J Med Chem. 2011;54:562-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Selectivity profiling against closely related tyrosine phosphatases and in silico docking studies with the crystal structure of Lyp yielded valuable information for the design of Lyp-specific compounds. ..
  15. Wu K. Transcription-based COX-2 inhibition: a therapeutic strategy. Thromb Haemost. 2006;96:417-22 pubmed
    ..RSK phosphorylates C/EBPbeta and stimulates its binding to enhancer elements. We propose that RSK1/2 is a potential target for screening drugs with novel anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic therapeutic potentials. ..
  16. Seo S, Katou S, Seto H, Gomi K, Ohashi Y. The mitogen-activated protein kinases WIPK and SIPK regulate the levels of jasmonic and salicylic acids in wounded tobacco plants. Plant J. 2007;49:899-909 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that WIPK and SIPK play an important role in JA production in response to wounding, and that they function cooperatively to control SA biosynthesis. ..
  17. Song J, Koo Y, Seo H, Kim M, Choi Y, Kim J. Overexpression of AtSGT1, an Arabidopsis salicylic acid glucosyltransferase, leads to increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:1128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also suggests that genetic manipulation of AtSGT1 can be utilized as an important regulatory tool for pathogen control. ..
  18. Blum R, Cox A, Kloog Y. Inhibitors of chronically active ras: potential for treatment of human malignancies. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2008;3:31-47 pubmed
    ..Recent patents focusing on GGTIs, Icmt and PATs, and on novel approaches to Ras inhibition, are emphasized. ..
  19. Rumore M, Kim K. Potential role of salicylates in type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44:1207-21 pubmed publisher
    To review the evidence base supporting the use of salicylates for glucose level control in patients with type 2 diabetes and provide a comprehensive review of available information describing the potential role of salicylates and, in ..
  20. Umemura K, Satou J, Iwata M, Uozumi N, Koga J, Kawano T, et al. Contribution of salicylic acid glucosyltransferase, OsSGT1, to chemically induced disease resistance in rice plants. Plant J. 2009;57:463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The OsSGT1 gene may contribute to the SA signaling mechanism by inducing up-regulation of SAG in rice plants...
  21. Gomes Filho J, Watanabe S, Gomes A, Faria M, Lodi C, Penha Oliveira S. Evaluation of the effects of endodontic materials on fibroblast viability and cytokine production. J Endod. 2009;35:1577-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Tanomaru J, Tanomaru Filho M, Hotta J, Watanabe E, Ito I. Antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers based on calcium hydroxide and MTA. Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2008;21:147-51 pubmed
    ..Intrafill and its liquid presented antimicrobial activity against all strains except P. aeruginosa and Acroseal was effective only against M. luteus and S. aureus...
  23. Kaila N, Janz K, DeBernardo S, Bedard P, Camphausen R, Tam S, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinoline salicylic acids as P-selectin antagonists. J Med Chem. 2007;50:21-39 pubmed
    ..Lead compound 36 was efficacious in the rat AIA model of rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  24. Jordan M, Anderson A, Begum D, Carraher C, Authier A, Marshall S, et al. Odorant receptors from the light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) recognize important volatile compounds produced by plants. Chem Senses. 2009;34:383-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Orthologues of EpOR3 were found across 6 families within the Lepidoptera, suggesting that the ability to recognize citral may underpin an important behavior. ..
  25. De Deus G, Coutinho Filho T, Reis C, Murad C, Paciornik S. Polymicrobial leakage of four root canal sealers at two different thicknesses. J Endod. 2006;32:998-1001 pubmed
    ..Generally, greater sealer thickness influenced negatively the sealing ability of the root canal filling, except in AH Plus samples. ..
  26. Blum R, Elkon R, Yaari S, Zundelevich A, Jacob Hirsch J, Rechavi G, et al. Gene expression signature of human cancer cell lines treated with the ras inhibitor salirasib (S-farnesylthiosalicylic acid). Cancer Res. 2007;67:3320-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that cancer patients with deregulated Ras pathway tumors might benefit from FTS treatment. ..
  27. Morse A, Tschaplinski T, Dervinis C, Pijut P, Schmelz E, Day W, et al. Salicylate and catechol levels are maintained in nahG transgenic poplar. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:2043-52 pubmed
    ..This suggests a biological role of elevated constitutive salicylic acid levels in Populus, in contrast to other plant systems in which nahG dramatically reduces salicylic acid levels. ..
  28. Kudo F, Kasama Y, Hirayama T, Eguchi T. Cloning of the pactamycin biosynthetic gene cluster and characterization of a crucial glycosyltransferase prior to a unique cyclopentane ring formation. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2007;60:492-503 pubmed
    ..Also, a glycosylation prior to cyclopentane ring formation was proposed to be a general strategy in the biosynthesis of the structurally related cyclopentane containing compounds...
  29. Haklai R, Elad Sfadia G, Egozi Y, Kloog Y. Orally administered FTS (salirasib) inhibits human pancreatic tumor growth in nude mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2008;61:89-96 pubmed
    ..The orally available Ras inhibitor salirasib inhibited growth in nude mice, and may thus be considered for clinical trials. ..
  30. Tanomaru Filho M, Jorge E, Tanomaru J, Goncalves M. Evaluation of the radiopacity of calcium hydroxide- and glass-ionomer-based root canal sealers. Int Endod J. 2008;41:50-3 pubmed
    ..95 mm Al, P < 0.05). The sealers evaluated in this study had different radiopacities. However, except for the glass-ionomer-based sealer, all materials had radiopacity values above the minimum recommended by the ISO standard. ..
  31. Koska J, Ortega E, Bunt J, Gasser A, Impson J, Hanson R, et al. The effect of salsalate on insulin action and glucose tolerance in obese non-diabetic patients: results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Diabetologia. 2009;52:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..No side effects of salsalate were observed during the study. The glucose-lowering potential of salicylates appears to be due to effects on insulin concentration rather than improved insulin action...
  32. Shapira S, Barkan B, Friedman E, Fridman E, Kloog Y, Stein R. The tumor suppressor neurofibromin confers sensitivity to apoptosis by Ras-dependent and Ras-independent pathways. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:895-906 pubmed
    ..Therefore, besides its Ras-dependent growth inhibition, neurofibromin can exert tumor suppression via a proapoptotic effect...
  33. Snoeren T, Mumm R, Poelman E, Yang Y, Pichersky E, Dicke M. The herbivore-induced plant volatile methyl salicylate negatively affects attraction of the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum. J Chem Ecol. 2010;36:479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, in line with this, we recorded a positive correlation between MeSA dose and repellence of D. semiclausum when supplementing the headspace of caterpillar-infested AtBSMT1-KO plants with synthetic MeSA. ..
  34. Tsimberidou A, Rudek M, Hong D, Ng C, Blair J, Goldsweig H, et al. Phase 1 first-in-human clinical study of S-trans,trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (salirasib) in patients with solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010;65:235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This phase I first-in-human trial evaluated salirasib, an S-prenyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid that competitively blocks RAS signaling...
  35. Blum R, Jacob Hirsch J, Rechavi G, Kloog Y. Suppression of survivin expression in glioblastoma cells by the Ras inhibitor farnesylthiosalicylic acid promotes caspase-dependent apoptosis. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006;5:2337-47 pubmed
    ..These results show that resistance to apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme can be abolished by a single Ras inhibitor, which targets both survivin, a critical inhibitor of apoptosis, and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic machinery. ..
  36. Ishiwari H, Suzuki T, Maeda T. Essential compounds in herbivore-induced plant volatiles that attract the predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi. J Chem Ecol. 2007;33:1670-81 pubmed
    ..urticae-induced kidney bean volatiles. The absence of any of the four compounds resulted in no attraction. These results indicate that N. womersleyi can use at least four volatile components to identify prey-infested plants. ..
  37. Aizman E, Mor A, Chapman J, Assaf Y, Kloog Y. The combined treatment of Copaxone and Salirasib attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;229:192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..5%, 77.5% and 82.5% of mice treated with vehicle, GA and FTS, respectively, results supported by MRI, histological, immunological and biochemical data. Such a combined treatment may improve clinical outcome in MS patients. ..
  38. Sznajder B, Sabelis M, Egas M. Response of predatory mites to a herbivore-induced plant volatile: genetic variation for context-dependent behaviour. J Chem Ecol. 2010;36:680-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is possible to select for context-dependent behavioral responses of natural enemies to plant volatiles. ..
  39. Charette N, De Saeger C, Lannoy V, Horsmans Y, Leclercq I, Starkel P. Salirasib inhibits the growth of hepatocarcinoma cell lines in vitro and tumor growth in vivo through ras and mTOR inhibition. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:256 pubmed publisher
    ..The therapeutic potential of salirasib in human HCC was further confirmed in a subcutaneous xenograft model. ..
  40. Tsai C, Harding S, Tschaplinski T, Lindroth R, Yuan Y. Genome-wide analysis of the structural genes regulating defense phenylpropanoid metabolism in Populus. New Phytol. 2006;172:47-62 pubmed
    ..The suite of Populus genes regulating phenylpropanoid product accumulation should have important application in managing phenolic carbon pools in relation to climate change and global carbon cycling. ..
  41. Yue W, Fan P, Wang J, Li Y, Santen R. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;106:102-10 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in acquired endocrine resistance and the necessity for individualized treatment of recurrent diseases. ..
  42. Biran A, Brownstein M, Haklai R, Kloog Y. Downregulation of survivin and aurora A by histone deacetylase and RAS inhibitors: a new drug combination for cancer therapy. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:691-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus demonstrate that combination therapy with VPA and FTS might offer a promising therapeutic approach to the treatment of epithelial tumors...
  43. González Correa J, De La Cruz J. Triflusal: an antiplatelet drug with a neuroprotective effect?. Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2006;24:11-24 pubmed
    ..Because of its pharmacodynamic properties and lower rate of adverse reactions, triflusal may be a useful alternative to acetylsalicylic acid in the prevention of stroke. ..
  44. Gomes Filho J, Watanabe S, Bernabe P, de Moraes Costa M. A mineral trioxide aggregate sealer stimulated mineralization. J Endod. 2009;35:256-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Mineralization and granulations birefringent to the polarized light were observed with all materials. It was possible to conclude that Endo-CPM-Sealer was biocompatible and stimulated mineralization...
  45. Babst B, Harding S, Tsai C. Biosynthesis of phenolic glycosides from phenylpropanoid and benzenoid precursors in populus. J Chem Ecol. 2010;36:286-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We incubated Populus nigra leaf tissue with stable isotope-labeled CA, benzoates, and salicylates, and measured isotopic incorporation levels into both salicin, the simplest PG, and salicortin...
  46. Kielbassa A, Uchtmann H, Wrbas K, Bitter K. In vitro study assessing apical leakage of sealer-only backfills in root canals of primary teeth. J Dent. 2007;35:607-13 pubmed
    ..To assess the sealing ability of zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE), Apexit, and Sealapex used as sealer-only backfills in root canals of primary teeth using the high-pressure replica technique...
  47. Fleischman A, Shoelson S, Bernier R, Goldfine A. Salsalate improves glycemia and inflammatory parameters in obese young adults. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:289-94 pubmed
    ..03), consistent with improved insulin sensitivity and a known effect of salicylates to inhibit insulin clearance. Adiponectin increased 57% after salsalate compared with placebo (P < 0.003)...
  48. Goldberg L, Ocherashvilli A, Daniels D, Last D, Cohen Z, Tamar G, et al. Salirasib (farnesyl thiosalicylic acid) for brain tumor treatment: a convection-enhanced drug delivery study in rats. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:3609-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that CED of salirasib is efficient and nontoxic for the treatment of glioblastoma in a rat model, thus suggesting that it may be considered for clinical application. ..
  49. Whitehead S, Bayona N, Cheng G, Allen G, Hachinski V, Cechetto D. Effects of triflusal and aspirin in a rat model of cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 2007;38:381-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, strong rationale exists to continue the neuroprotective examination of triflusal in brain injury. ..
  50. Gwag B, Lee Y, Ko S, Lee M, Im D, Yun B, et al. Marked prevention of ischemic brain injury by Neu2000, an NMDA antagonist and antioxidant derived from aspirin and sulfasalazine. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007;27:1142-51 pubmed
    ..Neu2000 may be a novel therapy for combating both NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, the two major routes of neuronal death in ischemia, offering profound neuroprotection and an extended therapeutic window. ..
  51. Da Silva Morais A, Saliez A, Leclercq I, Horsmans Y, Starkel P. Inhibition of the Ras oncoprotein reduces proliferation of hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo in rats. Clin Sci (Lond). 2008;114:73-83 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory effect was at least partially mediated by inhibition of Ras/Raf/MAPK signalling. It appears worthwhile to evaluate the impact of Ras inhibition on the development of hepatocarcinomas in vivo in adequate animal models. ..
  52. Goldfine A, Silver R, Aldhahi W, Cai D, Tatro E, Lee J, et al. Use of salsalate to target inflammation in the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Clin Transl Sci. 2008;1:36-43 pubmed publisher
    Chronic subacute inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Salicylates were shown years ago to lower glucose and more recently to inhibit NF-kappaB activity...
  53. Fernandez Real J, Lopez Bermejo A, Ropero A, Piquer S, Nadal A, Bassols J, et al. Salicylates increase insulin secretion in healthy obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2523-30 pubmed publisher
    Conflicting results on the effects of salicylates on glucose tolerance in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes have been reported...