Summary: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)

Top Publications

  1. Janjua N, Frederiksen H, Skakkebaek N, Wulf H, Andersson A. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans. Int J Androl. 2008;31:118-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because of a faster absorption rate for DEP. ..
  2. Tavares R, Martins F, Oliveira P, Ramalho Santos J, Peixoto F. Parabens in male infertility-is there a mitochondrial connection?. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:1-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens are widely used as preservatives in many foods, cosmetics, toiletries, and pharmaceuticals due to their relatively low toxicity profile and to a long history of safe use...
  3. Taxvig C, Vinggaard A, Hass U, Axelstad M, Boberg J, Hansen P, et al. Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis?. Toxicol Sci. 2008;106:206-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, both parabens were tested in vitro in the H295R steroidogenesis assay and in the T-screen assay, the later to test for their ..
  4. Qian L, Guan Y, Xiao H. Preparation and characterization of inclusion complexes of a cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymer with butylparaben or triclosan. Int J Pharm. 2008;357:244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the targeting effect after the complexation with CPbetaCD, the antimicrobial activity of butylparaben can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, this improvement effect was not obvious for triclosan. ..
  5. Sauer K, Steczko J, Ash S. Effect of a solution containing citrate/Methylene Blue/parabens on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and biofilm, and comparison with various heparin solutions. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;63:937-45 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to investigate the effect of a new antibacterial/antithrombotic solution, citrate/Methylene Blue/parabens (C/MB/P), versus various heparin solutions on the viability and the structure of preformed mature biofilms of ..
  6. Smith K, Braun J, Williams P, Ehrlich S, Correia K, Calafat A, et al. Predictors and variability of urinary paraben concentrations in men and women, including before and during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:1538-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens are suspected endocrine disruptors and ubiquitous preservatives used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. No studies have assessed the variability of parabens in women, including during pregnancy...
  7. Meeker J, Yang T, Ye X, Calafat A, Hauser R. Urinary concentrations of parabens and serum hormone levels, semen quality parameters, and sperm DNA damage. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:252-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens are commonly used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing...
  8. Jewell C, Prusakiewicz J, Ackermann C, Payne N, Fate G, Voorman R, et al. Hydrolysis of a series of parabens by skin microsomes and cytosol from human and minipigs and in whole skin in short-term culture. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;225:221-8 pubmed
    b>Parabens are esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and used as anti-microbial agents in a wide variety of toiletries, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals...
  9. Shirai S, Suzuki Y, Yoshinaga J, Shiraishi H, Mizumoto Y. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;35:96-101 pubmed publisher
    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women...

More Information


  1. Cabuk H, Akyuz M, Ata S. A simple solvent collection technique for a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of parabens from aqueous samples using low-density organic solvent. J Sep Sci. 2012;35:2645-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The limits of detection ranged from 0.021 to 0.046 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied for the determination of parabens in tap water and fruit juice samples and good recoveries (61-108%) were achieved for spiked samples.
  2. Hoberman A, Schreur D, Leazer T, Daston G, Carthew P, Re T, et al. Lack of effect of butylparaben and methylparaben on the reproductive system in male rats. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2008;83:123-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens are widely used preservatives in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products, and approved as food additives. Parabens have been considered safe for these uses for many years...
  3. Tajarobi F, Abrahmsen Alami S, Larsson A. Dissolution rate enhancement of parabens in PEG solid dispersions and its influence on the release from hydrophilic matrix tablets. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100:275-83 pubmed publisher
    The dissolution rate of a homologous series of parabens and their dispersions in PEG 4?×?10(3) was examined...
  4. Crinnion W. Toxic effects of the easily avoidable phthalates and parabens. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15:190-6 pubmed
    ..Two such classes of compounds are the phthalate plasticizers and parabens, both of which are used in many personal care products, some medications, and even foods and food preservation...
  5. Barberis C, Astoreca A, Fernandez Juri G, Chulze S, Dalcero A, Magnoli C. Use of propyl paraben to control growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus section Nigri species on peanut meal extract agar. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009;136:133-6 pubmed publisher
    ..At 5, 10 and 20 mmol/L of PP the strains were not able to reach the exponential phase and completely inhibited fungal growth and OTA production regardless of a(W) used in all the evaluated strains. ..
  6. Frederiksen H, Jørgensen N, Andersson A. Parabens in urine, serum and seminal plasma from healthy Danish men determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011;21:262-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens are used as anti-microbial preservatives in a range of consumer products, especially in cosmetics...
  7. de Vries E, Caira M. A structural and thermal investigation of the inclusion of parabens in heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose. Carbohydr Res. 2008;343:2433-8 pubmed publisher
    ..inclusion complexes formed by heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl parabens have been solved and analysed by X-ray diffraction...
  8. Calafat A, Ye X, Wong L, Bishop A, Needham L. Urinary concentrations of four parabens in the U.S. population: NHANES 2005-2006. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:679-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, -pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing...
  9. Regueiro J, Becerril E, Garcia Jares C, Llompart M. Trace analysis of parabens, triclosan and related chlorophenols in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:4693-702 pubmed publisher
    An in situ derivatization solid-phase microextraction method has been developed for the determination of parabens, triclosan and related chlorophenols in water...
  10. Boberg J, Taxvig C, Christiansen S, Hass U. Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;30:301-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens are preservatives used in a wide range of cosmetic products, including products for children, and some are permitted in foods. However, there is concern for endocrine disrupting effects...
  11. Jonkers N, Kohler H, Dammshäuser A, Giger W. Mass flows of endocrine disruptors in the Glatt River during varying weather conditions. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:714-23 pubmed publisher
    ..behaviour in wastewater and surface waters of several phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) including parabens, alkylphenolic compounds, phenylphenol (PhP) and bisphenol A (BPA)...
  12. Fan X, Kubwabo C, Rasmussen P, Jones Otazo H. Simultaneous quantitation of parabens, triclosan, and methyl triclosan in indoor house dust using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Environ Monit. 2010;12:1891-7 pubmed publisher
    An integrated analytical method for the simultaneous determination of five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-), triclosan, and methyl triclosan in indoor house dust was developed based on gas chromatographic-mass ..
  13. El Hussein S, Muret P, Berard M, Makki S, Humbert P. Assessment of principal parabens used in cosmetics after their passage through human epidermis-dermis layers (ex-vivo study). Exp Dermatol. 2007;16:830-6 pubmed
    Concern is continuously raised about the safety of parabens which are present in most of the cosmetic preparations...
  14. Kamaraju K, Sukharev S. The membrane lateral pressure-perturbing capacity of parabens and their effects on the mechanosensitive channel directly correlate with hydrophobicity. Biochemistry. 2008;47:10540-50 pubmed publisher
    ..p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are amphipathic compounds widely used as food and cosmetics preservatives, but the mechanisms of their broad ..
  15. Lundov M, Moesby L, Zachariae C, Johansen J. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics: a review on legislation, usage, infections, and contact allergy. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;60:70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone...
  16. Schlumpf M, Kypke K, Wittassek M, Angerer J, Mascher H, Mascher D, et al. Exposure patterns of UV filters, fragrances, parabens, phthalates, organochlor pesticides, PBDEs, and PCBs in human milk: correlation of UV filters with use of cosmetics. Chemosphere. 2010;81:1171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..2004, 2005, 2006) of 54 mother/child pairs, where for the first time, cosmetic UV filters, synthetic musks, parabens and phthalate metabolites were analyzed in the same sample along with persistent organochlor pollutants (POPs), i...
  17. Khanna S, Darbre P. Parabens enable suspension growth of MCF-10A immortalized, non-transformed human breast epithelial cells. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33:378-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are used extensively as preservatives in consumer products, and intact esters have been measured in several human tissues...
  18. Khimani M, Ganguly R, Aswal V, Nath S, Bahadur P. Solubilization of parabens in aqueous Pluronic solutions: investigating the micellar growth and interaction as a function of paraben composition. J Phys Chem B. 2012;116:14943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Parabens are extensively used as preservatives in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food products...
  19. Tay K, Rahman N, Abas M. Ozonation of parabens in aqueous solution: kinetics and mechanism of degradation. Chemosphere. 2010;81:1446-53 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the reaction kinetics and degradation mechanism of parabens (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben) during ozonation...
  20. Vo T, Jung E, Choi K, Yu F, Jeung E. Estrogen receptor ? is involved in the induction of Calbindin-D(9k) and progesterone receptor by parabens in GH3 cells: a biomarker gene for screening xenoestrogens. Steroids. 2011;76:675-81 pubmed publisher estrogenic biomarker gene - Calbindin-D(9k) (CaBP-9k) to investigate the xenoestrogenic activity of a panel of parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, and isobutylparabens) in GH3 rat pituitary cancer cell line...
  21. Sandanger T, Huber S, Moe M, Braathen T, Leknes H, Lund E. Plasma concentrations of parabens in postmenopausal women and self-reported use of personal care products: the NOWAC postgenome study. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011;21:595-600 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens are used extensively in personal care products; however, their estrogenic properties have raised concern over risks to human health...
  22. Vo T, Jeung E. An evaluation of estrogenic activity of parabens using uterine calbindin-d9k gene in an immature rat model. Toxicol Sci. 2009;112:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..chemicals in vivo and in vitro, was adopted to examine the potential estrogen-like property of the following parabens: propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, and isobutylparaben...
  23. Moribe K, Masaki M, Kinoshita R, Zhang J, Limwikrant W, Higashi K, et al. Guest molecular size-dependent inclusion complexation of parabens with cholic acid by cogrinding. Int J Pharm. 2011;420:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethyl-, n-propyl-, and isopropyl-parabens formed equimolar inclusion complexes with CA, and the complex structures were of the ?-trans bilayer type...
  24. Miceli M, Bernardo S, Ku T, Walraven C, Lee S. In vitro analyses of the effects of heparin and parabens on Candida albicans biofilms and planktonic cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigation of high-dose heparin-based strategies (e.g., heparin locks) in combination with traditional antifungal agents for the treatment and/or prevention of C. albicans biofilms is warranted. ..
  25. Darbre P, Harvey P. Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. J Appl Toxicol. 2008;28:561-78 pubmed publisher
    ..the past four years since publication in 2004 of the first measurement of intact esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast cancer tissues, and the suggestion that their presence in the human body might originate from ..
  26. Harville H, Voorman R, Prusakiewicz J. Comparison of paraben stability in human and rat skin. Drug Metab Lett. 2007;1:17-21 pubmed
    b>Parabens are widely used preservatives in topical products, and are estrogenic in numerous experimental models. The typical cutaneous metabolism model, rat skin, hydrolyzes parabens much faster than human skin...
  27. Quévrain E, Domart Coulon I, Pernice M, Bourguet Kondracki M. Novel natural parabens produced by a Microbulbifer bacterium in its calcareous sponge host Leuconia nivea. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:1527-39 pubmed publisher
    A broad variety of natural parabens, including four novel structures and known ethyl and butyl parabens, were obtained from culture of a Microbulbifer sp...
  28. Ye X, Tao L, Needham L, Calafat A. Automated on-line column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method for measuring environmental phenols and parabens in serum. Talanta. 2008;76:865-71 pubmed publisher
    ..tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to measure the serum concentrations of seven environmental phenols and five parabens: bisphenol A; ortho-phenylphenol; 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,5-dichlorophenol; 2,4,5-trichlorophenol; benzophenone-3; ..
  29. Ye X, Bishop A, Needham L, Calafat A. Automated on-line column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method with peak focusing for measuring parabens, triclosan, and other environmental phenols in human milk. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;622:150-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens (esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) and triclosan are widely used as preservatives and antimicrobial agents, respectively, in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and food processing...
  30. van Meeuwen J, van Son O, Piersma A, de Jong P, Van den Berg M. Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;230:372-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are ..
  31. Noorashikin M, Raoov M, Mohamad S, Abas M. Cloud point extraction of parabens using non-ionic surfactant with cylodextrin functionalized ionic liquid as a modifier. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:24531-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed method of CPE-DC193C-?CD-IL gives an excellent performance on the detection of parabens from water samples with the limit of detection falling in the range of 0.013-0.038 µg mL-1...
  32. Ramírez N, Marce R, Borrull F. Determination of parabens in house dust by pressurised hot water extraction followed by stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2011;1218:6226-31 pubmed publisher
    This study describes the development of a new method for determining p-hydroxybenzoic esters (parabens) in house dust...
  33. Savage J, Matsui E, Wood R, Keet C. Urinary levels of triclosan and parabens are associated with aeroallergen and food sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:453-60.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination Survey in which urinary bisphenol A; triclosan; benzophenone-3; propyl, methyl, butyl, and ethyl parabens; and specific IgE levels were available for 860 children...
  34. Ye X, Wong L, Jia L, Needham L, Calafat A. Stability of the conjugated species of environmental phenols and parabens in human serum. Environ Int. 2009;35:1160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..of the conjugates of four phenols-bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclosan, and 2,5-dichlorophenol-and two parabens-methyl paraben and propyl paraben-in 16 human serum samples for 30 days at above-freezing temperature storage ..
  35. Blanco E, Casais M, Mejuto M, Cela R. Combination of off-line solid-phase extraction and on-column sample stacking for sensitive determination of parabens and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in waters by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;647:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, a procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the simultaneous extraction of a group of parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl and benzyl p-hydroxybenzoates) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), from environmental ..
  36. Frederiksen H, Nielsen J, Mørck T, Hansen P, Jensen J, Nielsen O, et al. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites, phenols and parabens in rural and urban Danish mother-child pairs. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013;216:772-83 pubmed publisher
    Some phthalates, parabens and phenols have shown adverse endocrine disrupting effects in animal studies and are also suspected to be involved in human reproductive problems...
  37. Hu P, Chen X, Whitener R, Boder E, Jones J, Porollo A, et al. Effects of parabens on adipocyte differentiation. Toxicol Sci. 2013;131:56-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens are a group of alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and benzylparaben...
  38. Barr L, Metaxas G, Harbach C, Savoy L, Darbre P. Measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue at serial locations across the breast from axilla to sternum. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:219-32 pubmed publisher
    The concentrations of five esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) were measured using HPLC-MS/MS at four serial locations across the human breast from axilla to sternum using human breast tissue collected from 40 mastectomies for ..
  39. Beltran A, Marcé R, Cormack P, Borrull F. Synthetic approaches to parabens molecularly imprinted polymers and their applications to the solid-phase extraction of river water samples. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;677:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and use of two distinct molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) prepared using esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) as templates: one MIP was synthesised by precipitation polymerisation using a semi-covalent molecularly ..
  40. Meeker J, Cantonwine D, Rivera González L, Ferguson K, Mukherjee B, Calafat A, et al. Distribution, variability, and predictors of urinary concentrations of phenols and parabens among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:3439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured the urinary concentrations of five phenols and three parabens: 2,4-dichlorophenol (24-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (25-DCP), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (..
  41. Calafat A, Weuve J, Ye X, Jia L, Hu H, Ringer S, et al. Exposure to bisphenol A and other phenols in neonatal intensive care unit premature infants. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:639-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences in exposure to BPA by intensity of use of DEHP-containing medical products highlight the need for further studies to determine the specific source(s) of exposure to BPA. ..
  42. Tayama S, Nakagawa Y, Tayama K. Genotoxic effects of environmental estrogen-like compounds in CHO-K1 cells. Mutat Res. 2008;649:114-25 pubmed
    ..Our findings also suggest that E2, DES and BPA have aneuploidogenic properties, and that the former two of chemicals also are polyploidy-inducing agents. ..
  43. Verhoef S, Ballerstedt H, Volkers R, de Winde J, Ruijssenaars H. Comparative transcriptomics and proteomics of p-hydroxybenzoate producing Pseudomonas putida S12: novel responses and implications for strain improvement. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:679-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Eliminating the most prominent of these resulted in a 22% p-hydroxybenzoate yield improvement. Remarkably, the upregulation of genes contributing to p-hydroxybenzoate formation was much higher in glucose than in glycerol-cultured cells. ..
  44. Palumbo J, O Keeffe T, Mahoney N. Inhibition of ochratoxin A production and growth of Aspergillus species by phenolic antioxidant compounds. Mycopathologia. 2007;164:241-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, inhibition of OTA production by antioxidant compounds may be useful in determining biosynthetic and regulatory genes involved in both OTA production and stress response in ochratoxigenic Aspergilli. ..
  45. Verhoef S, Ruijssenaars H, de Bont J, Wery J. Bioproduction of p-hydroxybenzoate from renewable feedstock by solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. J Biotechnol. 2007;132:49-56 pubmed
    ..7, indicating that Pal activity is the limiting factor when sufficient l-tyrosine is available. Thus, two major leads for further improvement of the p-hydroxybenzoate production by P. putida S12palB1 were identified. ..
  46. Shaw J, deCatanzaro D. Estrogenicity of parabens revisited: impact of parabens on early pregnancy and an uterotrophic assay in mice. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;28:26-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabens, a class of preservatives routinely added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods, have estrogenic properties...
  47. Cowan Ellsberry C, Robison S. Refining aggregate exposure: example using parabens. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;55:321-9 pubmed publisher the aggregate exposure from incorporating these data is illustrated using methyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and ethyl parabens, the most widely used preservative system in personal care and cosmetic products...
  48. Vo T, Yoo Y, Choi K, Jeung E. Potential estrogenic effect(s) of parabens at the prepubertal stage of a postnatal female rat model. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;29:306-16 pubmed publisher
    In this study, a female pubertal assay on the effects of parabens, including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, and isobutylparaben, was performed in a female Sprague-Dawley rat model during the juvenile-peripubertal period...
  49. Ye X, Bishop A, Reidy J, Needham L, Calafat A. Parabens as urinary biomarkers of exposure in humans. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:1843-6 pubmed
    b>Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens...
  50. Harvey P. Parabens, oestrogenicity, underarm cosmetics and breast cancer: a perspective on a hypothesis. J Appl Toxicol. 2003;23:285-8 pubmed
    ..and scientific interest that requires perspective, particularly on the use of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) as preservatives in underarm cosmetics...
  51. Suarez M, Martin M, Ferrer E, Garrido Pertierra A. Purification and characterization of 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase from a Klebsiella pneumoniae mutant strain. Arch Microbiol. 1995;164:70-7 pubmed
    ..6. Steady-state kinetics were analyzed; the initial velocity patterns were consistent with a concerted substitution mechanism. The purified enzyme had 362 amino acid residues, and a tyrosine seemed to be involved in substrate activation. ..
  52. Nesci A, Rodriguez M, Etcheverry M. Control of Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin production using antioxidants at different conditions of water activity and pH. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;95:279-87 pubmed
    ..Futher studies should be carried out to examine the potential for antioxidants, such as BHA and PP to effectively control both growth and aflatoxin production. ..
  53. Parke D. Characterization of PcaQ, a LysR-type transcriptional activator required for catabolism of phenolic compounds, from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:266-72 pubmed