propyl gallate


Summary: Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.

Top Publications

  1. Oishi M, Matsuda T, Nojiri S, Saito K. [Simultaneous determination of five antioxidants in food by HPLC with fluorescence detection]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2002;43:104-9 pubmed
    An HPLC method with fluorescence detection was developed for the determination of propyl gallate, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole (2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole), tert-butylhydroquinone and octyl gallate in ..
  2. Soares D, Andreazza A, Salvador M. Sequestering ability of butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, resveratrol, and vitamins C and E against ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl free radicals in chemical and biological systems. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:1077-80 pubmed
    The antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol), propyl gallate (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid n-propyl ester), resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), and vitamins C (l-ascorbic acid) and E [(+..
  3. Yu X, Li Y. Microencapsulated mycelium-bound tannase from Aspergillus niger: an efficient catalyst for esterification of propyl gallate in organic solvents. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2005;126:177-87 pubmed
    ..Aspergillus niger with mycelium-bound tannase activity was employed to investigate the esterification of propyl gallate from gallic acid and propanol in organic solvents. The effects of various organic solvents (log P: -1.0 to 6...
  4. Chen C, Liu T, Chen C, Wong C, Chen C, Lu F, et al. The efficacy of protective effects of tannic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and propyl gallate against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and DNA damages in IMR-90 cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51:962-8 pubmed
    ..simultaneously incubated with 10 microg/mL of tannic acid (TA), gallic acid (GA), ellagic acid (EA), and propyl gallate (PA)...
  5. Han Y, Park W. Propyl gallate inhibits the growth of HeLa cells via regulating intracellular GSH level. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:2531-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Propyl gallate (PG) as a synthetic antioxidant exerts a variety of effects on tissue and cells. Here, we investigated an involvement of glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PG-induced inhibition of HeLa cell growth...
  6. Xu Y, Pang G, Lü X, Chen Z, Sun S, Song J. [The effect of propyl gallate on the activity of various antifungal drugs against filamentous fungi in vitro]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2006;42:309-12 pubmed
    The influence of an antioxidant, propyl gallate (PG), on the activity of amphotericin B (AMB), terbinafine (TBF), butenafine (BTF) and ketoconazole (KCZ) against ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi in vitro was investigated to determine ..
  7. Jiang Y, Yin H, Li L. [Treatment of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome with propyl gallate]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2008;28:839-42 pubmed
    To investigate the therapeutic effects of propyl gallate (PrG) in combination with standard medication on patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NST-ACS), including unstable angina and acute non-ST-elevation myocardial ..
  8. Lin J, Chen P, Ho C, Lin Shiau S. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HL-60 cells by theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and propyl gallate. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:2736-43 pubmed
    ..TF2), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and gallic acid, and propyl gallate (PG) on xanthine oxidase (XO) were investigated. These six antioxidant compounds reduce oxidative stress...
  9. Kim J, Kang N, Lee B, Lee K, Lee H. Gallic acid, a metabolite of the antioxidant propyl gallate, inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication via phosphorylation of connexin 43 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase1/2 in rat liver epithelial cells. Mutat Res. 2008;638:175-83 pubmed
    b>Propyl gallate and its metabolite, gallic acid, are widely used as antioxidants in the food industry, but they have been shown to exhibit liver toxicity and enhance carcinogenesis...

More Information


  1. D Auria F, Tecca M, Strippoli R, Simonetti N. In vitro activity of propyl gallate-azole drug combination against fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2001;32:220-3 pubmed
    The influence of an antioxidant, propyl gallate (PG), on the in vitro antifungal activity of itraconazole and fluconazole, was investigated to determine whether PG could increase the antifungal activity and reduce strain resistance.
  2. Kimura M, Takabuchi S, Tanaka T, Murata M, Nishi K, Oda S, et al. n-Propyl gallate activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 by modulating intracellular oxygen-sensing systems. Biochem J. 2008;411:97-105 pubmed
    ..In the present study we demonstrate that PG (n-propyl gallate) activates HIF-1 and expression of its downstream target genes under normoxic conditions in cultured cells and ..
  3. You B, Park W. The enhancement of propyl gallate-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells by a proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:871-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Propyl gallate (PG) used in processed food and medicinal preparations has been shown to induce cell death in normal and cancer cells. The inhibition of proteasome function has emerged as a useful strategy to maneuver apoptosis...
  4. Pandhi D, Vij A, Singal A. Contact depigmentation induced by propyl gallate. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011;36:366-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Propyl gallate, a common ingredient to all and a previously undocumented depigmenting agent, was incriminated on patch ..
  5. Tian S, Gan Y, Li J, Wang L, Shen J, Liu T, et al. Imbalance of glomerular VEGF-NO axis in diabetic rats: prevention by chronic therapy with propyl gallate. J Nephrol. 2011;24:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigate the factors that contribute to the imbalance of the VEGF-NO axis and evaluate the effect of propyl gallate on preventing endothelial dysfunction.
  6. Sharma S, Gupta M. Synthesis of antioxidant propyl gallate using tannase from Aspergillus niger van Teighem in nonaqueous media. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003;13:395-7 pubmed
    Tannase from Aspergillus niger van Teighem has been used for synthesis of food additive antioxidant propyl gallate by direct transesterification of tannic acid...
  7. Tadano N, Morimoto S, Takahashi Yanaga F, Miwa Y, Ohtsuki I, Sasaguri T. Propyl gallate, a strong antioxidant, increases the Ca2+ sensitivity of cardiac myofilament. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;109:456-8 pubmed
    ..We found that propyl gallate, a strong antioxidant, increased the Ca(2+) sensitivity of cardiac myofilament in a dose-dependent and ..
  8. Jiang Y, Chen K, Xu Y, Yang X, Yin H. Effects of propyl gallate on adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to human endothelial cells induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha. Chin J Integr Med. 2009;15:47-53 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of Propyl Gallate (PrG) on cellular adhesion between human To investigate the effects of Propyl Gallate (PrG) on cellular adhesion between human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and polymorphonuclear ..
  9. Price R, Scott M, Giddings A, Walters D, Stierum R, Meredith C, et al. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes. Xenobiotica. 2008;38:574-86 pubmed
    ..was to investigate the effects of four food chemicals, namely butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG) and thiabendazole (TB), on cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms in cultured human hepatocytes. 2...
  10. Tamás L, Dudíková J, Durceková K, Halusková L, Huttová J, Mistrik I. Effect of cadmium and temperature on the lipoxygenase activity in barley root tip. Protoplasma. 2009;235:17-25 pubmed publisher
  11. Sha B, Yin X, Zhang X, He X, Yang W. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemical detection using porous etched joint for determination of antioxidants. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1167:109-15 pubmed
    Capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemical detection (CE-EC) for determination of antioxidants, propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), in cosmetic samples was proposed in this work...
  12. Miyauchi M, Nakamura H, Furukawa F, Son H, Nishikawa A, Hirose M. Promoting effects of combined antioxidant and sodium nitrite treatment on forestomach carcinogenesis in rats after initiation with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Cancer Lett. 2002;178:19-24 pubmed combination with one of three antioxidants, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) and propyl gallate (PG), on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) stomach carcinogenesis were investigated in F344 rats...
  13. Kar R, Parvin N, Laha D. Differential role of ethylene and hydrogen peroxide in dark-induced stomatal closure. Pak J Biol Sci. 2013;16:1991-6 pubmed a defined medium in darkness for 1 h followed by a 1 h incubation in different test solutions [H2O2, propyl gallate, ethrel (ethylene), AgNO3, sodium orthovanadate, tetraethyl ammonium chloride, CaCl2, LaCl3, separately and in ..
  14. Remirez D, Tafazoli S, Delgado R, Harandi A, O Brien P. Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang). Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2005;21:19-29 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of cytoprotective antioxidant effects of Vimang in cellular oxidative stress models...
  15. Chepelev N, Bennitz J, Wright J, Smith J, Willmore W. Oxidative modification of citrate synthase by peroxyl radicals and protection with novel antioxidants. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24:1319-31 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Propyl gallate, 1,8-naphthalenediol, 2,3-naphthalenediol, ascorbic acid, glutathione, and oxaloacetate protected CS from AAPH-..
  16. Li J, Wu B, Jiang Y. [Study on interaction of Radix Paeoniae 801 and endothelin-1 by using a piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensor]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004;24:714-6 pubmed
  17. Lin Y, Hu Y, Lin H, Liu X, Chen Y, Zhang S, et al. Inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on tyrosinase and its application in controlling pericarp browning of harvested longan fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:2889-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase and effects of propyl gallate on pericarp browning of harvested longan ..
  18. Jacobsen C, Schwarz K, Stockmann H, Meyer A, Adler Nissen J. Partitioning of selected antioxidants in mayonnaise. J Agric Food Chem. 1999;47:3601-10 pubmed
    ..of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tocopherol and six polar antioxidants (Trolox, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, propyl gallate, gallic acid, and catechin) in mayonnaise...
  19. Guan Y, Chu Q, Fu L, Ye J. Determination of antioxidants in cosmetics by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1074:201-4 pubmed
    A new and efficient method for the determination of antioxidants [Propyl gallate (PG), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)] in cosmetics has been established by using micellar ..
  20. Murcia M, Egea I, Romojaro F, Parras P, Jiménez A, Martinez Tomé M. Antioxidant evaluation in dessert spices compared with common food additives. Influence of irradiation procedure. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:1872-81 pubmed
    ..common food antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (E-320), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (E-321), and propyl gallate (E-310). The influence of irradiation process on antioxidant activity was also evaluated...
  21. Bar Nun N, Plakhine D, Joel D, Mayer A. Changes in the activity of the alternative oxidase in Orobanche seeds during conditioning and their possible physiological function. Phytochemistry. 2003;64:235-41 pubmed
    ..operative during conditioning, up to day three as determined by inhibition of oxygen uptake of the seeds by propyl gallate. At the same time an increasing percentage of oxygen uptake is insensitive to cyanide and an increased oxygen ..
  22. Strakhovskaia M, Belenikina N, Ivanova E, Chemeris I, Stranadko E. [The photodynamic inactivation of Candida guilliermondii in the presence of photodithazine]. Mikrobiologiia. 2002;71:349-53 pubmed
    ..Sodium azide (a singlet oxygen quencher) and propyl gallate (an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation) protected yeast cells from the photodithazine-enhanced photoinactivation.
  23. Motovska Z, Sujanova Z, Wimmerova S, Ardo J, Skrakova M, Widimsky P. Comparison of cationic propyl gallate and adenosine diphosphate for the measurement of aspirin effectivity with optical aggregometry. Transl Res. 2007;150:246-52 pubmed
    To compare the newer inductor of platelet aggregation cationic propyl gallate (CPG) with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) for the examination of aspirin (ASA) effectivity with optical aggregometry...
  24. Amadasi A, Mozzarelli A, Meda C, Maggi A, Cozzini P. Identification of xenoestrogens in food additives by an integrated in silico and in vitro approach. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:52-63 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Propyl gallate was found to act as an antagonist, and 4-hexylresorcinol was found to act as a potent transactivator; both ..
  25. Ishii H, Fountaine J, Chung W, Kansako M, Nishimura K, Takahashi K, et al. Characterisation of QoI-resistant field isolates of Botrytis cinerea from citrus and strawberry. Pest Manag Sci. 2009;65:916-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Biological and molecular characterisation of resistant isolates was conducted in this study...
  26. Narang A, Rao V, Desai D. Effect of antioxidants and silicates on peroxides in povidone. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101:127-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Povidone alone and its physical mixtures with ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were stored at 25 °C and ..
  27. Nie G, Zheng Z, Gong G, Zhao G, Liu Y, Song J, et al. Characterization of bioimprinted tannase and its kinetic and thermodynamics properties in synthesis of propyl gallate by transesterification in anhydrous medium. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;167:2305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..a few enzymatic characteristics of the enzyme and its kinetic and thermodynamics properties in synthesis of propyl gallate by transesterification in anhydrous medium have been studied...
  28. Topal A, Comaklı S, Ozkaraca M, Baran A, Köktürk M, Parlak V, et al. Immunofluorescence evaluation of 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine activation in zebrafish (Daino rerio) larvae brain exposed (microinjected) to propyl gallate. Chemosphere. 2017;183:252-256 pubmed publisher
    b>Propyl gallate (PG) is a chemical compound obtained by esterification of propanol with gallic acid...
  29. Perez A, Basketter D, White I, McFadden J. Positive rates to propyl gallate on patch testing: a change in trend. Contact Dermatitis. 2008;58:47-8 pubmed
    b>Propyl gallate (E310) has, until recently, been used as a major antioxidant in fatty food and, in the cosmetic industry, in the manufacture of lipsticks...
  30. Petrzelová A, Stejskal D, Proskova J, Oral I, Dostalova S, Lacnak B, et al. [Initial experience with use of cationic propyl gallate as an inducer of thrombocyte aggregation in evaluation of anti-aggregation therapy]. Vnitr Lek. 2001;47:747-52 pubmed
    ..our work was to test possibilities of monitoring the effectiveness of ASA therapy by measuring the platelet aggregability in vitro after induction with cationic propyl gallate (CPG) which is considered a very potent aggregation inductor.
  31. Sheng D, Huang C, Shi G, Ouyang X, Cai L, Xiao J, et al. [Application of cationic propyl gallate as inducer of thrombocyte aggregation for evaluating the platelet function of platelet donors]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2005;13:1099-102 pubmed
    The purpose of study was to investigate the feasibility of the application of cationic propyl gallate (C-PG) as inducer of platelet aggregation for evaluating the platelet function of single-donor plateletpheresis and identifying the ..
  32. Eleftheriadis T, Antoniadi G, Liakopoulos V, Tsiandoulas A, Barboutis K, Stefanidis I. Propyl gallate-induced platelet aggregation in patients with end-stage renal disease: the influence of the haemodialysis procedure. Nephrology (Carlton). 2006;11:3-8 pubmed
    Platelet dysfunction is a well-established disturbance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Propyl gallate is a synthetic platelet activator with the property to stimulate platelet aggregation...
  33. Kim J, Choi S, Shin G, Lee J, Kang S, Lee K, et al. Method validation and measurement uncertainty for the simultaneous determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. Food Chem. 2016;213:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..measurement uncertainty for the simultaneous determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) such as propyl gallate (PG), octyl gallate (OG), dodecyl gallate (DG), 2,4,5-trihydroxy butyrophenone (THBP), tert-butylhydroquinone (..
  34. Cornell R. Central interleukin 1-elicited hyperinsulinemia is mediated by prostaglandins but not autonomics. Am J Physiol. 1989;257:R839-46 pubmed
    ..cyclooxygenase inhibition with indomethacin, ibuprofen, or meclofenamate but not lipoxygenase inhibition with propyl gallate or leukotriene receptor antagonism with LY 171883...
  35. Ouyang X, Liu J, Sun G, Li X, Lin Z, Gao D. [Comparison of platelet activators used in slide platelet aggregation test]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2004;12:680-3 pubmed
    ..1) to detect the intensity and time in 15 healthy donors' platelet aggregation tests induced by cationic propyl gallate (c-PG) and the usual platelet activators: ADP, collagen, epinephrine, arachidonic acid and ristocentin, ..
  36. Szymula M, Radzki S. A study of molecular complex formation between propyl gallate and ascorbic acid in the microemulsion phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate, pentanol and water system. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2004;35:249-57 pubmed
    The association between two water-soluble antioxidants, i.e. ascorbic acid and propyl gallate have been studied by absorption spectroscopy in microemulsion formed in sodium dodecyl sulfate/pentanol/water micellar system...
  37. Che X, Jiang W, Parajuli D, Zhao Y, Lee S, Sohn D. Apoptotic effect of propyl gallate in activated rat hepatic stellate cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:2205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Propyl gallate (PG) is an antioxidant widely used in processed foods, cosmetics and medicinal preparations...
  38. Shah A, Gao S, Oh Y, Park W, Kim S. Oxidative stress augments the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide in isolated rat atria. Peptides. 2011;32:1172-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Antioxidant such as N-acetyl cystein, gallate, propyl gallate, or ellagic acid did not cause any significant changes in atrial parameters...
  39. Zheng J, Chen X, Lin M, Zhang J, Lin Z, Zheng G, et al. [Mechanism of the reduction of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury through inhibiting the activity of NF-kappaB by propyl gallate]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2011;46:158-64 pubmed
    The probable mechanism of the reduction of rat cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury by propyl gallate was studied. Intraluminal suture middle cerebral artery occlusion model of rat was employed...
  40. Cournac L, Latouche G, Cerovic Z, Redding K, Ravenel J, Peltier G. In vivo interactions between photosynthesis, mitorespiration, and chlororespiration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol. 2002;129:1921-8 pubmed
    ..Based on the effects of the mitorespiratory inhibitors myxothiazol and salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM), and of propyl gallate, an inhibitor of the chlororespiratory oxidase, we conclude that the fast transient is due to the flash-..
  41. Nukada Y, Ito Y, Miyazawa M, Sakaguchi H, Nishiyama N. The relationship between CD86 and CD54 protein expression and cytotoxicity following stimulation with contact allergen in THP-1 cells. J Toxicol Sci. 2011;36:313-24 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that cytotoxicity induced by contact allergens may result in apoptosis and may also be stimulated in parallel with protein expression through an intracellular signal or signals...
  42. Jiang Y, Yin H, Liu Y. [Effects of propyl gallate on serum inflammatory factors and protein expression of COX-2 and ICAM-1 in ischemic myocardium of rats with acute myocardial infarction]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2008;28:921-4 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of Propyl Gallate (PrG) on serum inflammatory factors and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in ischemic myocardium of rats with acute myocardial ..
  43. Tauffenberger A, Julien C, Parker J. Evaluation of longevity enhancing compounds against transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 neuronal toxicity. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:2175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that resveratrol, rolipram, reserpine, trolox, propyl gallate, and ethosuximide protect against mutant TAR DNA-binding protein-43 neuronal toxicity...
  44. Wells W, Xu D, Washburn M, Cirrito H, Olson L. Polyhydroxybenzoates inhibit ascorbic acid activation of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: implications for glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:2404-10 pubmed
    ..Enzyme activity, dependent upon the presence of l-ascorbic acid, was inhibited by lauryl gallate, propyl gallate, protocatechuic acid ethyl ester, and salicylhydroxamic acid...
  45. Schewe T, Halangk W, Hiebsch C, Rapoport S. A lipoxygenase in rabbit reticulocytes which attacks phospholipids and intact mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 1975;60:149-52 pubmed
  46. Huang M, Pang W, Zhang J, Lin S, Hu J. A target analogue imprinted polymer for the recognition of antiplatelet active ingredients in Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae by LC/MS/MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;58:12-8 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to prepare a propyl gallate (PrG) molecular imprinted polymer as a cartridge stuffing material to isolate antiplatelet active ingredients...
  47. Houyoux P, Ghysels B, Lecler R, Franck F. Interplay between non-photochemical plastoquinone reduction and re-oxidation in pre-illuminated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a chlorophyll fluorescence study. Photosynth Res. 2011;110:13-24 pubmed publisher
    ..From the observation that this fluorescence transient is modified by addition of propyl gallate, a known inhibitor of PTOX, and in a Nda2-deficient strain we conclude that it reflects post-illumination ..
  48. Kubo I, Fujita K, Nihei K. Anti-Salmonella activity of alkyl gallates. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:6692-6 pubmed
  49. Varadharaj S, Watkins T, Cardounel A, Garcia J, Zweier J, Kuppusamy P, et al. Vitamin C-induced loss of redox-dependent viability in lung microvascular endothelial cells. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005;7:287-300 pubmed
    ..These results, for the first time in detail, established that vitamin C at pharmacological doses induced oxidative stress and loss of redox-dependent cell viability in microvascular ECs...
  50. Eler G, Peralta R, Bracht A. The action of n-propyl gallate on gluconeogenesis and oxygen uptake in the rat liver. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;181:390-9 pubmed publisher
    In the present study the metabolic actions of n-propyl gallate on hepatic gluconeogenesis, oxygen uptake and related parameters were investigated. Experiments were done in the isolated perfused rat liver...
  51. Mukai K, Nagai S, Ohara K. Kinetic study of the quenching reaction of singlet oxygen by tea catechins in ethanol solution. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;39:752-61 pubmed
    ..epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)) and related compounds (5-methoxyresorcinol (MR), 4-methylcatechol (MC), and n-propyl gallate (PG)) was performed in ethanol at 35 degrees C...
  52. Shibata H, Nakano T, Parvez M, Furukawa Y, Tomoishi A, Niimi S, et al. Triple combinations of lower and longer alkyl gallates and oxacillin improve antibiotic synergy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2218-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Combinations of these gallates remarkably reduced oxacillin MICs against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to below the antibiotic breakpoint (< or = 2 microg/ml)...
  53. Jacob S, Caperton C. Allergen avoidance. Gallates. Dermatitis. 2007;18:Last two pages of journal. No numbers given. pubmed