Summary: Derivatives of phenoxyacetic acid, including its salts and esters.

Top Publications

  1. Nguyen N, Apriletti J, Cunha Lima S, Webb P, Baxter J, Scanlan T. Rational design and synthesis of a novel thyroid hormone antagonist that blocks coactivator recruitment. J Med Chem. 2002;45:3310-20 pubmed
    ..One mechanism for antagonism appears to be the ability of NH-3 to block TR-coactivator interactions. NH-3 will be a useful pharmacological tool for further study of T(3) signaling and TR function. ..
  2. Lim W, Nguyen N, Yang H, Scanlan T, Furlow J. A thyroid hormone antagonist that inhibits thyroid hormone action in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35664-70 pubmed
    ..Therefore, NH-3 is the first thyroid hormone antagonist to demonstrate potent inhibition of thyroid hormone action in both cell culture- and whole animal-based assays. ..
  3. Hamada Y, Matsumoto H, Kimura T, Hayashi Y, Kiso Y. Effect of the acyl groups on O-->N acyl migration in the water-soluble prodrugs of HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003;13:2727-30 pubmed
    ..A remarkably slow migration was observed in the benzoyl-type prodrugs, and Hammett plot of migration rate constants of p-substituted benzoyl-type prodrugs gave a linear free energy relationship. ..
  4. Kondrat ev A, Savvina I, Novikov V, Driagina N. [Experience with using of solutions of hydroxyethyl starch (refortan and voluven) in neuroanesthesiology]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 2007;166:56-60 pubmed
    ..These medicines used in doses 6-8 ml/kg fail to have substantial effects on efficiency of hemostasis in the brain wound and do not increase risk of postoperative hemorrhagic complications. ..
  5. Pavel U, Karus A, Kumar J, Schattschneider T, Voronkov M. The use of trecresanum to stimulate antibody formation in offspring of experimental animals during the embryonic period. Dokl Biol Sci. 2002;385:323-5 pubmed
  6. Dreiher J, Kordysh E. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and pesticide exposure: 25 years of research. Acta Haematol. 2006;116:153-64 pubmed
    ..The leveling-off of NHL incidence in certain countries may be the result of a favorable change in pesticide usage patterns. Future studies, such as the Agricultural Health Study, may clarify the uncertainties regarding this issue. ..
  7. Sekiguchi M, Yamada K, Jin J, Hachitanda M, Murata Y, Namura S, et al. The AMPA receptor allosteric potentiator PEPA ameliorates post-ischemic memory impairment. Neuroreport. 2001;12:2947-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, PEPA is more effective than aniracetam in reversing impaired memory function as assessed by the Morris water maze test; and PEPA may be an effective compound for the treatment of impaired memory. ..
  8. Champigny O, Holloway B, Ricquier D. Regulation of UCP gene expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in primary culture. Effects of a new beta-adrenoceptor agonist. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1992;86:73-82 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the drug could affect the brown adipose cells through a beta 3-pathway. It could clearly modulate the expression of UCP in brown adipocytes differentiated in vitro, but was not able by itself to turn on the gene...
  9. Ulven T, Receveur J, Grimstrup M, Rist Ø, Frimurer T, Gerlach L, et al. Novel selective orally active CRTH2 antagonists for allergic inflammation developed from in silico derived hits. J Med Chem. 2006;49:6638-41 pubmed
    ..In addition, this selective pharmacological tool compound provides further evidence for CRTH2 as a relevant therapeutic target for treatment of Th2- and eosinophil-related inflammation. ..

More Information


  1. Neuger L, Ruge T, Makoveichuk E, Vlodavsky I, Olivecrona G. Effects of the heparin-mimicking compound RG-13577 on lipoprotein lipase and on lipase mediated binding of LDL to cells. Atherosclerosis. 2001;157:13-21 pubmed
    ..Lipase-mediated binding and uptake of human LDL in these cells was also prevented by RG-13577. Thus, in the test systems RG-13577 had the same effects as heparin, but on a molar basis RG-13577 was in all cases less effective. ..
  2. Dalton R, Turner C, Dick M, Height S, Awogbade M, Inusa B, et al. The measurement of urinary hydroxyurea in sickle cell anaemia. Br J Haematol. 2005;130:138-44 pubmed
    ..These assays are potentially useful to study hydroxyurea metabolism further, develop optimal dosing regimes and monitor compliance with treatment. ..
  3. Fini J, Le Mevel S, Palmier K, Darras V, Punzon I, Richardson S, et al. Thyroid hormone signaling in the Xenopus laevis embryo is functional and susceptible to endocrine disruption. Endocrinology. 2012;153:5068-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data show first, that TH signaling exerts regulatory roles in early X. laevis neurogenesis and second, that this period represents a potential window for endocrine disruption. ..
  4. Najeeb C, Lee J, Kim J, Kim D. Highly efficient individual dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes using biocompatible dispersant. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013;102:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The highly efficient individual dispersion of SWNTs with the biocompatible dispersant opens up possibilities for its applications in the bio- and nanomedical fields. ..
  5. Schuster M, Zouboulis C, Ochsendorf F, Muller J, Thaci D, Bernd A, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activators protect sebocytes from apoptosis: a new treatment modality for acne?. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164:182-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data suggest that activators of PPAR, in particular of the ? subset, might have beneficial effects on acne vulgaris by inhibiting the release of lipids in the context of sebocyte apoptosis. ..
  6. Diez Sampedro A, Perez M, Cobo M, Martinez J, Barber A. Effect of different beta-adrenergic agonists on the intestinal absorption of galactose and phenylalanine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1998;50:907-11 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that beta1- and beta3-adrenergic receptors could be involved in the regulation of intestinal active transport of sugars and amino acids. ..
  7. Badawi J, Seja T, Uecelehan H, Honeck P, Kwon S, Bross S, et al. Relaxation of human detrusor muscle by selective beta-2 and beta-3 agonists and endogenous catecholamines. Urology. 2007;69:785-90 pubmed
    ..Both beta2 and beta3-adrenoceptors contribute to adrenergic-mediated relaxation. Our results point to a slightly greater role for the beta3-receptor in human detrusor muscle. ..
  8. Haginaka J. Recent progresses in protein-based chiral stationary phases for enantioseparations in liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008;875:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review article deals with recent progresses in CSPs based on protein or glycoproteins in LC after 2001, focusing on their enantioselective properties and chiral recognition mechanisms. ..
  9. Meissner M, Berlinski B, Doll M, Hrgovic I, Laubach V, Reichenbach G, et al. AP1-dependent repression of TGF?-mediated MMP9 upregulation by PPAR? agonists in keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:425-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence that MMP9 expression induced by TGF? is a valid target of PPAR? ligands in keratinocytes. ..
  10. Jimenez J. Simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction as a sample preparation method to determine acidic contaminants in river water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Talanta. 2013;116:678-87 pubmed publisher
    ..A robustness study of the proposed sample preparation was carried out as defined by Youden and Steiner and an estimation of the uncertainties of the measured concentrations was made following the EURACHEM/CITAC guidelines, too. ..
  11. Montessuit C, Papageorgiou I, Lerch R. Nuclear receptor agonists improve insulin responsiveness in cultured cardiomyocytes through enhanced signaling and preserved cytoskeletal architecture. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1064-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, the stimulation of glucose uptake in response to insulin or metabolic stress is dependent in cardiomyocytes on the presence of intact microtubules. ..
  12. Lynch D, Daly D, Parsons S. 2-Amino-5-chloro-1,3-benzoxazol-3-ium 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate. Acta Crystallogr C. 2000;56:1478-9 pubmed
    ..O 3.176 (3) A] and a carboxylate O atom [N.O 2.841 (3) A]. This formation differs from the polymeric hydrogen-bonded chains previously observed for adduct structures of 2-ABOX with carboxylic acids. ..
  13. Zushida K, Sakurai M, Wada K, Sekiguchi M. Facilitation of extinction learning for contextual fear memory by PEPA: a potentiator of AMPA receptors. J Neurosci. 2007;27:158-66 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PEPA facilitates extinction learning through AMPA receptor activation mainly in the mPFC. ..
  14. Baker J, Kemp P, March J, Fretwell L, Hill S, Gardiner S. Predicting in vivo cardiovascular properties of ?-blockers from cellular assays: a quantitative comparison of cellular and cardiovascular pharmacological responses. FASEB J. 2011;25:4486-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Bucindolol, however, significantly antagonized the response to the highest doses isoprenaline. An excellent correlation was obtained between in vivo and in vitro measures of ?1-adrenoceptor efficacy (R(2)=0.93; P<0.0001)...
  15. Liang P, Jiang B, Yang X, Xiao X, Huang X, Long J, et al. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta in epidermal growth factor-induced HaCaT cell proliferation. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:3142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that EGF induces PPARbeta/delta expression in a c-Jun-dependent manner and PPARbeta/delta plays a vital role in EGF-stimulated proliferation of HaCaT cells. ..
  16. Yamanishi T, Yasuda K, Kitahara S, Nakai H, Yoshida K, Iizuka H. Effects of 138-355, a beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonist, on relaxation of the human detrusor muscle in vitro. Neurourol Urodyn. 2006;25:815-9 pubmed
    ..The relaxation response of 138-355 appears to be mediated via the beta(3)-adrenoceptor stimulation. ..
  17. Aleshin S, Grabeklis S, Hanck T, Sergeeva M, Reiser G. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma positively controls and PPARalpha negatively controls cyclooxygenase-2 expression in rat brain astrocytes through a convergence on PPARbeta/delta via mutual control of PPAR expression levels. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;76:414-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings elucidate a novel principle of regulation in the signaling by synthetic PPAR agonists that involves modulating the interaction between PPARalpha,-beta/delta, and -gamma isoforms on the level of their expression. ..
  18. Tsuji K, Mitsutake S, Yokose U, Sugiura M, Kohama T, Igarashi Y. Role of ceramide kinase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta-induced cell survival of mouse keratinocytes. FEBS J. 2008;275:3815-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PPARbeta-mediated upregulation of CerK gene expression is necessary for keratinocyte survival against serum starvation-induced apoptosis. ..
  19. Li J, Ding L, Li X, Chen M, Wang L, Yang J, et al. Effect of food on the single-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of clinofibrate tablets in Chinese healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013;51:672-7 pubmed
    ..55, 342.24 ?/ml for the fasting state and 379.02, 321.14 ?/ml and 432.24, 351.80 ?/ml for the fed state. The authors showed that food intake was associated with a significant decrease in Cmax, but no significant change in AUC values. ..
  20. Liljebris C, Larsen S, Ogg D, Palazuk B, Bleasdale J. Investigation of potential bioisosteric replacements for the carboxyl groups of peptidomimetic inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B: identification of a tetrazole-containing inhibitor with cellular activity. J Med Chem. 2002;45:1785-98 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, compound 29 exhibited modest enhancement of insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake by L6 myocytes. ..
  21. Nowak R. Novel therapeutic strategies for leiomyomas: targeting growth factors and their receptors. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108 Suppl 5:849-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that future nonsurgical treatments for leiomyomas may include compounds that block the actions of specific growth factors that regulate proliferation and collagen production by uterine SMCs. ..
  22. Liskova A, Křivánková L. Determination of dissociation constants of compounds with potential cognition enhancing activity by capillary zone electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2005;26:4429-39 pubmed
    ..The experimental pK(a) values were compared with corresponding values calculated by the SPARC online calculator. Results of all three used methods were in good correlation. ..
  23. Koch C, Heine A, Klebe G. Radiation damage reveals promising interaction position. J Synchrotron Radiat. 2011;18:782-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings were verified by a second similar structure determined with considerably higher radiation dose (PDB code 3onb). ..
  24. Planavila A, Rodríguez Calvo R, Jové M, Michalik L, Wahli W, Laguna J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta activation inhibits hypertrophy in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2005;65:832-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PPARbeta/delta activation inhibits PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy and LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation. ..
  25. Luo Y, Davis J, Smillie L, Rall J. Determinants of relaxation rate in rabbit skinned skeletal muscle fibres. J Physiol. 2002;545:887-901 pubmed
  26. Jimenez R, Sanchez M, Zarzuelo M, Romero M, Quintela A, López Sepúlveda R, et al. Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta agonists via the phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase-Akt pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;332:554-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the PPAR-beta agonists acutely caused vasodilatation, which was partially dependent on endothelial-derived NO. The eNOS activation is calcium-independent and seems to be related to activation of the PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway. ..
  27. Wu H, Chen C, Cheng K, Li Y, Yeh C, Cheng J. Pharmacological activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-induced diabetic mice. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43:631-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we suggest that pharmacological activation of PPAR? may be a new strategy for the treatment of diabetic patients with hepatic steatosis. ..
  28. Sevak R, Paul A, Goswami S, Santani D. Gastroprotective effect of beta3 adrenoreceptor agonists ZD 7114 and CGP 12177A in rats. Pharmacol Res. 2002;46:351-6 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of this effect may be attributed to enhancement of gastric mucosal blood flow, reduction in gastric motility and strengthening of gastric mucosal barrier. ..
  29. Kentish J, McCloskey D, Layland J, Palmer S, Leiden J, Martin A, et al. Phosphorylation of troponin I by protein kinase A accelerates relaxation and crossbridge cycle kinetics in mouse ventricular muscle. Circ Res. 2001;88:1059-65 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the acceleration of myofibrillar relaxation rate by PKA is due to phosphorylation of TnI, rather than MyBP-C, and that this may be due, at least in part, to faster crossbridge cycle kinetics. ..
  30. Schmidt A, Göpfert C, Vlodavsky I, Volker W, Buddecke E. Induction of a hypertrophic growth status of coronary smooth muscle cells is associated with an overexpression of TGF-beta. Eur J Cell Biol. 2002;81:138-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude, that the active metabolic status of RG-13577-treated cells in association with the overexpression of TGF-beta could promote repair processes of injured arteries after angioplasty without stimulating cell proliferation...
  31. Shaharyar M, yar M, Siddiqui A, Ali M. Synthesis and evaluation of phenoxy acetic acid derivatives as [corrected] anti-mycobacterial agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006;16:4571-4 pubmed
    ..All newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-mycobacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv. ..
  32. Chan B, Gartland A, Wilson P, Buckley K, Dillon J, Fraser W, et al. PPAR agonists modulate human osteoclast formation and activity in vitro. Bone. 2007;40:149-59 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study highlights the potential of PPARs as therapeutic targets in diseases with accelerated osteoclast formation and resorption. ..
  33. Growcott J, Wilson C, Holloway B, Mainwaring S. Evaluation of ICI D7114, a putative stimulant of brown adipocytes, on histamine-contracted guinea-pig ileum. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;109:1212-8 pubmed
  34. Johri A, Dua M, Singh A, Sethunathan N, Legge R. Characterization and regulation of catabolic genes. Crit Rev Microbiol. 1999;25:245-73 pubmed
    ..The aim of this review is to provide an insight in the recent advances made on characterization and expression of catabolic genes that encode the degradation/detoxification of these persistent and toxic xenobiotic compounds. ..
  35. Wu J, Ee K, Lee H. Automated dynamic liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the determination of phenoxy acid herbicides in environmental waters. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1082:121-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 ng/mL (S/N = 3). D-LLLME was successfully applied for the analysis of phenoxy acid herbicides from real environmental water samples. ..
  36. Arner A, Malmqvist U, Rigler R. Calcium transients and the effect of a photolytically released calcium chelator during electrically induced contractions in rabbit rectococcygeus smooth muscle. Biophys J. 1998;75:1895-903 pubmed
  37. McCarron J, Chalmers S, MacMillan D, Olson M. Agonist-evoked Ca(2+) wave progression requires Ca(2+) and IP(3). J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:334-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that waves initiate over a surprisingly large length of the cell and that both IP(3) and Ca(2+) are required for active propagation of the wave front to occur. ..
  38. Fitzsimons D, Patel J, Moss R. Cross-bridge interaction kinetics in rat myocardium are accelerated by strong binding of myosin to the thin filament. J Physiol. 2001;530:263-72 pubmed
  39. Dordio A, Teimão J, Ramalho I, Carvalho A, Candeias A. Selection of a support matrix for the removal of some phenoxyacetic compounds in constructed wetlands systems. Sci Total Environ. 2007;380:237-46 pubmed
    ..The results show that expanded clay presents important advantages in laboratory studies and could be used as a filter medium or a support matrix in constructed wetlands systems. ..
  40. Hussein M, Sarijo S, Yahaya A, Zainal Z. Synthesis of 4-chlorophenoxyacetate-zinc-aluminium-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite: physico-chemical and controlled release properties. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2007;7:2852-62 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that layered double hydroxide can be used as a carrier for an active agent and the chemical structure of the intercalated moiety can be used to tune the desired release kinetics of the beneficial agent. ..
  41. Winterhalter M, Malinski P, Danzeisen O, Sixt S, Monaca E, Jüttner T, et al. Prospective observational study for perioperative volume replacement with 6% HES 130/0,42, 4% gelatin and 6% HES 200/0,5 in cardiac surgery. Eur J Med Res. 2010;15:383-9 pubmed
    ..The blood coagulation was mostly impaired due to HES 200/0.5 confirmed by the multiplate®-analysis as well as by different clinical findings. ..
  42. Matsusue K, Miyoshi A, Yamano S, Gonzalez F. Ligand-activated PPARbeta efficiently represses the induction of LXR-dependent promoter activity through competition with RXR. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;256:23-33 pubmed
  43. Ivanov A, Calabrese R. Spike-mediated and graded inhibitory synaptic transmission between leech interneurons: evidence for shared release sites. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:235-51 pubmed
    ..The data argue for a closer location of HVA Ca channels to release sites than LVA Ca channels. The results are summarized in a conceptual model of a heart interneuron release site. ..
  44. Lipscomb Allhouse S, Mulligan I, Ashley C. The effects of the inotropic agent EMD 57033 on activation and relaxation kinetics in frog skinned skeletal muscle. Pflugers Arch. 2001;442:171-7 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 5.7%. These results are compared to earlier results from this laboratory in guinea-pig skinned trabeculae, and a possible model for the action of EMD 57033 whereby the drug enhances force per cross-bridge is discussed. ..
  45. MacDonald A, Lamont M. Effects of selective antagonism of beta-adrenoceptor sub-types on responses to isoprenaline in rat distal colon in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;110:1551-5 pubmed
    ..ICI D7114 has no agonist activity and behaves as a relatively high affinity reversible competitive antagonist of atypical beta-adrenoceptors in this preparation. ..
  46. Buemann B, Toubro S, Astrup A. Effects of the two beta3-agonists, ZD7114 and ZD2079 on 24 hour energy expenditure and respiratory quotient in obese subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1553-60 pubmed
  47. Shinozuka T, Shimada K, Matsui S, Yamane T, Ama M, Fukuda T, et al. 4-Aminophenoxyacetic acids as a novel class of reversible cathepsin K inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006;16:1502-5 pubmed
    ..In these inhibitors, we have discovered 4-aminophenoxyacetic acids 43 and 47 with good IC(50) values, although lipophilic groups are favorable for the hydrophobic S1' pocket. ..
  48. Dixon S, Ziebart K, He Z, Jeddeloh M, Yoo C, Wang X, et al. Aminodeoxychorismate synthase inhibitors from one-bead one-compound combinatorial libraries: "staged" inhibitor design. J Med Chem. 2006;49:7413-26 pubmed
    ..The methods presented here constitute a paradigm for inhibitor discovery through active site targeting, enabled by rapid library synthesis, facile massively parallel screening, and straightforward hit identification. ..
  49. Sundaraganesan N, Meganathan C, Anand B, Lapouge C. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and ab initio DFT vibrational analysis of p-bromophenoxyacetic acid. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2007;66:773-80 pubmed
    ..The theoretical spectrograms for the IR spectrum of the title molecule have been constructed. ..
  50. Crosignani S, Prêtre A, Jorand Lebrun C, Fraboulet G, Seenisamy J, Augustine J, et al. Discovery of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable alkynylphenoxyacetic acid CRTH2 (DP2) receptor antagonists for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases. J Med Chem. 2011;54:7299-317 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, 19k and 19s were tested in two different pharmacological models (acute FITC-mediated contact hypersensitivity and ovalbumin-induced eosinophilia models) and found to be active after oral dosing (10 and 30 mg/kg). ..
  51. Seiler S, Brassard C, Federici M, Romine J, Meanwell N. [3-[4-(4,5-Diphenyl-2-oxazolyl)-5-oxazolyl]phenoxy]acetic acid (BMY 45778) is a potent non-prostanoid prostacyclin partial agonist: effects on platelet aggregation, adenylyl cyclase, cAMP levels, protein kinase, and iloprost binding. Prostaglandins. 1997;53:21-35 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that BMY 45778, which is structurally different from prostacyclin and most prostacyclin agonists, acts by stimulating prostacyclin (IP) receptors. ..
  52. de Lange P, Feola A, Ragni M, Senese R, Moreno M, Lombardi A, et al. Differential 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein 3 transcription: role of Fatty acids. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4064-72 pubmed
    ..All promoters share a response element common to TR and PPAR (TRE 1), but the observed species differences may be attributable to different localizations of the MyoD response element, which in the rat maps to exon 1. ..
  53. Leibowitz M, Fievet C, Hennuyer N, Peinado Onsurbe J, Duez H, Bergera J, et al. Activation of PPARdelta alters lipid metabolism in db/db mice. FEBS Lett. 2000;473:333-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest both that PPARdelta is involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in db/db mice and that PPARdelta ligands could potentially have therapeutic value. ..
  54. Bogacka I, Bogacki M, Gaglewska M, Kurzynska A, Wasielak M. In vitro effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands on prostaglandin E2 synthesis and secretion by porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;64:47-54 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PPARs are mediators of prostaglandin E2 synthesis/accumulation in porcine endometrium during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and the time of periimplantation. ..
  55. Lipp P, Luscher C, Niggli E. Photolysis of caged compounds characterized by ratiometric confocal microscopy: a new approach to homogeneously control and measure the calcium concentration in cardiac myocytes. Cell Calcium. 1996;19:255-66 pubmed
    ..This approach may improve our understanding of the subcellular properties of cardiac Ca2+ signalling. The technique can also be applied in other cell types and with other signalling systems for which caged compounds are available. ..
  56. Hellemans K, Rombouts K, Quartier E, Dittié A, Knorr A, Michalik L, et al. PPARbeta regulates vitamin A metabolism-related gene expression in hepatic stellate cells undergoing activation. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:280-95 pubmed
  57. Detsi A, Koufaki M, Calogeropoulou T. Synthesis of (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen and (Z)-2-[4-[1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenyl]-1butenyl]phenoxyacetic acid. J Org Chem. 2002;67:4608-11 pubmed
    ..The methodology proceeds without E,Z isomerization, employs a very mild final debenzylation step compatible with a large array of functional groups, and can be applied to the generation of a variety of 4-hydroxytamoxifen analogues. ..
  58. Sergeeva M, Aleshin S, Grabeklis S, Reiser G. PPAR activation has dichotomous control on the expression levels of cytosolic and secretory phospholipase A2 in astrocytes; inhibition in naïve, untreated cells and enhancement in LPS-stimulated cells. J Neurochem. 2010;115:399-410 pubmed publisher
    ..The important novelty of our findings is that both sPLA(2) and cPLA(2) are under dichotomous control of PPARs: suppression in naïve control cells, but induction in LPS-stimulated astrocytes. ..
  59. Sterin Borda L, Bernabeo G, Ganzinelli S, Joensen L, Borda E. Role of nitric oxide/cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP in beta3 adrenoceptor-chronotropic response. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006;40:580-8 pubmed
    ..The nNOS-cGMP pathway negatively modulates beta(3)-AR activation. Multiple signal transduction pathways between G-protein and beta(3)-AR may protect myocardium from catecholamine-induced cardiotoxic effects. ..
  60. Challet E, Denis I, Rochet V, Aioun J, Gourmelen S, Lacroix H, et al. The role of PPAR?/? in the regulation of glutamatergic signaling in the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:2003-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that PPAR?/? activation modulates glutamate release that mediates entrainment of the circadian clock by light. ..
  61. Jian Kang L, Ying S, Lei W, Minchun C, Wei S, Xueqing L, et al. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of clinofibrate and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2013;76:152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of WinNonlin software showed that the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to 72h (AUC(0-72)) and peak plasma concentration (C(max)) were linearly related to dose (P>0.05). ..
  62. Venkov P, Topashka Ancheva M, Georgieva M, Alexieva V, Karanov E. Genotoxic effect of substituted phenoxyacetic acids. Arch Toxicol. 2000;74:560-6 pubmed
    ..The mutagenic effect was abolished by introduction of a third chlorine atom at position 5. Thus 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid was found to have very weak, if any mutagenic effect; however, the herbicide preserved its toxic effect. ..
  63. Bird J, Mostyn A, Clarke L, Juniper D, Budge H, Stephenson T, et al. Effect of postnatal age and a beta(3)-adrenergic agonist (Zeneca D7114) administration on uncoupling protein-1 abundance in the lamb. Exp Physiol. 2001;86:65-70 pubmed
    ..This may represent one method of improving thermoregulation in newborn lambs. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.1, 65-70. ..
  64. Jiang B, Liang P, Zhang B, Song J, Huang X, Xiao X. Role of PPAR-beta in hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis. 2009;204:353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These data demonstrated that H(2)O(2) down-regulated the expression and activation of PPAR-beta, which played important roles in H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in HUVECs. ..
  65. Huang J, Wun W, Goldsby J, Wun I, Noorhasan D, Wu K. Stimulation of embryo hatching and implantation by prostacyclin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation: implication in IVF. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:807-14 pubmed
    ..The implantation of cultured embryos is enhanced by PPARdelta activation. PPARdelta represents a novel therapeutic target to improve IVF outcome. ..
  66. See V, Rajala N, Spiller D, White M. Calcium-dependent regulation of the cell cycle via a novel MAPK--NF-kappaB pathway in Swiss 3T3 cells. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:661-72 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a serum-dependent calcium signal regulates the cell cycle via a MAPK--NF-kappaB pathway in Swiss 3T3 cells...
  67. Rathi S, Kazerounian S, Banwait K, Schulz S, Waldman S, Rattan S. Functional and molecular characterization of beta-adrenoceptors in the internal anal sphincter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305:615-24 pubmed
    ..These studies may have important implications in anorectal and other gastrointestinal motility disorders...
  68. Yu Y, Wu S, Cheng W, Mersmann H, Ding S. Ectopic expression of porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta regulates adipogenesis in mouse myoblasts. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:64-72 pubmed
    ..However, the complexity and interaction of PPARdelta and PPARgamma in adipogenesis are not clearly understood. ..
  69. Reichenbach G, Starzinski Powitz A, Doll M, Hrgovic I, Valesky E, Kippenberger S, et al. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta suppresses cathepsin B expression in human endothelial cells in a posttranslational manner. Exp Dermatol. 2012;21:751-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results bolster other studies demonstrating PPAR? agonists as anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic agents and thus might have the potential to help to develop new pharmaceutical drugs. ..
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