hydroxy acids


Summary: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.

Top Publications

  1. Piskin E, Bölgen N, Egri S, Isoglu I. Electrospun matrices made of poly(alpha-hydroxy acids) for medical use. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2007;2:441-57 pubmed
    ..Poly(alpha-hydroxy acids), especially lactic acids and glycolic acid and their copolymers with epsilon-caprolactone, are the most ..
  2. Yamamoto Y, Uede K, Yonei N, Kishioka A, Ohtani T, Furukawa F. Effects of alpha-hydroxy acids on the human skin of Japanese subjects: the rationale for chemical peeling. J Dermatol. 2006;33:16-22 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that longer treatment intervals with glycolic and lactic acid can cause improvements in both the epidermal and dermal components and support the usefulness of AHA for rejuvenating photo-damaged skin. ..
  3. Riess M, Camara A, Heinen A, Eells J, Henry M, Stowe D. KATP channel openers have opposite effects on mitochondrial respiration under different energetic conditions. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008;51:483-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the effects of mKATP channel openers on mitochondrial function likely depend on the experimental conditions and the cell's underlying energetic state. ..
  4. Szostak M, Spain M, Procter D. Selective synthesis of 3-hydroxy acids from Meldrum's acids using SmI2-H2O. Nat Protoc. 2012;7:970-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in high crude purity, and it represents a considerable advancement over other methods for the synthesis of 3-hydroxy acids. The protocol includes a detailed guide to the preparation of a single electron-reducing SmI(2)-H(2)O complex ..
  5. Saint Léger D, Lévêque J, Verschoore M. The use of hydroxy acids on the skin: characteristics of C8-lipohydroxy acid. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007;6:59-65 pubmed
    The hydroxy acids are widely used in skin creams because of their exfoliating and rejuvenating effect on photoaged skin...
  6. Shinohara T, Takahashi N, Kohno H, Yamanaka K, Ooie T, Wakisaka O, et al. Mitochondria are targets for geranylgeranylacetone-induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion in the rat heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H1892-9 pubmed
    ..These processes may involve opening of the mitoK(ATP) channel. ..
  7. Sun X, Zeng X, Zhou F, Dai C, Ding J, Hu G. KATP channel openers facilitate glutamate uptake by GluTs in rat primary cultured astrocytes. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:1336-42 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the present study not only reveals a novel pharmacological profile of KCOs as regulators of GluTs, but also provides a new strategy for neuroprotection. ..
  8. Vasques V, Brinco F, Wajner M. Intrahippocampal administration of the branched-chain alpha-hydroxy acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease compromises rat performance in aversive and non-aversive behavioral tasks. J Neurol Sci. 2005;232:11-21 pubmed
    ..The present study investigated the effect of acute intrahippocampal administration of the branched-chain alpha-hydroxy acids (BCHA) accumulating in MSUD on rat behavior in non-aversive (open field) and aversive (inhibitory avoidance) ..
  9. Ohta A, Murakami H, Suga H. Polymerization of alpha-hydroxy acids by ribosomes. Chembiochem. 2008;9:2773-8 pubmed publisher
    ..very likely correct, there have been no reports to follow up the ribosome-catalyzed polymerization of alpha-hydroxy acids until very recently...

More Information


  1. Yang X, Proctor J, Cui L, Krieg T, Downey J, Cohen M. Multiple, brief coronary occlusions during early reperfusion protect rabbit hearts by targeting cell signaling pathways. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:1103-10 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that a similar approach could be applied in the cardiac catheterization laboratory to protect reperfused myocardium after primary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction. ..
  2. Piriou V, Chiari P, Gateau Roesch O, Argaud L, Muntean D, Salles D, et al. Desflurane-induced preconditioning alters calcium-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. Anesthesiology. 2004;100:581-8 pubmed
    ..This effect was inhibited by 5-HD, suggesting a link between mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium and MPT. ..
  3. Sumi S, Kobayashi H, Yasuda S, Iwasa M, Yamaki T, Yamada Y, et al. Postconditioning effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is mediated through activation of risk pathway and opening of the mitochondrial KATP channels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H1174-82 pubmed publisher
  4. Ma B, Yu H, Pan J, Liu J, Ju X, Xu J. A thermostable and organic-solvent tolerant esterase from Pseudomonas putida ECU1011: catalytic properties and performance in kinetic resolution of ?-hydroxy acids. Bioresour Technol. 2013;133:354-60 pubmed publisher
    ..putida ECU1011 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and identified for enzymatic resolution of hydroxy acids via O-deacetylation...
  5. Wang X. A theory for the mechanism of action of the alpha-hydroxy acids applied to the skin. Med Hypotheses. 1999;53:380-2 pubmed
    A theory for the mechanism of action of alpha-hydroxy acids topically applied to the skin is proposed on the basis of an analysis with the experimental and clinical data...
  6. Chipman D, Barak Z, Schloss J. Biosynthesis of 2-aceto-2-hydroxy acids: acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1385:401-19 pubmed
  7. Bajgar R, Seetharaman S, Kowaltowski A, Garlid K, Paucek P. Identification and properties of a novel intracellular (mitochondrial) ATP-sensitive potassium channel in brain. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:33369-74 pubmed
    ..Three independent methods indicate that brain mitochondria contain six to seven times more mitoK(ATP) per milligram of mitochondrial protein than liver or heart. ..
  8. Hausenloy D, Maddock H, Baxter G, Yellon D. Inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening: a new paradigm for myocardial preconditioning?. Cardiovasc Res. 2002;55:534-43 pubmed
    ..One interpretation of these data is that IPC and mitochondrial K(ATP) channel activation may protect the myocardium by inhibiting MPTP opening at reperfusion. ..
  9. Wang L, Cherednichenko G, Hernandez L, Halow J, Camacho S, Figueredo V, et al. Preconditioning limits mitochondrial Ca(2+) during ischemia in rat hearts: role of K(ATP) channels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H2321-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the lowering of mitochondrial calcium overload is a mechanism of cardioprotection in PC. ..
  10. Smith M, Moon H, Kunst L. Production of hydroxy fatty acids in the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochem Soc Trans. 2000;28:947-50 pubmed
    ..Expression in yeast indicates that the castor hydroxylase also has a low level of desaturase activity...
  11. Grover G, D Alonzo A, Garlid K, Bajgar R, Lodge N, Sleph P, et al. Pharmacologic characterization of BMS-191095, a mitochondrial K(ATP) opener with no peripheral vasodilator or cardiac action potential shortening activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;297:1184-92 pubmed
    ..Agents like BMS-191095 may owe their cardioprotective selectivity to selective mitochondrial K(ATP) activation. ..
  12. Rodrigues L, Maia Campos P. Comparative study of the effects of cosmetic formulations with or without hydroxy acids on hairless mouse epidermis by histopathologic, morphometric, and stereologic evaluation. J Cosmet Sci. 2002;53:269-82 pubmed
    b>Hydroxy acids have been extensively used in cosmetic and dermatologic formulations because of their satisfactory results in terms of maintaining a young and healthy skin and in recovering aged skin...
  13. Hubinger J. A survey of consumer cosmetic products and salon preparations for alpha hydroxy acids. J Cosmet Sci. 2002;53:243-8 pubmed
    ..9% to 28.5%. Two salon products had pHs significantly lower than the 3.0 recommended by the CIR. About half of the products contained either a sunscreen or a recommendation for the use of a sunscreen. ..
  14. Hanley P, Mickel M, Löffler M, Brandt U, Daut J. K(ATP) channel-independent targets of diazoxide and 5-hydroxydecanoate in the heart. J Physiol. 2002;542:735-41 pubmed
    ..We propose that pharmacological preconditioning may be related to partial inhibition of respiratory chain complexes. ..
  15. Lemoine S, Zhu L, Buleon C, Massetti M, Gerard J, Galera P, et al. Mechanisms involved in the desflurane-induced post-conditioning of isolated human right atria from patients with type 2 diabetes. Br J Anaesth. 2011;107:510-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Desflurane-induced post-conditioning in human myocardium from patients with type 2 diabetes was mediated by the activation of PKC, the opening of the mitoK(ATP) channels, and the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3?. ..
  16. Tai K, Pham L, Truong D. Intracisternal administration of glibenclamide or 5-hydroxydecanoate does not reverse the neuroprotective effect of ketogenic diet against ischemic brain injury-induced neurodegeneration. Brain Inj. 2009;23:1081-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that K(ATP) channels do not play a significant role in the neuroprotective effects of the ketogenic diet against cardiac arrest-induced cerebral ischemic injury-induced neurodegeneration. ..
  17. Karaman R. A new mathematical equation relating activation energy to bond angle and distance: A key for understanding the role of acceleration in lactonization of the trimethyl lock system. Bioorg Chem. 2009;37:11-25 pubmed publisher
    ..orbital and ab initio HF at the 6-31G level calculations for the lactonization processes of 12 different hydroxy acids (1a-1l) which differ in their structural features have been conducted...
  18. Wache Y, Aguedo M, Nicaud J, Belin J. Catabolism of hydroxyacids and biotechnological production of lactones by Yarrowia lipolytica. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;61:393-404 pubmed
    ..lipolytica with special emphasis on the biotransformation of methyl ricinoleate to gamma-decalactone. When appropriate, information from the lipid metabolism of other yeast species is presented. ..
  19. Lecnik O, Gübitz G, Schmid M. Role of the charge in continuous beds in the chiral separation of hydroxy acids by ligand-exchange capillary electrochromatography. Electrophoresis. 2003;24:2983-5 pubmed
    This paper deals with the chiral separation of hydroxy acids using diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride as a positive charge-providing agent in the continuous bed...
  20. Testai L, Cecchetti V, Sabatini S, Martelli A, Breschi M, Calderone V. Effects of K openers on the QT prolongation induced by HERG-blocking drugs in guinea-pigs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:924-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that pharmacological K(ATP) activation might represent an option for treatment of patients exposed to QT-prolonging drugs. ..
  21. Zhu X, Liu Z, Xie B, Cai L, Yang D. [SUCI02 inhibits HER-2/neu receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and growth of HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells]. Ai Zheng. 2003;22:790-4 pubmed
    ..3 microg/ml,respectively. SUCI02 can inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of HER-2/neu receptor,cell proliferation of HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells preferentially and shut down downstream HER-2/neu signal transduction. ..
  22. Young D, Kasmar A, Moraski G, Cheng T, Walz A, Hu J, et al. Synthesis of dideoxymycobactin antigens presented by CD1a reveals T cell fine specificity for natural lipopeptide structures. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25087-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that T cells show precise specificity for both arms of the peptide, which are predicted to lie at the CD1a-T cell receptor interface. ..
  23. Jenske R, Lindström F, Gröbner G, Vetter W. Impact of free hydroxylated and methyl-branched fatty acids on the organization of lipid membranes. Chem Phys Lipids. 2008;154:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In both cases, the pure enantiomers alleviated the liquid-crystalline state of the biological model membrane. ..
  24. Sebolai O, Kock J, Pohl C, Botes P, Strauss C, Van Wyk P, et al. The presence of 3-hydroxy oxylipins on the ascospore surfaces of some species representing Saccharomycopsis Schiönning. Can J Microbiol. 2005;51:605-12 pubmed
    ..The distribution of these compounds was mapped using immunofluorescence microscopy, and they were found to be closely associated with the surfaces of aggregating ascospores...
  25. Siems W, Crifo C, Capuozzo E, Uchida K, Grune T, Salerno C. Metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;503:248-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Cysteinyl-glycine-HNE adduct and mercapturic acids contribute to about 5%. ..
  26. Zeng X, Zhang Y, Nyström A. Endocytic uptake and intracellular trafficking of bis-MPA-based hyperbranched copolymer micelles in breast cancer cells. Biomacromolecules. 2012;13:3814-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results allow the generation of the knowledge base required to design polyester-based nanocarriers that can be used efficiently and specifically for drug delivery applications and imaging applications. ..
  27. Vajda S, Baczkó I, Lepran I. Selective cardiac plasma-membrane K(ATP) channel inhibition is defibrillatory and improves survival during acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;577:115-23 pubmed
    ..The present results also suggest that the antiarrhythmic effect of K(ATP) inhibitors is not influenced by pentobarbitone anesthesia. ..
  28. Brown D, Huang Y, Kannenberg E, Sherrier D, Carlson R. An acpXL mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli lacks 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid in its lipid A and is developmentally delayed during symbiotic infection of the determinate nodulating host plant Phaseolus vulgaris. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:4766-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Electron microscopic examination showed that the mutant was developmentally delayed during symbiotic infection of the host plant Phaseolus vulgaris and produced abnormal symbiosome structures. ..
  29. Xu G, Zhang L, Ni Y. Enzymatic preparation of D-phenyllactic acid at high space-time yield with a novel phenylpyruvate reductase identified from Lactobacillus sp. CGMCC 9967. J Biotechnol. 2016;222:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..substrate preference towards aromatic to aliphatic keto acids, and various keto acids could be reduced into D-hydroxy acids with excellent enantioselectivity (>99%)...
  30. Liang W, Chen J, Mo L, Ke X, Zhang W, Zheng D, et al. ATP-sensitive K? channels contribute to the protective effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide against high glucose-induced injury in H9c2 cardiac cells. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also provides novel data demonstraring that there is an antagonistic interaction between ROS and KATP channels in HG-exposed H9c2 cardiac cells. ..
  31. Dzeja P, Bast P, Ozcan C, Valverde A, Holmuhamedov E, Van Wylen D, et al. Targeting nucleotide-requiring enzymes: implications for diazoxide-induced cardioprotection. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H1048-56 pubmed
  32. Santhanam B, Boons G. Preparation of a lipid a derivative that contains a 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid moiety. Org Lett. 2004;6:3333-6 pubmed
    ..The resulting lipids were used for the preparation of lipid A derivatives of Rhizobium sin-1, which have the ability to inhibit the E. coli LPS-dependent synthesis of tumor necrosis factor by human monocytes. ..
  33. Das B, Sarkar C. Cardiomyocyte mitochondrial KATP channels participate in the antiarrhythmic and antiinfarct effects of KATP activators during ischemia and reperfusion in an intact anesthetized rabbit model. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003;55:771-86 pubmed
    ..The mitochondrial rather than sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel may represent a potential site of cardioprotection and antiarrhythmic activity. ..
  34. Adamus G, Rizzarelli P, Montaudo M, Kowalczuk M, Montaudo G. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with size-exclusion chromatographic fractionation for structural characterization of synthetic aliphatic copolyesters. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2006;20:804-14 pubmed
    ..The copolyesters synthesized, with only one exception, were demonstrated to be almost random, which implies that the ester-ester exchange was close to completion. ..
  35. Cha E, Kim S, Lee K, Kim H, Kim K, Kwon O, et al. Relationship between chromatographic resolution and amide structure of chiral 2-hydroxy acids as O-(-)-menthoxycarbonylated diastereomeric derivatives for enantiomeric separation on achiral gas chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016;1012-1013:17-22 pubmed publisher
    The relationship between chromatographic resolution and amide structure of chiral 2-hydroxy acids as O-(-)-menthoxycarbonylated diastereomeric derivatives on achiral gas chromatography was investigated to elucidate the best ..
  36. Lembert N, Idahl L, Ammon H. K-ATP channel independent effects of pinacidil on ATP production in isolated cardiomyocyte or pancreatic beta-cell mitochondria. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;65:1835-41 pubmed
    ..In beta-cells without a metabolically inhibited succinate dehydrogenase, there is no stimulation by PIN and tissue protection by PIN is not to be expected. ..
  37. Kodama S, Yamamoto A, Aizawa S, Honda Y, Suzuki K, Kemmei T, et al. Enantioseparation of ?-hydroxy acids by chiral ligand exchange CE with a dual central metal ion system. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:2920-4 pubmed publisher
    ..to 10 mM Cu(II) ion in the background electrolyte enabled the simultaneous enantioseparation of the three ?-hydroxy acids. These results suggest that the use of a dual central metal ion system can be useful for enantioseparation by ..
  38. Mattu S, Fornari F, Quagliata L, Perra A, Angioni M, Petrelli A, et al. The metabolic gene HAO2 is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and predicts metastasis and poor survival. J Hepatol. 2016;64:891-8 pubmed publisher
    ..acid oxidases are flavin mononucleotide-dependent peroxisomal enzymes, responsible for the oxidation of l-2-hydroxy acids to ketoacids, resulting in the formation of hydrogen peroxide...
  39. Mita T, Higuchi Y, Sato Y. Carboxylation with CO2 via Brook rearrangement: preparation of ?-hydroxy acid derivatives. Org Lett. 2014;16:14-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A variety of ?-substituents including aryl, alkenyl, and alkyl groups were tolerated to afford ?-hydroxy acids in moderate-to-high yields...
  40. Rodrigo G, Samani N. Ischemic preconditioning of the whole heart confers protection on subsequently isolated ventricular myocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H524-31 pubmed
    ..The model should allow future studies in isolated cells of the protective mechanisms induced by true ischemia. ..
  41. Forsythe J, Yu S, Mamajanov I, Grover M, Krishnamurthy R, Fernández F, et al. Ester-Mediated Amide Bond Formation Driven by Wet-Dry Cycles: A Possible Path to Polypeptides on the Prebiotic Earth. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2015;54:9871-5 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate a prebiotically plausible mechanism for peptide (amide) bond formation that is enabled by α-hydroxy acids, which were likely present along with amino acids on the early Earth...
  42. Marmesat S, Velasco J, Dobarganes M. Quantitative determination of epoxy acids, keto acids and hydroxy acids formed in fats and oils at frying temperatures. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1211:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A method based on derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters and GC is proposed for the quantitative analysis of hydroxy acids, keto acids and epoxy acids in fats and oils...
  43. Zhang F, Ma L, Wang W, Qian L, Yang M, Yu J, et al. Hypercholesterolemia abrogates sevoflurane-induced delayed preconditioning against myocardial infarct in rats by alteration of nitric oxide synthase signaling. Shock. 2012;37:485-91 pubmed publisher
  44. Colantuono G, Tiravanti E, Di Venosa N, Cazzato A, Rastaldo R, Cagiano R, et al. Hyperoxia confers myocardial protection in mechanically ventilated rats through the generation of free radicals and opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2008;35:64-71 pubmed
    ..4. Hyperoxic mechanical ventilation, prior to ischaemia, reduces myocardial reperfusion injury. This is likely to occur through the induction of oxidative stress, which leads to myocyte mitoKATP channel opening. ..
  45. Mori N, Fukano Y, Arita R, Shirakawa R, Kawazu K, Nakamura M, et al. Rapid identification of fatty acids and (O-acyl)-?-hydroxy fatty acids in human meibum by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2014;1347:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The results clearly showed that retention time correlates with the number of double bonds and carbon chains. This LC/MS method can be applied to the identification of FAs and OAHFAs in human meibum. ..
  46. Farran D, Toupet L, Martinez J, Dewynter G. Stereocontrolled synthesis of 2,4-diamino-3-hydroxyacids starting from diketopiperazines: a new route for the preparation of statine analogues. Org Lett. 2007;9:4833-6 pubmed
    ..After a selective reduction of the pyrrolidine-2,4-diones, the access to opened 2,4-diamino-3-hydroxyacid esters was carried out by a subsequent alkaline treatment or directly through a tandem reduction-solvolysis. ..
  47. Goodman G. Managing acne vulgaris effectively. Aust Fam Physician. 2006;35:705-9 pubmed
    ..Effective management of acne often requires using a combination of treatments that act on different parts of the pathogenic process of acne development. ..
  48. Li Q, Zhang G. Identification of n-hydroxy acid metabolites in electron impact ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2012;26:1355-62 pubmed publisher
    The catabolism of 4-hydroxy acid (drugs of abuse and lipid peroxidation products) generates a series of hydroxy acids with different carbon chain lengths and hydroxyl group at different locations...
  49. Oberg K, Ropponen J, Kelly J, Löwenhielm P, Berglin M, Malkoch M. Templating gold surfaces with function: a self-assembled dendritic monolayer methodology based on monodisperse polyester scaffolds. Langmuir. 2013;29:456-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This promising methodology delivers functional gold sensor surfaces and represents a facile route for probing surface interactions between multivalently presented motifs and cells in a controlled surface setting. ..
  50. Zadernowski R, Naczk M, Nesterowicz J. Phenolic acid profiles in some small berries. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:2118-24 pubmed
    ..The phenolic acids liberated from esters and glycosidic bonds were the major fractions of phenolic acids in the berries...
  51. Teshima Y, Akao M, Baumgartner W, Marban E. Nicorandil prevents oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in neurons by activating mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Brain Res. 2003;990:45-50 pubmed
    ..These effects were abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate (5HD; 500 micromol/l), a mitoKATP channel blocker. The present results showed that nicorandil has anti-apoptotic effects in neurons, at least in part, by preserving DeltaPsim. ..
  52. Li Q, Sadhukhan S, Berthiaume J, Ibarra R, Tang H, Deng S, et al. 4-Hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE) catabolism and formation of HNE adducts are modulated by ? oxidation of fatty acids in the isolated rat heart. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;58:35-44 pubmed publisher
  53. Muth A, Mosandl A, Wanders R, Nowaczyk M, Baric I, Bohles H, et al. Stereoselective analysis of 2-hydroxysebacic acid in urine of patients with Zellweger syndrome and of premature infants fed with medium-chain triglycerides. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003;26:583-92 pubmed
    ..Further insight into the metabolic origin and the biochemical pathway leading to these urinary metabolites is provided. ..
  54. Lee J, Li L, Jung H, Zuo Z. Postconditioning with isoflurane reduced ischemia-induced brain injury in rats. Anesthesiology. 2008;108:1055-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that isoflurane administrated after OGD or brain ischemia provides neuroprotection. Mitochondrial adenosine 5'-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels may be involved in this protection. ..
  55. Li M, Huang J, Li T. Enantiomeric separation of alcohols and amines on a proline chiral stationary phase by gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1191:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the alpha-amino and alpha-hydroxy aromatic acids could also be separated after derivatization to N-trifluoroacetyl methyl esters for amino acids or O-trifluoroacetyl methyl esters for hydroxyl acids. ..
  56. Huang Q, Guo Z, Yu Y, Ghatnekar G, Ghatnekar A, Bu M, et al. Diazoxide inhibits aortic endothelial cell apoptosis in diabetic rats via activation of ERK. Acta Diabetol. 2012;49:205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish the basis for the therapeutic potential of diazoxide in atherosclerotic disease. ..
  57. Shen Y, Chen Y, Wu X, Bruce I, Xia Q. Activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels delays ischemia-induced cellular uncoupling in rat heart. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25:22-8 pubmed
    ..3+/-1.8) min and (13.4+/-2.1) min, respectively]. IPC and CPC delay the onset of cellular uncoupling induced by acute ischemia in rat heart, and the underlying mechanism involves activation of the mitoKATP channels. ..
  58. Bloor S. Arthrinic acid, a novel antifungal polyhydroxyacid from Arthrinium phaeospermum. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2008;61:515-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of arthrinic acid was determined to be (6E,10E,14E,18E,20E)-2,3,5,9,13,17-hexahydroxy-20-(hydroxymethyl)-14,16,18,22,24-pentamethylhexacosa-6,10,14,18,20-pentaenoic acid from NMR spectroscopic studies. ..
  59. Xia Y, Javadov S, Gan T, Pang T, Cook M, Karmazyn M. Distinct KATP channels mediate the antihypertrophic effects of adenosine receptor activation in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;320:14-21 pubmed
  60. Oueslati M, Ben Jannet H, Mighri Z, Chriaa J, Abreu P. Phytochemical constituents from Salsola tetrandra. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:1366-9 pubmed
    ..Compounds 6 and 8 displayed mild antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas compound 6 showed the highest activity in the Artemia salina bioassay...
  61. Moghtadaei M, Habibey R, Ajami M, Soleimani M, Ebrahimi S, Pazoki Toroudi H. Skeletal muscle post-conditioning by diazoxide, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:11093-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Involvement of KATP channels in this effect require further evaluations. ..
  62. Spengler J, Bottcher C, Albericio F, Burger K. Hexafluoroacetone as protecting and activating reagent: new routes to amino, hydroxy, and mercapto acids and their application for peptide and glyco- and depsipeptide modification. Chem Rev. 2006;106:4728-46 pubmed
  63. Fukuyama T, Matsuo K, Gekko K. Experimental and theoretical studies of vacuum-ultraviolet electronic circular dichroism of hydroxy acids in aqueous solution. Chirality. 2011;23 Suppl 1:E52-8 pubmed publisher
    The electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of three L-hydroxy acids (L-lactic acid, (+)-(S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid, and (-)-(S)-2-hydroxyisocaproic acid) were measured down to 160 nm in aqueous solution using a vacuum-..
  64. Sivarajah A, Collino M, Yasin M, Benetti E, Gallicchio M, Mazzon E, et al. Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of hydrogen sulfide in a rat model of regional myocardial I/R. Shock. 2009;31:267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The antiapoptotic effect of NaHS may be in part due to the opening of the putative mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels. ..
  65. Peart J, Headrick J. Adenosine-mediated early preconditioning in mouse: protective signaling and concentration dependent effects. Cardiovasc Res. 2003;58:589-601 pubmed
    ..Subsequent protection against necrosis is also mediated by a mito K(ATP) channel dependent process independent of PKC and NO. In contrast, functional protection may be mediated by parallel mito K(ATP) and PKC dependent paths. ..
  66. Rubinshtein M, James C, Young J, Ma Y, Kobayashi Y, Gianneschi N, et al. Facile procedure for generating side chain functionalized poly(alpha-hydroxy acid) copolymers from aldehydes via a versatile Passerini-type condensation. Org Lett. 2010;12:3560-3 pubmed publisher
  67. Nuñez I, Fantinelli J, Arbeláez L, Mosca S. Mitochondrial KATP channels participate in the limitation of infarct size by cariporide. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011;383:563-71 pubmed publisher
    ..52 ± 0.04 a.u., respectively). The present data suggest that attenuation of mPTP opening after PKC-mediated mitoK(ATP) channel activation is a crucial step for the cardioprotective effects of cariporide. ..
  68. Franco E, Hofstetter H, Hofstetter O. Enantiomer separation of alpha-hydroxy acids in high-performance immunoaffinity chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;46:907-13 pubmed
    ..support material to produce a chiral stationary phase suitable for enantiomer separation of free alpha-hydroxy acids. Chiral separation of several aliphatic and aromatic members of this class of compounds was achieved in HPLC ..
  69. Li X, Rapedius M, Baukrowitz T, Liu G, Srivastava D, Daut J, et al. 5-Hydroxydecanoate and coenzyme A are inhibitors of native sarcolemmal KATP channels in inside-out patches. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:385-91 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in intact cells, 5-HD fails to inhibit sarcK(ATP) channels, suggesting that mitochondria are the preconditioning-relevant targets of 5-HD. ..
  70. Pormsila W, Gong X, Hauser P. Determination of the enantiomers of alpha-hydroxy- and alpha-amino acids in capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. Electrophoresis. 2010;31:2044-8 pubmed publisher
    The enantiomers of the anions of five alpha-hydroxy acids, namely lactic acid, alpha-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-hydroxycaproic acid, 2-hydroxyoctanoic acid and 2-hydroxydecanoic acid, as well as the two alpha-amino acids aspartic acid and ..
  71. Talha S, Bouitbir J, Charles A, Zoll J, Goette Di Marco P, Meziani F, et al. Pretreatment with brain natriuretic peptide reduces skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress after ischemia-reperfusion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013;114:172-9 pubmed publisher
  72. Patel J, Clavé G, Renard P, Franck X. Straightforward access to protected syn alpha-amino-beta-hydroxy acid derivatives. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47:4224-7 pubmed publisher
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    ..Collectively these data support the hypothesis that diazoxide-mediated cytoprotection is independent of the conductance of the mK(ATP) channel and rather implicate mitochondrial respiratory inhibition-triggered ROS signaling. ..
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    ..This creates a bottleneck for beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The complex metabolic effects of 5-HD invalidate the use of 5-HD as a blocker of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels in studies of preconditioning. ..
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    ..The Diels-Alder precursors are prepared from simple building blocks, and the cycloadducts, bridged oxazinolactams, can serve as useful intermediates in organic synthesis. ..
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