Summary: An organothiophosphorus insecticide that has been used to control pig mange.

Top Publications

  1. Guiñazu N, Rena V, Genti Raimondi S, Rivero V, Magnarelli G. Effects of the organophosphate insecticides phosmet and chlorpyrifos on trophoblast JEG-3 cell death, proliferation and inflammatory molecule production. Toxicol In Vitro. 2012;26:406-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of the OP phosmet (Pm) and chlorpyrifos (Cp) on JEG-3 cells viability, proliferation, cell cycle and inflammatory molecule ..
  2. Purdey M. High-dose exposure to systemic phosmet insecticide modifies the phosphatidylinositol anchor on the prion protein: the origins of new variant transmissible spongiform encephalopathies?. Med Hypotheses. 1998;50:91-111 pubmed
    ..high biannual doses of a 'systemic' pour-on formulation of an organo-phthalimido-phosphorus warblecide, phosmet, during the 1980s (combined with exposure to the lipid-bound residues of 'bioconcentrated' phosmet recycled back ..
  3. Quinto I, De Marinis E, Mallardo M, Arcucci A, Della Morte R, Staiano N. Effect of DNOC, Ferbam and Imidan exposure on mouse sperm morphology. Mutat Res. 1989;224:405-8 pubmed
    ..w./day. These data indicate that per os administration of Ferbam succeeded in producing active metabolites able to interfere with the differentiation process of spermatogenic cells...
  4. Vlckova V, Miadokova E, Podstavkova S, Vlcek D. Mutagenic activity of phosmet, the active component of the organophosphorus insecticide Decemtione EK 20 in Salmonella and Saccharomyces assays. Mutat Res. 1993;302:153-6 pubmed
    b>Phosmet, the active component of the organophosphorus insecticide Decemtione EK 20, was shown to be mutagenic in the standard Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay in the absence and presence of metabolic activation...
  5. Borchert D, Walgenbach J. Comparison of pheromone-mediated mating disruption and conventional insecticides for management of tufted apple bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J Econ Entomol. 2000;93:769-76 pubmed
  6. Akotsen Mensah C, Boozer R, Fadamiro H. Field evaluation of reduced insecticide spray programs for managing plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Alabama peaches. Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:626-32 pubmed publisher
    ..2007-2009 to compare the conventional calendar-based insecticide spray program involving weekly applications of phosmet with three different reduced spray programs using three targeted (well-timed) insecticide sprays (TIS) of phosmet,..
  7. Crowe K, Bushway A, Bushway R, Davis Dentici K. Microbial degradation of phosmet on blueberry fruit and in aqueous systems by indigenous bacterial flora on lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium). J Food Sci. 2007;72:M293-9 pubmed
    b>Phosmet-adapted bacteria isolated from lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium) were evaluated for their ability to degrade phosmet on blueberry fruit and in minimal salt solutions...
  8. Alston D, Tepedino V, Bradley B, Toler T, Griswold T, Messinger S. Effects of the insecticide phosmet on solitary bee foraging and nesting in orchards of Capitol Reef National Park, Utah. Environ Entomol. 2007;36:811-6 pubmed
    ..The orchards continue to be managed in a pick-and-pay program, which includes spraying with phosmet to suppress codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.)...
  9. Barry J, Sciarappa W, Teixeira L, Polavarapu S. Comparative effectiveness of different insecticides for organic management of blueberry maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae). J Econ Entomol. 2005;98:1236-41 pubmed
    ..Topical exposure of flies to spinosad (Entrust), pyrethrum (PyGanic 1.4 EC), azadirachtin (Aza-Direct), and phosmet (Imidan 70-W) resulted in significantly higher mortality compared with the water control after 2 and 24 h...

More Information


  1. Song Y, Ge Y, Zhang Y, Liu B, Lu Y, Dong T, et al. Hapten synthesis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for phosmet residues: assay optimization and investigation of matrix effects from different food samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;393:2001-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A highly sensitive polyclonal antibody against the organophosphorus insecticide phosmet was obtained and competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cd-ELISA) for this pesticide were ..
  2. Sinderhauf K, Schwack W. Photolysis experiments on phosmet, an organophosphorus insecticide. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:5990-5 pubmed
    The organophosphorus insecticide phosmet is used in plant protection as well as against parasites on animals...
  3. Shaw I, Berry C, Lane E, Fitzmaurice P, Clarke D, Holden A. Studies on the putative interactions between the organophosphorus insecticide Phosmet and recombinant mouse PrP and its implication in the BSE epidemic. Vet Res Commun. 2002;26:263-71 pubmed
    It has been suggested that exposure of cattle to the ectoparasiticide Phosmet in the 1980s caused a conformational change in the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to form the BSE prion (PrP(SC)), which initiated the epidemic of bovine ..
  4. Ripley B, Lissemore L, Leishman P, Denomme M, Ritter L. Pesticide residues on fruits and vegetables from Ontario, Canada, 1991-1995. J AOAC Int. 2000;83:196-213 pubmed
    ..The most frequently found pesticides were captan, the dithiocarbamate fungicides, endosulfan, azinphos-methyl, phosmet, parathion, and iprodione. These pesticides were also used in the greatest quantity for crop production...
  5. Salles N, Fourcade F, Geneste F, Floner D, Amrane A. Relevance of an electrochemical process prior to a biological treatment for the removal of an organophosphorous pesticide, phosmet. J Hazard Mater. 2010;181:617-23 pubmed publisher
    ..examine the feasibility of coupling an electrochemical pre-treatment with a biological step in order to degrade phosmet, an organophosphorous pesticide...
  6. Gordon I, Abdulla E, Campbell I, Whatley S. Phosmet induces up-regulation of surface levels of the cellular prion protein. Neuroreport. 1998;9:1391-5 pubmed
    Chronic (2 day) exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to the organophosphate pesticide phosmet induced a marked concentration-dependent increase in the levels of PrP present on the cell surface as assessed by biotin labelling and ..
  7. Slamenova D, Dusinska M, Gabelova A, Bohusova T, Ruppová K. Decemtione (Imidan)-induced single-strand breaks to human DNA, mutations at the hgprt locus of V79 cells, and morphological transformations of embryo cells. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1992;20:73-8 pubmed
    ..The results showed that Decemtione, like positive carcinogenes, induced a significant elevation in morphologically transformed colonies of embryo cells. The results suggest a carcinogenic potential of this organophosphate insecticide. ..
  8. Kambarage D. Treatment and control of sarcoptic mange: evaluation of treatment of both the pigs and environment. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1991;23:59-62 pubmed
    Pigs in a herd infected with Sarcoptes scabiei var suis were treated with 20% phosmet at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight. In one of the groups the environment was also treated using 2% trichlorphon...
  9. Suter H, White R, Heng L, Douglas L. Sorption and degradation characteristics of phosmet in two contrasting Australian soils. J Environ Qual. 2002;31:1630-5 pubmed
    The organophosphate insecticide phosmet [phosphorodithioic acid, s-((1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-isoindol-2yl)methyl), o,o-dimethyl ester] is used to control red-legged earth mites (Halotydeus destructor), lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis), ..
  10. Tracey J, Gallagher H. Use of glycopyrrolate and atropine in acute organophosphorus poisoning. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1990;9:99-100 pubmed
    ..Two cases of organophosphorus poisoning are reported. Both were treated with a combination of atropine and glycopyrrolate as well as benzodiazepine and pralidoxime. The advantages of glycopyrrolate over atropine are discussed. ..
  11. Frank A, Ross J, Sawvell B. Toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with flea dips. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1992;34:57-61 pubmed
    ..Flea dip preparations have the potential to induce severe immune-mediated dermatopathies such as toxic epidermal necrolysis. ..
  12. de Potas G, de D Angelo A. Phosphoinositide phosphorylation and shape changes produced by phosmet-oxon in human erythrocytes. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1993;106:561-6 pubmed
    ..5. Results suggest an association between changes in PI kinase activity, the phosphorylation cycle of phosphatidylinositols and alterations in erythrocyte morphology induced by phosmetoxon. ..
  13. Purdey M. The UK epidemic of BSE: slow virus or chronic pesticide-initiated modification of the prion protein? Part 2: An epidemiological perspective. Med Hypotheses. 1996;46:445-54 pubmed
    ..lipophilic formulations of organophosphates, such as the high-dose phthalimide containing organophosphate phosmet, (which were applied compulsorily and exclusively in the UK during the 1980s/early 1990s) as the primary trigger ..
  14. Brimer L, Henriksen S, Gyrd Hansen N, Rasmussen F. Evaluation of an in vitro method for acaricidal effect. Activity of parathion, phosmet and phoxim against Sarcoptes scabiei. Vet Parasitol. 1993;51:123-35 pubmed
    ..The effect of parathion, phoxim and phosmet against the pig mange mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis was evaluated...
  15. Rong L, Guo X, Chen K, Zhu J, Li S, Jiang J. Isolation of an isocarbophos-degrading strain of Arthrobacter sp. scl-2 and identification of the degradation pathway. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:1439-46 pubmed degraded to a nondetectable level in 18 h by scl-2 in cell culture, and isofenphos-methyl, profenofos, and phosmet could also be degraded...
  16. Song Y, Liu M, Wang S. Surface plasmon resonance sensor for phosmet of agricultural products at the ppt detection level. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:2625-30 pubmed publisher
    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay using a PH-BSA immobilized sensor chip was developed to measure phosmet in food samples...
  17. Higbee B, Siegel J. Field efficacy and application timing of methoxyfenozide, a reduced-risk treatment for control of navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almond. J Econ Entomol. 2012;105:1702-11 pubmed
    ..D.A. Webb] located in Kern County, CA. Methoxyfenozide applied one to three times, the organophosphate phosmet (Imidan) alone or in combination with methoxyfenozide, or the pyrethroid permethrin (Perm-Up) were tested for ..
  18. Lubbers M, Waterfield N, Beresford T, Le Page R, Jarvis A. Sequencing and analysis of the prolate-headed lactococcal bacteriophage c2 genome and identification of the structural genes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995;61:4348-56 pubmed
    ..The identification of direct nucleotide repeats flanking these sequences indicated that recombination may be important in the evolution of these phages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  19. Lindsay S, Chasse J, Butler R, Morrill W, Van Beneden R. Impacts of stage-specific acute pesticide exposure on predicted population structure of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria. Aquat Toxicol. 2010;98:265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Velpar], the phenoxyacetic acid herbicide, 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; Agway Super BK 32), or phosmet (Imidan). In addition, juvenile clams were exposed for 24h to 2,4-D and their growth monitored for 21 months...
  20. Nielsen A, Shearer P, Hamilton G. Toxicity of insecticides to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using glass-vial bioassays. J Econ Entomol. 2008;101:1439-42 pubmed
    ..05 and 2.64 (microg [AI]/cm2) (mg body mass(-1)). Phosmet had LC50 values that were up to 3.6-fold higher than other classes of insecticides tested. Fifth instars of H...
  21. Rawn D, Quade S, Sun W, Smith M, Fouquet A, Belanger A. Effects of postharvest preparation on organophosphate insecticide residues in apples. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:916-21 pubmed publisher
    ..45, and 21 days postapplication with one of three organophosphate insecticides (azinphos methyl, phosalone, or phosmet, respectively)...
  22. El Moghazy A, Soliman E, Ibrahim H, Noguer T, Marty J, Istamboulie G. Ultra-sensitive biosensor based on genetically engineered acetylcholinesterase immobilized in poly (vinyl alcohol)/Fe-Ni alloy nanocomposite for phosmet detection in olive oil. Food Chem. 2016;203:73-78 pubmed publisher
    An ultra-sensitive screen-printed biosensor was successfully developed for phosmet detection in olive oil, based on a genetically-engineered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) immobilized in a azide-unit water-pendant polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-AWP)..
  23. Sinderhauf K, Schwack W. Photodegradation chemistry of the insecticide phosmet in lipid models and in the presence of wool wax, employing a 15N-labeled compound. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:8046-52 pubmed
    The organophosphorus insecticide phosmet is commonly used for plant protection as well as against pests on animals. Phosmet features numerous degradation pathways induced by UV irradiation...
  24. Crowe K, Bushway A, Bushway R, Hazen R. Evaluation of chemical and photochemical oxidation processes for degradation of phosmet on lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium). J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:9608-13 pubmed
    Chemical and photochemical oxidation processes were evaluated for their ability to degrade residual phosmet on lowbush blueberries and for their role in the conversion of phosmet to phosmet oxon--a toxic metabolite of phosmet...
  25. Sinderhauf K, Schwack W. Photodegradation of phosmet in wool wax models and on sheep wool: determination of wool wax bound phosmet by means of isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:4873-9 pubmed
    The photochemical reactions of phosmet, an organophosphorus insecticide used for plant protection and for control of ectoparasites on productive livestock, were studied in the presence of wool wax...
  26. Abdelsalam E. Neurotoxic potential of six organophosphorus compounds in adult hens. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1999;41:290-2 pubmed
    The neurotoxic potential of trichlorfon, diazinon, phosmet, dichlorvos, phosphamidon and coumaphos was evaluated for their ability to inhibit brain neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity in adult hens...
  27. Stewart P, Fears T, Kross B, Ogilvie L, Blair A. Exposure of farmers to phosmet, a swine insecticide. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999;25:33-8 pubmed
    The goal of this study was to measure dermal and inhalation exposures to phosmet during application to animals and to identify what determinants of exposure influence the exposure levels...
  28. Good J, Khurana R, Mayer R, Cintra W, Albuquerque E. Pathophysiological studies of neuromuscular function in subacute organophosphate poisoning induced by phosmet. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993;56:290-4 pubmed
    ..disorder progressed over 9 days following the fifth weekly spraying with the organophosphate (OP) insecticide, phosmet, with limited symptoms of acute toxicity...
  29. Mercader J, Montoya A. Performance of two monoclonal immunoassays in mixtures of cross-reacting dithiophosphorus pesticides. Talanta. 2007;74:52-8 pubmed publisher the analysis of mixtures of three organodithiophosphorus pesticides: azinphos-methyl, azinphos-ethyl and phosmet. It was found that the apparent affinity of the antibody to each analyte changed in the presence of a cross-..
  30. Biddinger D, Robertson J, Mullin C, Frazier J, Ashcraft S, Rajotte E, et al. Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72587 pubmed publisher
    ..The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG), λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II), dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC), phosmet (Imidan 70W), and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F)...
  31. Fenske R, Lu C, Negrete M, Galvin K. Breaking the take home pesticide exposure pathway for agricultural families: workplace predictors of residential contamination. Am J Ind Med. 2013;56:1063-71 pubmed publisher
    ..from commuter vehicles and worker homes and analyzed for four organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (azinphosmethyl, phosmet, chlorpyrifos, malathion)...
  32. Gyrd Hansen N, Brimer L, Rasmussen F. Percutaneous absorption of organophosphorus insecticides in pigs--the influence of different vehicles. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1993;16:174-80 pubmed
    ..experiments on 20 pigs three different organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), parathion (n = 6), phoxim (n = 7) and phosmet (n = 7), were administered both intravenously (i.v.) and dermally (d...
  33. Loewenherz C, Fenske R, Simcox N, Bellamy G, Kalman D. Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in central Washington State. Environ Health Perspect. 1997;105:1344-53 pubmed
    ..It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. ..
  34. Liu C, Gan J, Zhang Y, Liang M, Shu X, Shu J, et al. Heterogeneous reaction of suspended phosmet particles with NO3 radicals. J Phys Chem A. 2011;115:10744-8 pubmed publisher
    As an organophosphorous insecticide, phosmet is widely used for plant protection as well as against the ectoparasites on productive livestock...
  35. Coronado G, Holte S, Vigoren E, Griffith W, Barr D, Faustman E, et al. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and residential proximity to nearby fields: evidence for the drift pathway. J Occup Environ Med. 2011;53:884-91 pubmed publisher
    ..non-farmworker households, farmworker households had higher levels of azinphos-methyl (643 ng/g vs 121 ng/g) and phosmet (153 ng/g vs 50 ng/g)...
  36. Ohta T, Watanabe Akanuma M, Yamagata H. A comparison of mutation spectra detected by the Escherichia coli lac(+) reversion assay and the Salmonella typhimurium his(+) reversion assay. Mutagenesis. 2000;15:317-23 pubmed
    ..C-->A.T transitions induced by 2-aminopurine and phosmet. Escherichia coli strain WP3104P, which detects G.C-->T.A transversions, was superior to the S...
  37. Podhorniak L, Negron J, Griffith F. Gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection multiresidue method for organophosphate pesticide and metabolite residues at the parts-per-billion level in representatives commodities of fruits and vegetable crop groups. J AOAC Int. 2001;84:873-90 pubmed
    ..The OPs most susceptible to elevated recoveries around or greater than 150%, based on peak area calculations, were trichlorfon, phosmet, and the metabolites of dimethoate, fenamiphos, fenthion, and phorate.
  38. Cohen A, Janai E, Rapaport D, Schofield A, Sloutskin E. Structure and interactions in fluids of prolate colloidal ellipsoids: comparison between experiment, theory, and simulation. J Chem Phys. 2012;137:184505 pubmed publisher
    ..Accounting for these charge effects within the Percus-Yevick framework leads to similar agreement with the experiment. ..
  39. Varsik P, Buranova D, Kondas M, Kucera P, Goldenberg Z, Pokorna V. Chronic toxic neuropathy after organophosphorus poisoning in quails (Coturnix coturnix japponica). Bratisl Lek Listy. 2005;106:293-6 pubmed
    Peripheral neuropathy was induced by the long-term administration of organo-phosphorus compounds (phtalimid/phosmet) in quails (Coturnix coturnix japponica)...
  40. Cabral R, Hoshiya T, Hakoi K, Hasegawa R, Fukushima S, Ito N. A rapid in vivo bioassay for the carcinogenicity of pesticides. Tumori. 1991;77:185-8 pubmed
    ..Positive results were seen with Chinomethionat, Phosmet and Propiconazole; the results obtained with Captan and Prochloraz were borderline; Benomyl, Daminozide and ..
  41. Landa B, Shkolnisky Y. Steerable Principal Components for Space-Frequency Localized Images. SIAM J Imaging Sci. 2017;10:508-534 pubmed publisher
    ..We then establish that our PSWF-based steerable PCA is both faster and more accurate then existing methods, and more importantly, provides us with rigorous error bounds on the entire procedure...