dibutyl phthalate


Summary: A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.

Top Publications

  1. Anderson W, Castle L, Scotter M, Massey R, Springall C. A biomarker approach to measuring human dietary exposure to certain phthalate diesters. Food Addit Contam. 2001;18:1068-74 pubmed
    ..These conversion factors can be used in future studies to assess exposure to phthalate esters via measuring urinary levels of the monoester metabolites. ..
  2. Mylchreest E, Sar M, Wallace D, Foster P. Fetal testosterone insufficiency and abnormal proliferation of Leydig cells and gonocytes in rats exposed to di(n-butyl) phthalate. Reprod Toxicol. 2002;16:19-28 pubmed
    ..The overall decrease in androgen concentration is not corrected and results in reproductive tract malformations. The multinuclearity and proliferation of gonocytes suggests an underlying Sertoli cell dysfunction. ..
  3. Barlow N, Phillips S, Wallace D, Sar M, Gaido K, Foster P. Quantitative changes in gene expression in fetal rat testes following exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate. Toxicol Sci. 2003;73:431-41 pubmed
    ..Diminished Leydig cell lipid content and alteration of cholesterol transport genes also support altered cholesterol metabolism and transport as a potential mechanism for decreased T synthesis following exposure to DBP. ..
  4. Jiang J, Ma L, Yuan L, Wang X, Zhang W. Study on developmental abnormalities in hypospadiac male rats induced by maternal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Toxicology. 2007;232:286-93 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that the reproductive system and developmental condition of hypospadiac male offspring were damaged severely by DBP. ..
  5. Koch H, Preuss R, Drexler H, Angerer J. Exposure of nursery school children and their parents and teachers to di-n-butylphthalate and butylbenzylphthalate. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005;78:223-9 pubmed
    ..Correlation of internal MnBP with MBzP exposure points to common sources of exposure for both phthalates. DnBP exposure seems, at least in part, to be connected with the use of body/skin care products and certain medications. ..
  6. Li X, Jiang L, Chen L, Chen H, Li X. Neurotoxicity of dibutyl phthalate in brain development following perinatal exposure: a study in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;36:392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may provide basic experimental evidence for better understanding the neurotoxic effects of DBP on neonatal, immature and mature brains. ..
  7. Scott H, Hutchison G, Jobling M, McKinnell C, Drake A, Sharpe R. Relationship between androgen action in the "male programming window," fetal sertoli cell number, and adult testis size in the rat. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5280-7 pubmed publisher
    ..001) with AGD at e21.5, and postnatal d 25 and 90 in animals exposed in utero to vehicle or DBP (e13.5-e21.5). Thus, AGD may predict adult testis size but probably not through a direct relationship with SC number. ..
  8. Howdeshell K, Furr J, Lambright C, Rider C, Wilson V, Gray L. Cumulative effects of dibutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate on male rat reproductive tract development: altered fetal steroid hormones and genes. Toxicol Sci. 2007;99:190-202 pubmed
  9. Wu J, Liao X, Yu F, Wei Z, Yang L. Cloning of a dibutyl phthalate hydrolase gene from Acinetobacter sp. strain M673 and functional analysis of its expression product in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:2483-91 pubmed publisher
    A dibutyl phthalate (DBP) transforming bacterium, strain M673, was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp...

More Information


  1. Macleod D, Sharpe R, Welsh M, Fisken M, Scott H, Hutchison G, et al. Androgen action in the masculinization programming window and development of male reproductive organs. Int J Androl. 2010;33:279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..controls. In conclusion, we show that the size of all male reproductive organs is programmed by androgen exposure in the MPW, but that growth towards this size is dependent on androgen action postnatally...
  2. Wang W, Zhang Y, Wang S, Fan C, Xu H. Distributions of phthalic esters carried by total suspended particulates in Nanjing, China. Environ Monit Assess. 2012;184:6789-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are summarized as follows: (1) The dominant PAEs are dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which were found in the atmosphere of Nanjing...
  3. Zhang K, Noonan G, Begley T. Determination of 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene (DIPN) and n-dibutylphthalate (DBP) in food and paper packaging materials from US marketplaces. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008;25:1416-23 pubmed publisher
    ..DIPN was not detected (<0.01 mg kg(-1)) in 41 food samples and DBP was only detected in two domestic and four imported food samples with concentrations ranging from <0.01 to 0.81 mg kg(-1). ..
  4. Fisher J, MacPherson S, Marchetti N, Sharpe R. Human 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome': a possible model using in-utero exposure of the rat to dibutyl phthalate. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:1383-94 pubmed
    ..The disorders comprising human 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome' (TDS) may be increasing in incidence. TDS originates in fetal life but the mechanisms are not known, and discerning them requires an animal model...
  5. Kuang Q, Zhao W, Cheng S. Toxicity of dibutyl phthalate to algae. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;71:602-8 pubmed
  6. Niu H, Cai Y, Shi Y, Wei F, Mou S, Jiang G. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-coated titanate nanotubes for solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters from natural waters prior to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1172:113-20 pubmed
    ..All the results indicated the application potential of titanate nanotubes as solid-phase extraction adsorbents to pre-treat water samples...
  7. Johnson K, McDowell E, Viereck M, Xia J. Species-specific dibutyl phthalate fetal testis endocrine disruption correlates with inhibition of SREBP2-dependent gene expression pathways. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120:460-74 pubmed publisher
    ..fetal testis expression microarray data sets from susceptible (rat) and resistant (mouse) species after dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure, we identified decreased expression of several metabolic pathways in both species...
  8. Johnson K, McCahan S, Si X, Campion L, Herrmann R, Barthold J. The orl rat with inherited cryptorchidism has increased susceptibility to the testicular effects of in utero dibutyl phthalate exposure. Toxicol Sci. 2008;105:360-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenotypic response of the testis to in utero dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure was compared between two strains of Long-Evans (LE) rats, the orl substrain with inherited ..
  9. Swan S, Liu F, Hines M, Kruse R, Wang C, Redmon J, et al. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys. Int J Androl. 2010;33:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Concentrations of dibutyl phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and their sum, were associated ..
  10. Howdeshell K, Wilson V, Furr J, Lambright C, Rider C, Blystone C, et al. A mixture of five phthalate esters inhibits fetal testicular testosterone production in the sprague-dawley rat in a cumulative, dose-additive manner. Toxicol Sci. 2008;105:153-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that individual phthalates with a similar mechanism of action can elicit cumulative, dose additive effects on fetal testosterone production and pregnancy when administered as a mixture. ..
  11. Hotchkiss A, Rider C, Furr J, Howdeshell K, Blystone C, Wilson V, et al. In utero exposure to an AR antagonist plus an inhibitor of fetal testosterone synthesis induces cumulative effects on F1 male rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;30:261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiment 1 used a mixture of 50 mg/kg-d procymidone and 500 mg/kg-d dibutyl phthalate (DBP), whereas experiment 2 used 150 mg/kg-d procymidone and 1125 mg/kg-d DBP (top dose), or 0, 4.17, 8...
  12. Barlow N, Foster P. Pathogenesis of male reproductive tract lesions from gestation through adulthood following in utero exposure to Di(n-butyl) phthalate. Toxicol Pathol. 2003;31:397-410 pubmed
    ..The pathogenesis of lesion development from the fetus to the adult is important for comparison of antiandrogens with differing modes of action. ..
  13. Li L, Li H, Song N, Chen H. The immunotoxicity of dibutyl phthalate on the macrophages in mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013;35:272-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used phthalate chemical, is commonly used as plasticizer. It is well known that DBP causes reproductive and developmental diseases, but the effect of DBP on the immune system remains to be determined...
  14. Hutchison G, Scott H, Walker M, McKinnell C, Ferrara D, Mahood I, et al. Sertoli cell development and function in an animal model of testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:352-60 pubmed
  15. Salazar V, Castillo C, Ariznavarreta C, Campón R, Tresguerres J. Effect of oral intake of dibutyl phthalate on reproductive parameters of Long Evans rats and pre-pubertal development of their offspring. Toxicology. 2004;205:131-7 pubmed
    ..Offspring pre-pubertal development seems to be affected by oral intake of DBP by their mothers during pregnancy, the effects being more evident in the reproductive development of male pups. ..
  16. Drake A, van den Driesche S, Scott H, Hutchison G, Seckl J, Sharpe R. Glucocorticoids amplify dibutyl phthalate-induced disruption of testosterone production and male reproductive development. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5055-64 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to e21.5 with vehicle, 100 or 500 mg/kg . d dibutyl phthalate (DBP), 0.1 mg/kg . d dexamethasone (Dex), or a combination of DBP + Dex...
  17. Mahood I, Hallmark N, McKinnell C, Walker M, Fisher J, Sharpe R. Abnormal Leydig Cell aggregation in the fetal testis of rats exposed to di (n-butyl) phthalate and its possible role in testicular dysgenesis. Endocrinology. 2005;146:613-23 pubmed
  18. Zhang Y, Jiang X, Chen B. Reproductive and developmental toxicity in F1 Sprague-Dawley male rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate in utero and during lactation and determination of its NOAEL. Reprod Toxicol. 2004;18:669-76 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, the RfD for human exposure to DBP through oral intake was recommended as 500 mg/kg BW/day. ..
  19. Liao C, Chen L, Chen B, Lin S. Bioremediation of endocrine disruptor di-n-butyl phthalate ester by Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas stutzeri. Chemosphere. 2010;78:342-6 pubmed publisher
    ..radiodurans could survive in the activated sludge after 7d of incubation. Based on this work, we hope that these findings could provide some useful information for applying the bioremediation of DBP in our environment...
  20. Ema M. Antiandrogenic effects of dibutyl phthalate and its metabolite, monobutyl phthalate, in rats. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2002;42:297-308 pubmed
    Developmental toxicity following administration of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and its major metabolite, monobutyl phthalate (MBuP), by gavage was determined in Wistar rats...
  21. Mitchell R, Childs A, Anderson R, van den Driesche S, Saunders P, McKinnell C, et al. Do phthalates affect steroidogenesis by the human fetal testis? Exposure of human fetal testis xenografts to di-n-butyl phthalate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure of human fetal testes to DBP is unlikely to impair testosterone production as it does in rats. This has important safety and regulatory implications. ..
  22. Zhang M, Wang Q, Zhuang H. A novel competitive fluorescence immunoassay for the determination of dibutyl phthalate. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;386:1401-6 pubmed
    ..and specific competitive fluorescence immunoassay has been developed for the quantitative determination of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) using an antibody-coated plate format...
  23. Kim H, Kim T, Shin J, Moon H, Kang I, Kim I, et al. Neonatal exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) alters male reproductive-tract development. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2004;67:2045-60 pubmed
    ..Thus our data suggest that DBP is likely to exert its antiandrogenic actions through disruption of AR or ER expression during the early neonatal stage. ..
  24. Kim Y, Lee J. Enzymatic degradation of dibutyl phthalate and toxicity of its degradation products. Biotechnol Lett. 2005;27:635-9 pubmed
    b>Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was more efficiently degraded by cutinase compared to yeast esterase; i.e. almost 80% of initial DBP (500 mg l(-1)) was decomposed within 7...
  25. Jen J, Liu T. Determination of phthalate esters from food-contacted materials by on-line microdialysis and liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1130:28-33 pubmed
    ..The dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were well separated within 16 min by a C-18 column and eluted gradient from 40 to 90% aqueous ..
  26. Heng K, Anand Ivell R, Teerds K, Ivell R. The endocrine disruptors dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) influence Leydig cell regeneration following ethane dimethane sulphonate treatment of adult male rats. Int J Androl. 2012;35:353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..leading to their regeneration from resident stem cells, as a novel system to investigate the effects of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adult-type Leydig cell differentiation...
  27. Calafat A, Brock J, Silva M, Gray L, Reidy J, Barr D, et al. Urinary and amniotic fluid levels of phthalate monoesters in rats after the oral administration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate. Toxicology. 2006;217:22-30 pubmed
    ..Although no firm conclusions could be drawn from the urinary MBP data, the MEHP results suggest that maternal urinary MEHP levels may be useful surrogate markers for fetal exposure to DEHP. ..
  28. Gaido K, Hensley J, Liu D, Wallace D, Borghoff S, Johnson K, et al. Fetal mouse phthalate exposure shows that Gonocyte multinucleation is not associated with decreased testicular testosterone. Toxicol Sci. 2007;97:491-503 pubmed
    ..This response in the mouse occurs without a measurable decrease in testicular testosterone, suggesting that altered seminiferous cord formation and gonocyte multinucleation may not be mechanistically linked to lowered testosterone. ..
  29. Boekelheide K, Kleymenova E, Liu K, Swanson C, Gaido K. Dose-dependent effects on cell proliferation, seminiferous tubules, and male germ cells in the fetal rat testis following exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate. Microsc Res Tech. 2009;72:629-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell proliferation and apoptosis are key processes regulating development of the testis, and alterations in these processes may underlie testicular dysgenesis...
  30. Xu G, Li F, Wang Q. Occurrence and degradation characteristics of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in typical agricultural soils of China. Sci Total Environ. 2008;393:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..this study, we analyze the pollution and degradation characteristics of two kinds of phthalate esters (PEs), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), in two kinds of soils collected from non-cultivated, crop, ..
  31. Mahood I, Scott H, Brown R, Hallmark N, Walker M, Sharpe R. In utero exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate and testicular dysgenesis: comparison of fetal and adult end points and their dose sensitivity. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115 Suppl 1:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Humans are widely exposed to DBP, but at much lower levels than those causing adverse effects in rats...
  32. Serodio P, Nogueira J. Considerations on ultra-trace analysis of phthalates in drinking water. Water Res. 2006;40:2572-82 pubmed
  33. Tharappel J, Cunningham M, Spear B, Glauert H. Differential activation of hepatic NF-kappaB in rats and hamsters by the peroxisome proliferators Wy-14,643, gemfibrozil, and dibutyl phthalate. Toxicol Sci. 2001;62:20-7 pubmed
    ..The peroxisome proliferators Wy-14,643, gemfibrozil, and dibutyl phthalate were administered to animals for 6, 34, or 90 days...
  34. Wang Y, Ding P, Hu R, Zhang J, Ma X, Luo Z, et al. A dibutyl phthalate sensor based on a nanofiber polyaniline coated quartz crystal monitor. Sensors (Basel). 2013;13:3765-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a commonly used plasticizer and additive to adhesives, printing inks and nail polishes...
  35. Lehmann K, Phillips S, Sar M, Foster P, Gaido K. Dose-dependent alterations in gene expression and testosterone synthesis in the fetal testes of male rats exposed to di (n-butyl) phthalate. Toxicol Sci. 2004;81:60-8 pubmed
    ..Alterations in gene and protein expression and testosterone synthesis may serve as sensitive indicators of testicular response to DBP. ..
  36. Kim M, Song K, Park G, Chang S, Kim H, Park J, et al. B6C3F1 mice exposed to ozone with 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and/or dibutyl phthalate showed toxicities through alterations of NF-kappaB, AP-1, Nrf2, and osteopontin. J Vet Sci. 2004;5:131-7 pubmed
    Toxic effects of ozone, 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3- pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and/or dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were examined through NF-kappaB, AP-1, Nrf2, and osteopontin (OPN) in lungs and livers of B6C3F1 mice...
  37. Ferrara D, Hallmark N, Scott H, Brown R, McKinnell C, Mahood I, et al. Acute and long-term effects of in utero exposure of rats to di(n-butyl) phthalate on testicular germ cell development and proliferation. Endocrinology. 2006;147:5352-62 pubmed
    ..5 to e20.5, but did not reduce GC numbers on d 4. In conclusion, fetal DBP exposure delays normal GC development in both fetal (as early as e15.5) and postnatal life with the possibility of consequences for fertility. ..
  38. Plummer S, Sharpe R, Hallmark N, Mahood I, Elcombe C. Time-dependent and compartment-specific effects of in utero exposure to Di(n-butyl) phthalate on gene/protein expression in the fetal rat testis as revealed by transcription profiling and laser capture microdissection. Toxicol Sci. 2007;97:520-32 pubmed
    ..The observed gene expression changes, and their compartmentalization, suggest a possible role for peroxisome proliferator-mediated alteration of cofactor availability as a mechanism underlying DBP-induced Leydig cell dysfunction. ..
  39. McKinnell C, Sharpe R, Mahood K, Hallmark N, Scott H, Ivell R, et al. Expression of insulin-like factor 3 protein in the rat testis during fetal and postnatal development and in relation to cryptorchidism induced by in utero exposure to di (n-Butyl) phthalate. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4536-44 pubmed
  40. Yuan S, Huang I, Chang B. Biodegradation of dibutyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and microbial community changes in mangrove sediment. J Hazard Mater. 2010;184:826-31 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we investigated the microbial degradation of the phthalate esters (PAEs) dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and change in microbial communities in mangrove sediment collected from 5 sampling ..
  41. Wu X, Wang Y, Liang R, Dai Q, Chao W. Degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by newly isolated Ochrobactrum sp. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;85:235-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased DBP (50-500 mg/L) in the culture correspondingly increased degradation half-life from 3.83 to 18.12 h. DBP induced cells more rapidly degraded DBP...
  42. Kleymenova E, Swanson C, Boekelheide K, Gaido K. Exposure in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate alters the vimentin cytoskeleton of fetal rat Sertoli cells and disrupts Sertoli cell-gonocyte contact. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:482-90 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that fetal Sertoli cells are targeted by exposure in utero to DBP and suggest that abnormal interactions between Sertoli and germ cells during fetal life play a role in the development of MNG. ..
  43. Kim S, Kim S, Kwon O, Sohn K, Kwack S, Choi Y, et al. Effects of dibutyl phthalate and monobutyl phthalate on cytotoxicity and differentiation in cultured rat embryonic limb bud cells; protection by antioxidants. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002;65:461-72 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that DBP and MBuP induced developmental toxicity in rat embryonic limb bud cells and suggest that this effect of DBP might be exerted through oxidative stress. ..
  44. Larson R, Zimmerli S, Comeau M, Itano A, Omori M, Iseki M, et al. Dibutyl phthalate-induced thymic stromal lymphopoietin is required for Th2 contact hypersensitivity responses. J Immunol. 2010;184:2974-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of Th2-type contact hypersensitivity induced by the hapten FITC in combination with the sensitizing agent dibutyl phthalate. TSLPR-deficient mice exhibited a dramatically reduced response, including markedly reduced local ..
  45. Lee S, Owens G, Veeramachaneni D. Exposure to low concentrations of di-n-butyl phthalate during embryogenesis reduces survivability and impairs development of Xenopus laevis frogs. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005;68:763-72 pubmed
    ..The average length of embryos was significantly lower in all DBP treatment groups. Thus, DBP significantly affected development of Xenopus embryos at low, environmentally relevant concentrations. ..
  46. Jin D, Liang R, Dai Q, Zhang R, Wu X, Chao W. Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by Rhodococcus sp. JDC-11 and molecular detection of 3, 4-phthalate dioxygenase gene. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;20:1440-5 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis revealed that the phthalate dioxygenase gene of JDC-11 was highly homologous to the large subunit of phthalate dioxygenase from Rhodococcus coprophilus strain G9...
  47. Carruthers C, Foster P. Critical window of male reproductive tract development in rats following gestational exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2005;74:277-85 pubmed
    ..This study was conducted to identify the critical days for the abnormal development of the male reproductive tract, specifically the testis and epididymis...
  48. Shultz V, Phillips S, Sar M, Foster P, Gaido K. Altered gene profiles in fetal rat testes after in utero exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate. Toxicol Sci. 2001;64:233-42 pubmed
    ..Future studies will explore the link between these identified gene expression alterations and ultimate adverse responses. ..
  49. Janjua N, Mortensen G, Andersson A, Kongshoj B, Skakkebaek N, Wulf H. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:5564-70 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous reproductive and thyroid ..
  50. Shen O, Du G, Sun H, Wu W, Jiang Y, Song L, et al. Comparison of in vitro hormone activities of selected phthalates using reporter gene assays. Toxicol Lett. 2009;191:9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The hormone activity of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were assessed using the luciferase ..
  51. Johnson K, Hensley J, Kelso M, Wallace D, Gaido K. Mapping gene expression changes in the fetal rat testis following acute dibutyl phthalate exposure defines a complex temporal cascade of responding cell types. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:978-89 pubmed
    ..Here, our goals were to discover a set of biomarker genes that respond early after relatively low-dose-level dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure and map the responding testicular cell types...
  52. Li N, Wang D, Zhou Y, Ma M, Li J, Wang Z. Dibutyl phthalate contributes to the thyroid receptor antagonistic activity in drinking water processes. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:6863-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the TEQ approach, it was revealed that dibutyl phthalate (DBP) accounted for 53.7+/-8.2% to 105.5+/-16.7% of TEQbio...
  53. Barlow N, McIntyre B, Foster P. Male reproductive tract lesions at 6, 12, and 18 months of age following in utero exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate. Toxicol Pathol. 2004;32:79-90 pubmed
    ..While the morphology and incidence of this DBP-induced testicular developmental lesion has been fully characterized by this study, the detailed pathogenesis warrants further investigation. ..
  54. Lehner K, Santarelli F, Vasold R, Konig B, Landthaler M, Bäumler W. Black tattoo inks are a source of problematic substances such as dibutyl phthalate. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;65:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis revealed that all inks contained the softener substance dibutyl phthalate (0.12-691.2 µg/g). Some of the inks contained hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (0.08-4.52 µg/g), metheneamine (0...
  55. Thompson C, Ross S, Hensley J, Liu K, Heinze S, Young S, et al. Differential steroidogenic gene expression in the fetal adrenal gland versus the testis and rapid and dynamic response of the fetal testis to di(n-butyl) phthalate. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:908-17 pubmed
  56. Higuchi T, Palmer J, Gray L, Veeramachaneni D. Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or postpubertal exposure. Toxicol Sci. 2003;72:301-13 pubmed
    We evaluated sequelae in male rabbits following exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at a dose level known to adversely affect testicular function in rodents without causing systemic toxicity...
  57. Mahood I, McKinnell C, Walker M, Hallmark N, Scott H, Fisher J, et al. Cellular origins of testicular dysgenesis in rats exposed in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate. Int J Androl. 2006;29:148-54; discussion 181-5 pubmed
    ..It is therefore concluded that the ITLCs are bona fide LCs that are abnormally located within the seminiferous tubules of DBP-exposed rats in post-natal life. ..
  58. Hoppin J. Male reproductive effects of phthalates: an emerging picture. Epidemiology. 2003;14:259-60 pubmed
  59. Thompson C, Ross S, Gaido K. Di(n-butyl) phthalate impairs cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis in the fetal rat testis through a rapid and reversible mechanism. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1227-37 pubmed
  60. Roy R, Laskar S, Sen S. Dibutyl phthalate, the bioactive compound produced by Streptomyces albidoflavus 321.2. Microbiol Res. 2006;161:121-6 pubmed
    It was found that the bioactive compound, dibutyl phthalate, was produced by a new soil isolate Streptomyces albidoflavus 321.2...
  61. Wilson V, Lambright C, Furr J, Ostby J, Wood C, Held G, et al. Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular lesions are associated with reduced insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis. Toxicol Lett. 2004;146:207-15 pubmed
    ..Three phthalates, di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) were administered orally to the dam on gestation day 14 through 18 (..
  62. Dobrzyńska M, Tyrkiel E, Pachocki K. Developmental toxicity in mice following paternal exposure to Di-N-butyl-phthalate (DBP). Biomed Environ Sci. 2011;24:569-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Paternal DBP exposure may disturb the sex ratio of the offspring, delay female sexual maturation, and deteriorate the sperm quality of F1 generation males. ..
  63. Masuo Y, Morita M, Oka S, Ishido M. Motor hyperactivity caused by a deficit in dopaminergic neurons and the effects of endocrine disruptors: a study inspired by the physiological roles of PACAP in the brain. Regul Pept. 2004;123:225-34 pubmed
    ..after treatment with endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A, nonylphenol, diethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate, during both dark and light phases...