phthalic acids


Summary: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Hernandez diaz S, Su Y, Mitchell A, Kelley K, Calafat A, Hauser R. Medications as a potential source of exposure to phthalates among women of childbearing age. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;37:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..2?g/L). Neither the three additional Prilosec(®) (omeprazole) users nor one cyclobenzaprine user had higher urinary concentration than controls. Selected medications may be important sources of DBP and DEP exposures around conception. ..
  2. Frederiksen H, Kranich S, Jørgensen N, Taboureau O, Petersen J, Andersson A. Temporal variability in urinary phthalate metabolite excretion based on spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples: considerations for epidemiological studies. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:958-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The only slightly higher ICCs for 24-h pools compared to first-morning and spot urine samples does not seem to justify the extra effort needed to collect 24-h pools. ..
  3. Bradley E, Burden R, Leon I, Mortimer D, Speck D, Castle L. Determination of phthalate diesters in foods. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30:722-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies confirmed that, for some foodstuffs, packaging materials did contribute to the phthalate diester concentration in the foodstuff and one example is presented. ..
  4. Specht I, Toft G, Hougaard K, Lindh C, Lenters V, Jonsson B, et al. Associations between serum phthalates and biomarkers of reproductive function in 589 adult men. Environ Int. 2014;66:146-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Metabolic pathways differed significantly between the three study sites, but without major effect on semen quality or reproductive hormones. ..
  5. Trasande L, Attinà T, Sathyanarayana S, Spanier A, Blustein J. Race/ethnicity-specific associations of urinary phthalates with childhood body mass in a nationally representative sample. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study is needed to corroborate the association and evaluate genetic/epigenomic predisposition and/or increased phthalate exposure as possible explanations for differences among racial/ethnic subgroups. ..
  6. Hsieh T, Tsai C, Hsu C, Kuo P, Hsi E, Suen J, et al. n-Butyl benzyl phthalate promotes breast cancer progression by inducing expression of lymphoid enhancer factor 1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42750 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the environmental hormone BBP and suggest possible strategies for preventing and treating human breast cancer. ..
  7. Clewell R, Thomas A, Willson G, Creasy D, Andersen M. A dose response study to assess effects after dietary administration of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in gestation and lactation on male rat sexual development. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;35:70-80 pubmed publisher
    ..DiNP did not alter AGD, nipple retention or reproductive tract malformations on PND 49. Global endpoint analysis showed no evidence of a rat "phthalate syndrome" on PND 49 with DiNP administration. ..
  8. Wang J, Luo Y, Teng Y, Ma W, Christie P, Li Z. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film. Environ Pollut. 2013;180:265-73 pubmed publisher
  9. Tyrrell J, Melzer D, Henley W, Galloway T, Osborne N. Associations between socioeconomic status and environmental toxicant concentrations in adults in the USA: NHANES 2001-2010. Environ Int. 2013;59:328-35 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. James Todd T, Stahlhut R, Meeker J, Powell S, Hauser R, Huang T, et al. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and diabetes among women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:1307-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Future prospective studies are needed to further explore these associations to determine whether phthalate exposure can alter glucose metabolism and increase the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes. ..
  2. Braun J, Sathyanarayana S, Hauser R. Phthalate exposure and children's health. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013;25:247-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Although anticipatory guidance is not evidence-based at this time, providers can counsel concerned patients to reduce phthalate exposures in order to protect the developing fetus and child from potential adverse health outcomes. ..
  3. Enke U, Schleussner E, Pälmke C, Seyfarth L, Koch H. Phthalate exposure in pregnant women and newborns - the urinary metabolite excretion pattern differs distinctly. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013;216:735-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The skewed metabolite distribution in the newborns urine warrants further investigation in terms of early phthalate metabolism, the quantity of internal phthalate exposure of the fetus/newborn and its possible health effects. ..
  4. Buck Louis G, Peterson C, Chen Z, Croughan M, Sundaram R, Stanford J, et al. Bisphenol A and phthalates and endometriosis: the Endometriosis: Natural History, Diagnosis and Outcomes Study. Fertil Steril. 2013;100:162-9.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of consistency of findings across cohorts underscores the impact of methodology on findings. ..
  5. Trasande L, Sathyanarayana S, Jo Messito M, S Gross R, Attinà T, Mendelsohn A. Phthalates and the diets of U.S. children and adolescents. Environ Res. 2013;126:84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study is needed to examine the implications of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate exposure, especially earlier in life, when more permanent metabolic changes may occur. ..
  6. Buck Louis G, Sundaram R, Sweeney A, Schisterman E, Maisog J, Kannan K. Urinary bisphenol A, phthalates, and couple fecundity: the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study. Fertil Steril. 2014;101:1359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..65 0.92, respectively). Select male but not female phthalate exposures were associated with an approximately 20% reduction in fecundity, underscoring the importance of assessing both partners' exposure to minimize erroneous conclusions. ..
  7. Bertelsen R, Carlsen K, Calafat A, Hoppin J, Håland G, Mowinckel P, et al. Urinary biomarkers for phthalates associated with asthma in Norwegian children. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:251-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the short biological half-life of the phthalates and the cross-sectional design, our findings should be interpreted cautiously. ..
  8. Just A, Whyatt R, Miller R, Rundle A, Chen Q, Calafat A, et al. Children's urinary phthalate metabolites and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in an urban cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:830-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations between children's phthalate exposures and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Fe(NO)), a biomarker of airway inflammation, have not been examined...
  9. Parlett L, Calafat A, Swan S. Women's exposure to phthalates in relation to use of personal care products. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2013;23:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..PCP use was widespread in this group of recently pregnant women. Women's use of PCPs, particularly of perfumes and fragranced products, was positively associated with urinary concentration of multiple phthalate metabolites. ..
  10. Lewis R, Meeker J, Peterson K, Lee J, Pace G, Cantoral A, et al. Predictors of urinary bisphenol A and phthalate metabolite concentrations in Mexican children. Chemosphere. 2013;93:2390-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to rapid development, children may be susceptible to impacts from exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals; thus, reduced or delayed use of certain personal care products among children may be warranted. ..
  11. Townsend M, Franke A, Li X, Hu F, Eliassen A. Within-person reproducibility of urinary bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites over a 1 to 3 year period among women in the Nurses' Health Studies: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health. 2013;12:80 pubmed publisher
  12. Sathyanarayana S, Alcedo G, Saelens B, Zhou C, Dills R, Yu J, et al. Unexpected results in a randomized dietary trial to reduce phthalate and bisphenol A exposures. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2013;23:378-84 pubmed publisher
  13. Ferguson K, McElrath T, Meeker J. Environmental phthalate exposure and preterm birth. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168:61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have significantly increased odds of delivering preterm. Steps should be taken to decrease maternal exposure to phthalates during pregnancy. ..
  14. Just A, Adibi J, Rundle A, Calafat A, Camann D, Hauser R, et al. Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York city. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2010;20:625-33 pubmed publisher
    ..05), but was not associated with perfume use. Air DEP was correlated with urine MEP concentrations only among non-perfume users (r=0.51, P<0.001). Results suggest that perfume use is a significant source of DEP exposure. ..
  15. Chi J. Phthalate acid esters in Potamogeton crispus L. from Haihe River, China. Chemosphere. 2009;77:48-52 pubmed publisher
  16. Adibi J, Hauser R, Williams P, Whyatt R, Thaker H, Nelson H, et al. Placental biomarkers of phthalate effects on mRNA transcription: application in epidemiologic research. Environ Health. 2009;8:20 pubmed publisher
    ..Sampling scheme, selection of an appropriate internal control and the timing of sample collection relative to delivery can be optimized to minimize within-placenta and other sources of underlying, non-etiologic variability. ..
  17. Casas L, Fernandez M, Llop S, Guxens M, Ballester F, Olea N, et al. Urinary concentrations of phthalates and phenols in a population of Spanish pregnant women and children. Environ Int. 2011;37:858-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Phthalate and phenol exposures are prevalent in a group of pregnant women and young children, two susceptible populations, and these exposures might be positively related to social class. ..
  18. Ye X, Pierik F, Hauser R, Duty S, Angerer J, Park M, et al. Urinary metabolite concentrations of organophosphorous pesticides, bisphenol A, and phthalates among pregnant women in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: the Generation R study. Environ Res. 2008;108:260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that the Generation R study population provides a wide distribution of selected environmental exposures. Reasons for the relatively high levels and possible health effects need investigation. ..
  19. Brar S, Verma M, Tyagi R, Valero J, Surampalli R. Concurrent degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) during production of Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticides. J Hazard Mater. 2009;171:1016-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Btk produces panoply of enzyme systems which can assist in degradation of DMP. ..
  20. Ferguson K, Loch Caruso R, Meeker J. Exploration of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in relation to urinary phthalate metabolites: NHANES 1999-2006. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:477-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These markers may be useful in other studies of low-dose exposure to environmental contaminants. ..
  21. Martina C, Weiss B, Swan S. Lifestyle behaviors associated with exposures to endocrine disruptors. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:1427-33 pubmed publisher
  22. Jurewicz J, Hanke W. Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. A review of epidemiological studies. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2011;24:115-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiologic data is urgently needed and, in the meantime, precautionary policies must be implemented. ..
  23. Cho W, Han B, Ahn B, Nam K, Choi M, Oh S, et al. Peroxisome proliferator di-isodecyl phthalate has no carcinogenic potential in Fischer 344 rats. Toxicol Lett. 2008;178:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the non-carcinogenicity of DIDP in F344 rats was due to its limited potential for peroxisomal proliferating activity. ..
  24. Lin S, Ku H, Su P, Chen J, Huang P, Angerer J, et al. Phthalate exposure in pregnant women and their children in central Taiwan. Chemosphere. 2011;82:947-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of phthalate metabolites in milk and cord blood were comparable to those found in other populations. Further studies of health effects related to DEHP and DiNP exposure are necessary for the children. ..
  25. Swan S, Liu F, Hines M, Kruse R, Wang C, Redmon J, et al. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys. Int J Androl. 2010;33:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that these ubiquitous environmental chemicals have the potential to alter androgen-responsive brain development in humans. ..
  26. Boberg J, Christiansen S, Axelstad M, Kledal T, Vinggaard A, Dalgaard M, et al. Reproductive and behavioral effects of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in perinatally exposed rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31:200-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that DINP causes anti-androgenic effects on reproductive development, though less potent than DEHP, DBP and BBP, and further safety evaluation of DINP appears warranted. ..
  27. Guo Y, Alomirah H, Cho H, Minh T, Mohd M, Nakata H, et al. Occurrence of phthalate metabolites in human urine from several Asian countries. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:3138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The estimated exposure doses to DEHP in Kuwait, however, were above the RfD recommended by the EPA. ..
  28. Hogberg J, Hanberg A, Berglund M, Skerfving S, Remberger M, Calafat A, et al. Phthalate diesters and their metabolites in human breast milk, blood or serum, and urine as biomarkers of exposure in vulnerable populations. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:334-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although urine is a suitable matrix for health-related phthalate monitoring, urinary concentrations in nursing mothers cannot be used to estimate exposure to phthalates through milk ingestion by breast-fed infants. ..
  29. Carlstedt F, Jönsson B, Bornehag C. PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants. Indoor Air. 2013;23:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This new information should be considered when designing indoor environment, especially for children. ..
  30. Meeker J, Calafat A, Hauser R. Urinary phthalate metabolites and their biotransformation products: predictors and temporal variability among men and women. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012;22:376-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, the proportion of DEHP metabolites contributed to by MEHP was more stable within individuals over time and may be a promising indicator of susceptibility if time of day of sample collection is carefully considered. ..
  31. Meeker J, Ferguson K. Relationship between urinary phthalate and bisphenol A concentrations and serum thyroid measures in U.S. adults and adolescents from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..More detailed studies are needed to determine the temporal relationships and potential clinical and public health implications of these associations. ..
  32. Moral R, Wang R, Russo I, Mailo D, Lamartiniere C, Russo J. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:453 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland. ..
  33. Irvin E, Calafat A, Silva M, Aguilar Villalobos M, Needham L, Hall D, et al. An estimate of phthalate exposure among pregnant women living in Trujillo, Peru. Chemosphere. 2010;80:1301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Five of nine unadjusted urinary metabolites and four of nine creatinine-adjusted urinary metabolites were significantly lower in this group of pregnant women living in Peru compared to pregnant women in the US general population. ..
  34. Meeker J, Hu H, Cantonwine D, Lamadrid Figueroa H, Calafat A, Ettinger A, et al. Urinary phthalate metabolites in relation to preterm birth in Mexico city. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1587-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that phthalate exposure is prevalent among this group of pregnant women in Mexico and that some phthalates may be associated with preterm birth. ..
  35. Hsu N, Lee C, Wang J, Li Y, Chang H, Chen C, et al. Predicted risk of childhood allergy, asthma, and reported symptoms using measured phthalate exposure in dust and urine. Indoor Air. 2012;22:186-99 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also recognized that multidisciplinary efforts will be critical in realizing the true underlying mechanisms associated with these observations. ..
  36. Guo Y, Wu Q, Kannan K. Phthalate metabolites in urine from China, and implications for human exposures. Environ Int. 2011;37:893-8 pubmed publisher
    ..S. Environmental Protection Agency. ..
  37. Xu X, Li S, Li X, Gu J, Chen F, Li X, et al. Degradation of n-butyl benzyl phthalate using TiO2/UV. J Hazard Mater. 2009;164:527-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The major intermediates of BBP degradation were identified as mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate and phthalic acid, and a primary degradation mechanism was proposed. ..
  38. Dodson R, Nishioka M, Standley L, Perovich L, Brody J, Rudel R. Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:935-43 pubmed publisher
    ..More complete product labeling would enable consumers to avoid the rest of the target chemicals. ..
  39. Frederiksen H, Aksglaede L, Sorensen K, Skakkebaek N, Juul A, Andersson A. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents: estimation of daily phthalate intake. Environ Res. 2011;111:656-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined exposure to the two isoforms of DBP, which have similar endocrine-disrupting potencies in animal models, exceeded the TDI for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) in several of the younger children. ..
  40. Clewell R, Kremer J, Williams C, Campbell J, Andersen M, Borghoff S. Tissue exposures to free and glucuronidated monobutylyphthalate in the pregnant and fetal rat following exposure to di-n-butylphthalate: evaluation with a PBPK model. Toxicol Sci. 2008;103:241-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidative metabolism plays a significant role in elimination only at low doses (< 50 mg/kg DBP). Insights gained from modeling of the rat data will be used to support development of a human PBPK model for DBP. ..
  41. Calafat A, Wong L, Silva M, Samandar E, Preau J, Jia L, et al. Selecting adequate exposure biomarkers of diisononyl and diisodecyl phthalates: data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:50-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous NHANES cycles, the occurrence of human exposure to DINP by using MNP as the sole urinary biomarker has been underestimated, thus illustrating the importance of selecting the most adequate biomarkers for exposure assessment. ..
  42. Swan S. Environmental phthalate exposure in relation to reproductive outcomes and other health endpoints in humans. Environ Res. 2008;108:177-84 pubmed
    ..Replication of the results described here and further mechanistic studies are needed to strengthen links between phthalates and adverse health outcomes. ..
  43. Chatterjee S, Dutta T. Metabolic cooperation of Gordonia sp. strain MTCC 4818 and Arthrobacter sp. strain WY in the utilization of butyl benzyl phthalate: effect of a novel co-culture in the degradation of a mixture of phthalates. Microbiology. 2008;154:3338-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The versatility of the co-culture was further established by the rapid and complete degradation of a mixture of phthalate esters of environmental concern...
  44. Ye X, Pierik F, Angerer J, Meltzer H, Jaddoe V, Tiemeier H, et al. Levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A in pooled urine specimens from pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2009;212:481-91 pubmed publisher
  45. Wang P, Wang S, Fan C. Atmospheric distribution of particulate- and gas-phase phthalic esters (PAEs) in a Metropolitan City, Nanjing, East China. Chemosphere. 2008;72:1567-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The Sigma(6)PAE levels in the urban area are approximately 3.5 times as high as the levels found at the suburban station. The vertical profiles from 1.5 to 30.0m above the ground display slight height dependence. ..
  46. Janjua N, Frederiksen H, Skakkebaek N, Wulf H, Andersson A. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans. Int J Androl. 2008;31:118-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because of a faster absorption rate for DEP. ..
  47. Fierens T, Servaes K, Van Holderbeke M, Geerts L, De Henauw S, Sioen I, et al. Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:2575-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market. ..
  48. Kelley K, Hernandez diaz S, Chaplin E, Hauser R, Mitchell A. Identification of phthalates in medications and dietary supplement formulations in the United States and Canada. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential effects of human exposure to these phthalates through medications are unknown and warrant further investigation. ..
  49. Chou K, Wright R. Phthalates in food and medical devices. J Med Toxicol. 2006;2:126-35 pubmed
  50. Sabbieti M, Agas D, Santoni G, Materazzi S, Menghi G, Marchetti L. Involvement of p53 in phthalate effects on mouse and rat osteoblasts. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:316-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data demonstrated that phthalates induce osteoblast apoptosis, which is, at least in part, mediated by p53 activation, suggesting that the proliferative effects could be due to p53 missing activation or p53 mutation. ..
  51. Oehlmann J, Schulte Oehlmann U, Kloas W, Jagnytsch O, Lutz I, Kusk K, et al. A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:2047-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the hazard of plasticizers has been investigated in annelids, molluscs and arthropods only, and given the sensitivity of some invertebrates, effects assessments are warranted in other invertebrate phyla. ..
  52. Koch H, Wittassek M, Bruning T, Angerer J, Heudorf U. Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2011;214:188-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach. ..
  53. Rider C, Wilson V, Howdeshell K, Hotchkiss A, Furr J, Lambright C, et al. Cumulative effects of in utero administration of mixtures of "antiandrogens" on male rat reproductive development. Toxicol Pathol. 2009;37:100-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the complex mixture behaved in a dose-additive manner. Our results indicate that compounds that act by disparate mechanisms of toxicity display cumulative, dose-additive effects when present in combination. ..
  54. Gray L, Barlow N, Howdeshell K, Ostby J, Furr J, Gray C. Transgenerational effects of Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in the male CRL:CD(SD) rat: added value of assessing multiple offspring per litter. Toxicol Sci. 2009;110:411-25 pubmed publisher
  55. Hannas B, Lambright C, Furr J, Howdeshell K, Wilson V, Gray L. Dose-response assessment of fetal testosterone production and gene expression levels in rat testes following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate. Toxicol Sci. 2011;123:206-16 pubmed publisher
  56. Sathyanarayana S. Phthalates and children's health. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2008;38:34-49 pubmed publisher
  57. Hatch E, Nelson J, Qureshi M, Weinberg J, Moore L, Singer M, et al. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999-2002. Environ Health. 2008;7:27 pubmed publisher
    ..Although our study has limitations, both of these factors could explain some of the variation in the observed associations. These preliminary data support the need for prospective studies in populations at risk for obesity. ..
  58. Colacino J, Harris T, Schecter A. Dietary intake is associated with phthalate body burden in a nationally representative sample. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:998-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to determine the sources of food contamination with these toxic chemicals and to describe the levels of contamination of U.S. food in a large, representative U.S. sample. ..
  59. Berman T, Hochner Celnikier D, Calafat A, Needham L, Amitai Y, Wormser U, et al. Phthalate exposure among pregnant women in Jerusalem, Israel: results of a pilot study. Environ Int. 2009;35:353-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Building materials used in old constructions may be a source of exposure to benzylbutyl phthalate, the parent compound of MBzP. Personal care products may be sources of exposure to diethyl phthalate, the parent compound of MEP. ..
  60. Cao X. Determination of phthalates and adipate in bottled water by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1178:231-8 pubmed
    ..DMP, DHP, BBP, DEHA and DOP were not detected in any samples. Concentrations of the other phthalates were low (around sub-ppb) except for DBP in the water from a polycarbonate bottle at 1.72 microg L(-1). ..
  61. Hu G, Lian Q, Ge R, Hardy D, Li X. Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2009;20:139-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This review also focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of how Leydig cell factors contribute to phthalate-mediated TDS. ..
  62. Philippat C, Mortamais M, Chevrier C, Petit C, Calafat A, Ye X, et al. Exposure to phthalates and phenols during pregnancy and offspring size at birth. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:464-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with findings of a previous study, we observed evidence of an inverse association of 2,5-DCP and a positive association of BP3 with male birth weight. ..
  63. Suzuki Y, Niwa M, Yoshinaga J, Mizumoto Y, Serizawa S, Shiraishi H. Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and PAHs and birth outcomes. Environ Int. 2010;36:699-704 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we found that prenatal exposure to phthalate esters or PAHs did not affect birth outcomes at the exposure level of the present subjects. ..
  64. Guo Y, Kannan K. Challenges encountered in the analysis of phthalate esters in foodstuffs and other biological matrices. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;404:2539-54 pubmed publisher
  65. Svensson K, Hernandez Ramirez R, Burguete García A, Cebrian M, Calafat A, Needham L, et al. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women. Environ Res. 2011;111:792-6 pubmed publisher
    ..33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR(T3 vs. T1)=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. ..
  66. Chen H, Chiang P, Wang Y, Kao M, Shieh T, Tsai C, et al. Benzyl butyl phthalate induces necrosis by AhR mediation of CYP1B1 expression in human granulosa cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Necrosis was significantly increased in HO23 cells after BBP treatment, and 3',4'-DMF, AhR siRNA or CYP1B1 siRNA knockdown blocked this phenomenon. These data suggest that BBP-induced HO23 cell necrosis is AhR and CYP1B1 dependent. ..
  67. Larsson M, Hagerhed Engman L, Kolarik B, James P, Lundin F, Janson S, et al. PVC--as flooring material--and its association with incident asthma in a Swedish child cohort study. Indoor Air. 2010;20:494-501 pubmed publisher
    ..This emphasizes the need for prospective studies that focus on the importance of prenatal and neonatal exposure to phthalates in the development of asthma and allergy in children. ..
  68. Samandar E, Silva M, Reidy J, Needham L, Calafat A. Temporal stability of eight phthalate metabolites and their glucuronide conjugates in human urine. Environ Res. 2009;109:641-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we recommend transferring urine specimens to a cooler or a refrigerator immediately after collection followed by permanent storage at subfreezing temperatures within hours of sample collection. ..
  69. Scott H, Mason J, Sharpe R. Steroidogenesis in the fetal testis and its susceptibility to disruption by exogenous compounds. Endocr Rev. 2009;30:883-925 pubmed publisher
    ..This comparison identifies steroidogenic targets that are either vulnerable (mitochondrial cholesterol transport, CYP11A, CYP17) or not (cholesterol uptake) to chemical interference. ..
  70. Kim B, Cho S, Kim Y, Shin M, Yoo H, Kim J, et al. Phthalates exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in school-age children. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:958-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study showed a strong positive association between phthalate metabolites in urine and symptoms of ADHD among school-age children. ..
  71. Søeborg T, Frederiksen H, Andersson A. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach. Int J Androl. 2012;35:245-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ?DBP((i+n)) as the compound(s) associated with the greatest risk, while DEHP is the compound associated with the greatest risk when using the RfD AA approach. ..
  72. Saillenfait A, Gallissot F, Sabaté J. Differential developmental toxicities of di-n-hexyl phthalate and dicyclohexyl phthalate administered orally to rats. J Appl Toxicol. 2009;29:510-21 pubmed publisher
    ..There was evidence that both phthalates could alter the development of the male reproductive system after in utero exposure, DnHP being much more potent than DCHP. ..
  73. Huang P, Tsai E, Li W, Liao P, Chung M, Wang Y, et al. Association between phthalate exposure and glutathione S-transferase M1 polymorphism in adenomyosis, leiomyoma and endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:986-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a case-control study to determine whether estrogen-dependent diseases are associated with phthalate exposure and how the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1; a major detoxification enzyme) genotype modulates the risk...
  74. Seckin E, Fromme H, Völkel W. Determination of total and free mono-n-butyl phthalate in human urine samples after medication of a di-n-butyl phthalate containing capsule. Toxicol Lett. 2009;188:33-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Since an uptake of 3600 microg in only one capsule is already above the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP of 10 microg/kg b.w. from a preventive health protection DnBP should be replaced in medical drugs. ..
  75. Becker K, Göen T, Seiwert M, Conrad A, Pick Fuss H, Muller J, et al. GerES IV: phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine of German children. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2009;212:685-92 pubmed publisher
    ..7microg/l. A rough calculation of the daily intakes on the basis of the measured concentrations in urine resulted in daily intakes two orders of magnitude lower than the current EFSA reference dose of 50microg/kgbw/d. ..
  76. Lyche J, Gutleb A, Bergman A, Eriksen G, Murk A, Ropstad E, et al. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of phthalates. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2009;12:225-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is concluded that it is important to improve the knowledge of toxic interactions among the different chemicals and to develop measures for combined exposure to various groups of phthalates. ..
  77. Rider C, Furr J, Wilson V, Gray L. Cumulative effects of in utero administration of mixtures of reproductive toxicants that disrupt common target tissues via diverse mechanisms of toxicity. Int J Androl. 2010;33:443-62 pubmed publisher
  78. Rudel R, Dodson R, Perovich L, Morello Frosch R, Camann D, Zuniga M, et al. Semivolatile endocrine-disrupting compounds in paired indoor and outdoor air in two northern California communities. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:6583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..2-0.6, p<0.05), indicating possible shared sources and highlighting the importance of considering mixtures in health studies. ..
  79. Zhou J, Cai Z, Xing K. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. Environ Pollut. 2011;159:1114-22 pubmed publisher
  80. Kim Y, Ha E, Kim E, Park H, Ha M, Kim J, et al. Prenatal exposure to phthalates and infant development at 6 months: prospective Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1495-500 pubmed publisher
    ..25; CI, -2.40 to -0.11). No significant linear associations were observed for females. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may be inversely associated with the MDI and PDI of infants, particularly males, at 6 months. ..
  81. Kamrin M. Phthalate risks, phthalate regulation, and public health: a review. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2009;12:157-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the scientific evidence strongly suggests that risks to humans are low, phthalate regulations that have been enacted are unlikely to lead to any marked improvement in public health. ..
  82. Crinnion W. Toxic effects of the easily avoidable phthalates and parabens. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15:190-6 pubmed
    ..Their estrogenicity and tissue presence are a cause for concern regarding breast cancer. Fortunately, these compounds are relatively easy to avoid and such steps can result in dramatic reductions of urinary levels of these compounds. ..