Summary: Derivatives of 3-phenylpropionic acid, including its salts and esters.

Top Publications

  1. Son M, Rico C, Nam S, Kang M. Effect of oryzanol and ferulic acid on the glucose metabolism of mice fed with a high-fat diet. J Food Sci. 2011;76:H7-H10 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study illustrate that both oryzanol and ferulic acid could reduce the risk of high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia via regulation of insulin secretion and hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities. ..
  2. Leow D, Li G, Mei T, Yu J. Activation of remote meta-C-H bonds assisted by an end-on template. Nature. 2012;486:518-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this template overrides the intrinsic electronic and steric biases as well as ortho-directing effects with two broadly useful classes of arene substrates (toluene derivatives and hydrocinnamic acids). ..
  3. Weber M, Black H, Bakris G, Krum H, Linas S, Weiss R, et al. A selective endothelin-receptor antagonist to reduce blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;374:1423-31 pubmed publisher
    ..As with other vasodilatory drugs, fluid management with effective diuretic therapy might be needed. Gilead Sciences. ..
  4. Christiansen E, Urban C, Grundmann M, Due Hansen M, Hagesaether E, Schmidt J, et al. Identification of a potent and selective free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) agonist with favorable physicochemical and in vitro ADME properties. J Med Chem. 2011;54:6691-703 pubmed publisher
  5. Kingman M, Ruggiero R, Torres F. Ambrisentan, an endothelin receptor type A-selective endothelin receptor antagonist, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10:1847-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these data, the FDA requires monthly liver function tests monitoring. As with other ERAs, monthly pregnancy testing is required in all women of child bearing potential. ..
  6. Navarre D, Payyavula R, Shakya R, Knowles N, Pillai S. Changes in potato phenylpropanoid metabolism during tuber development. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013;65:89-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes in phenylpropanoid expression suggest the nutritional value of potatoes varies during development. ..
  7. Demont Caulet N, Lapierre C, Jouanin L, Baumberger S, Méchin V. Arabidopsis peroxidase-catalyzed copolymerization of coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols: kinetics of an endwise process. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:1673-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is particularly relevant to understand the impact of S units on lignin structure in plants and to identify the key step at which this structure is programmed. ..
  8. Jacoby J, Erez B, Korshunova M, Williams R, Furutani K, Takahashi O, et al. Treatment with HIF-1alpha antagonist PX-478 inhibits progression and spread of orthotopic human small cell lung cancer and lung adenocarcinoma in mice. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:940-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the inclusion of lung cancer patients in phase I clinical trials of PX-478. ..
  9. Park J, Park N, Xu H, Park S. Cloning and characterization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and pyranocoumarin biosynthesis in Angelica gigas. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1394-7 pubmed publisher
    ..gigas. Similarly, the production of 1 and 2 was most prolific in the fine roots of the plant. ..

More Information


  1. Choi S, Cha B, Iida K, Lee Y, Yonezawa T, Teruya T, et al. Artepillin C, as a PPAR? ligand, enhances adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;81:925-33 pubmed publisher
  2. de Azevedo Bentes Monteiro Neto M, de Souza Lima I, Furtado R, Bastos J, da Silva Filho A, Tavares D. Antigenotoxicity of artepillin C in vivo evaluated by the micronucleus and comet assays. J Appl Toxicol. 2011;31:714-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Regarding antigenotoxicity, artepillin C at the tested doses significantly reduced the extent of DNA damage in liver cells induced by MMS. ..
  3. Lee K, Kim H. A novel approach to cancer therapy using PX-478 as a HIF-1? inhibitor. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:1583-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides a review of PX-478 as the first novel HIF-1? inhibitor in clinical stage for the treatment of solid tumors. ..
  4. Wang D, Engle K, Shi B, Yu J. Ligand-enabled reactivity and selectivity in a synthetically versatile aryl C-H olefination. Science. 2010;327:315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate the versatility of the method through direct elaboration of commercial drug scaffolds and efficient syntheses of 2-tetralone and naphthoic acid natural product cores. ..
  5. Payyavula R, Navarre D, Kuhl J, Pantoja A, Pillai S. Differential effects of environment on potato phenylpropanoid and carotenoid expression. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:39 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences in secondary metabolites may be sufficient to affect nutritional quality. ..
  6. Galie N, Badesch D, Oudiz R, Simonneau G, McGoon M, Keogh A, et al. Ambrisentan therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:529-35 pubmed
    ..1%). Ambrisentan appears to improve exercise capacity, symptoms, and hemodynamics in patients with PAH. The incidence and severity of liver enzyme abnormalities appear to be low. ..
  7. Shaw S, Boden J, Biecker E, Reichen J, Rothen B. Endothelin antagonism prevents diabetic retinopathy in NOD mice: a potential role of the angiogenic factor adrenomedullin. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006;231:1101-5 pubmed
    ..ETRA antagonists may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to slow or prevent progression of retinal microvascular damage and proliferation in patients for whom there is clear evidence of activation of the ET-1 system. ..
  8. Mehrtens F, Kranz H, Bednarek P, Weisshaar B. The Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB12 is a flavonol-specific regulator of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:1083-96 pubmed
  9. Wilson T, Nicolosi R, Woolfrey B, Kritchevsky D. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18:105-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, both oryzanol and ferulic acid may exert similar antiatherogenic properties, but through different mechanisms. ..
  10. Islam M, Murata T, Fujisawa M, Nagasaka R, Ushio H, Bari A, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytosteryl ferulates in colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:812-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Their anti-inflammatory effect could be mediated by inhibition of NF-kappaB activity, which was at least partly due to the antioxidant effect of the FA moiety in the structure of phytosteryl ferulates. ..
  11. Goke B, Gause Nilsson I, Persson A. The effects of tesaglitazar as add-on treatment to metformin in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2007;4:204-13 pubmed
    ..Despite the clinical discontinuation of tesaglitazar, this study has demonstrated the potential benefits of dual PPAR agonism as add-on therapy to metformin, in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. ..
  12. Bays H, McElhattan J, Bryzinski B. A double-blind, randomised trial of tesaglitazar versus pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2007;4:181-93 pubmed
    ..In summary, tesaglitazar provided similar glycaemic control to pioglitazone, was associated with significant improvement in lipid and lipoprotein variables, and increased serum creatinine in a dose-dependent manner. ..
  13. Li H, Flachowsky H, Fischer T, Hanke M, Forkmann G, Treutter D, et al. Maize Lc transcription factor enhances biosynthesis of anthocyanins, distinct proanthocyanidins and phenylpropanoids in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Planta. 2007;226:1243-54 pubmed
    ..Thus, Lc overexpression in Malus domestica resulted in enhanced biosynthesis of specific flavonoid classes, which play important roles in both phytopathology and human health. ..
  14. Miller A, Frenzel T, Schmarr H, Engel K. Coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography for the rapid analysis of gamma-oryzanol in rice lipids. J Chromatogr A. 2003;985:403-10 pubmed
    ..The proposed methodology paves the way for high-throughput investigations providing information on natural variations in gamma-oryzanol content and its composition in different rice varieties. ..
  15. Shimizu K, Ashida H, Matsuura Y, Kanazawa K. Antioxidative bioavailability of artepillin C in Brazilian propolis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;424:181-8 pubmed
    ..Artepillin C is a bioavailable antioxidant. ..
  16. Glynn C, Herms D, Orians C, Hansen R, Larsson S. Testing the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis: dynamic responses of willows to nutrient availability. New Phytol. 2007;176:623-34 pubmed
  17. Matsuda A, de Almeida Muradian L. Validated method for the quantification of artepillin-C in Brazilian propolis. Phytochem Anal. 2008;19:179-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Propolis from the southeast region presented the highest level of artepillin-C (5.0-11.0%). Whist that from the northeast region did not show any artepillin-C. ..
  18. Paulino N, Abreu S, Uto Y, Koyama D, Nagasawa H, Hori H, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of a bioavailable compound, Artepillin C, in Brazilian propolis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;587:296-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, Artepillin C showed anti-inflammatory effects mediated, at least in part, by prostaglandin E(2) and nitric oxide inhibition through NF-kappaB modulation, and exhibited bioavailability by oral administration. ..
  19. Galie N, Olschewski H, Oudiz R, Torres F, Frost A, Ghofrani H, et al. Ambrisentan for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: results of the ambrisentan in pulmonary arterial hypertension, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, efficacy (ARIES) study 1 and 2. Circulation. 2008;117:3010-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvements were observed for several secondary end points in each of the studies, although statistical significance was more variable. Ambrisentan is well tolerated and is associated with a low risk of aminotransferase abnormalities. ..
  20. Ericsson H, Hamrén B, Bergstrand S, Elebring M, Fryklund L, Heijer M, et al. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of tesaglitazar, a novel dual-acting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma agonist, after a single oral and intravenous dose in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004;32:923-9 pubmed
    ..9%), and the mean blood-plasma partitioning ratio was 0.66, suggesting low affinity for red blood cells. There was no indication of partial inversion of the (S)-enantiomer to the corresponding (R)-form. Tesaglitazar was well tolerated. ..
  21. Opitz C, Ewert R, Kirch W, Pittrow D. Inhibition of endothelin receptors in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: does selectivity matter?. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:1936-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These characteristics bear more relation to the chemical or pharmacological properties of the drugs than to receptor selectivity itself. ..
  22. McGoon M, Frost A, Oudiz R, Badesch D, Galie N, Olschewski H, et al. Ambrisentan therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension who discontinued bosentan or sitaxsentan due to liver function test abnormalities. Chest. 2009;135:122-129 pubmed publisher
    ..Ambrisentan treatment may be an option for patients who have discontinued bosentan and/or sitaxsentan therapy due to LFT result abnormalities. Identifier NCT00423592. ..
  23. Messerli S, Ahn M, Kunimasa K, Yanagihara M, Tatefuji T, Hashimoto K, et al. Artepillin C (ARC) in Brazilian green propolis selectively blocks oncogenic PAK1 signaling and suppresses the growth of NF tumors in mice. Phytother Res. 2009;23:423-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Since more than 70% of human cancers such as breast and prostate cancers require the kinase PAK1 for their growth, it is quite possible that GPE could be potentially useful for the treatment of these cancers, as is Bio 30. ..
  24. Barst R. A review of pulmonary arterial hypertension: role of ambrisentan. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3:11-22 pubmed
    ..The demonstration of clinical efficacy, low incidence of acute hepatic toxicity, and low risk of drug-drug interactions support the role of ambrisentan for the treatment of PAH. ..
  25. Uto Y, Ae S, Koyama D, Sakakibara M, Otomo N, Otsuki M, et al. Artepillin C isoprenomics: design and synthesis of artepillin C isoprene analogues as lipid peroxidation inhibitor having low mitochondrial toxicity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006;14:5721-8 pubmed
    ..We also conclude that elongation of the isoprene side chain of artepillin C to increase lipophilicity had little influence on the inhibitory activity toward RLM lipid peroxidation. ..
  26. Fang N, Yu S, Badger T. Characterization of triterpene alcohol and sterol ferulates in rice bran using LC-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:3260-7 pubmed
    ..LC-MS/MS equipped with reverse-phase LC and ESI-MS should be well-suited for identification and quantification of the polar metabolites of phytosterols in biological fluids after consumption of rice bran oil or other oils. ..
  27. Vatter H, Seifert V. Ambrisentan, a non-peptide endothelin receptor antagonist. Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2006;24:63-76 pubmed
    ..This review may help to define pathophysiological conditions, in which ambrisentan could be indicated and further evaluated in appropriate preclinical and clinical trials. ..
  28. Mitchell A, Lückebergfeld B, Bührmann S, Rushentsova U, Nürnberger J, Siffert W, et al. Effects of systemic endothelin A receptor antagonism in various vascular beds in men: in vivo interactions of the major blood pressure-regulating systems and associations with the GNB3 C825T polymorphism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;76:396-408 pubmed
  29. Price L, Howard L. Endothelin receptor antagonists for pulmonary arterial hypertension: rationale and place in therapy. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2008;8:171-85 pubmed
    ..Although their use as part of combination therapy with other agents is widespread, the evidence for this is not as robust, but appropriate investigation is underway. ..
  30. Wilding J, Gause Nilsson I, Persson A. Tesaglitazar, as add-on therapy to sulphonylurea, dose-dependently improves glucose and lipid abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2007;4:194-203 pubmed
    ..Although tesaglitazar has now been discontinued from clinical development, these results remain relevant to future research into PPAR agonists. ..
  31. Ahn M, Kunimasa K, Ohta T, Kumazawa S, Kamihira M, Kaji K, et al. Suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis by Brazilian propolis: major component artepillin C inhibits in vitro tube formation and endothelial cell proliferation. Cancer Lett. 2007;252:235-43 pubmed
    ..Artepillin C may prove useful in the development of agents and foods with therapeutic or preventive activity against tumor angiogenesis. ..
  32. Miller A, Engel K. Content of gamma-oryzanol and composition of steryl ferulates in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) of European origin. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:8127-33 pubmed
    ..The significant natural variability observed for gamma-oryzanol content and composition of steryl ferulates were shown to be influenced by environmental conditions but not by the degree of maturity of rice grains. ..
  33. Franke R, Hemm M, Denault J, Ruegger M, Humphreys J, Chapple C. Changes in secondary metabolism and deposition of an unusual lignin in the ref8 mutant of Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2002;30:47-59 pubmed
    ..Finally, the mutant displays developmental defects and is subject to fungal attack, suggesting that phenylpropanoid pathway products downstream of REF8 may be required for normal plant development and disease resistance. ..
  34. Rohde A, Morreel K, Ralph J, Goeminne G, Hostyn V, De Rycke R, et al. Molecular phenotyping of the pal1 and pal2 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals far-reaching consequences on phenylpropanoid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Plant Cell. 2004;16:2749-71 pubmed
    ..Together, from the molecular phenotype, common and specific functions of PAL1 and PAL2 are delineated, and PAL1 is qualified as being more important for the generation of phenylpropanoids. ..
  35. Ratner R, Parikh S, Tou C. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of tesaglitazar when added to the therapeutic regimen of poorly controlled insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2007;4:214-21 pubmed
    ..The clinical development of tesaglitazar is no longer continuing; its effects on the glucose and lipid abnormalities of type 2 diabetes suggest that the concept of dual PPARalpha/gamma agonism is worthy of further investigation. ..
  36. Lara E, Mai A, Calvanese V, Altucci L, Lopez Nieva P, Martinez Chantar M, et al. Salermide, a Sirtuin inhibitor with a strong cancer-specific proapoptotic effect. Oncogene. 2009;28:781-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results underline Salermide's promise as an anticancer drug and provide evidence for the molecular mechanism through which Sirt1 is involved in human tumorigenesis. ..
  37. Franke R, Humphreys J, Hemm M, Denault J, Ruegger M, Cusumano J, et al. The Arabidopsis REF8 gene encodes the 3-hydroxylase of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant J. 2002;30:33-45 pubmed
    ..These data may explain the previous difficulties in identifying C3H activity in plant extracts and they indicate that the currently accepted version of the lignin biosynthetic pathway is likely to be incorrect. ..
  38. Morkunas I, Narozna D, Nowak W, Samardakiewicz S, Remlein Starosta D. Cross-talk interactions of sucrose and Fusarium oxysporum in the phenylpropanoid pathway and the accumulation and localization of flavonoids in embryo axes of yellow lupine. J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..oxysporum. ..
  39. Qiu J, Gao F, Shen G, Li C, Han X, Zhao Q, et al. Metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway enhances the antioxidant capacity of Saussurea involucrata. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70665 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to providing a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, our results potentially enable an alternation of bioactive compound production in S. involucrata through metabolic engineering. ..
  40. Rogers K, Felsenstein K, Hrdlicka L, Tu Z, Albayya F, Lee W, et al. Modulation of ?-secretase by EVP-0015962 reduces amyloid deposition and behavioral deficits in Tg2576 mice. Mol Neurodegener. 2012;7:61 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data suggest that ?-secretase modulation with EVP-0015962 represents a viable therapeutic alternative for disease modification in Alzheimer's disease. ..
  41. Sumida H, Asano Y, Hatano M, Aozasa N, Toyama T, Akamata K, et al. Effect of ambrisentan on peripheral circulation in patients with systemic sclerosis. Mod Rheumatol. 2016;26:454-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, objective evaluations with thermography showed improvement of hand coldness in steady-state and cold challenge tests. Ambrisentan might have a potential to improve peripheral circulation in SSc. ..
  42. Ma Y, Tao R, Liu Q, Li J, Tian J, Zhang X, et al. PTP1B inhibitor improves both insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities in vivo and in vitro. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;357:65-72 pubmed publisher
  43. Benítez Martínez S, Simonet B, Valcarcel M. Graphene nanoparticles as pseudostationary phase for the electrokinetic separation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Electrophoresis. 2013;34:2561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The LOD and LOQ obtained by using G nanoparticles as pseudostationary phases spanned the range 0.29-1.18 mg/L and 0.95-3.95 mg/L, respectively, and the RSD was less than 4.7% in all instances. ..
  44. Andreassen A, Gude E, Solberg O, Ueland T. [Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011;131:1285-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension with updated treatment improves hemodynamics and thereby symptoms. Mortality remains high, but is probably lower than it was when only conventional treatment was available. ..
  45. Shimpukade B, Hudson B, Hovgaard C, Milligan G, Ulven T. Discovery of a potent and selective GPR120 agonist. J Med Chem. 2012;55:4511-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening of FFA1 ligands provided a lead with moderate activity on GPR120 and moderate selectivity over FFA1. Optimization led to the discovery of the first potent and selective GPR120 agonist. ..
  46. Sob S, Wabo H, Tang C, Tane P, Ngadjui B, Ye Y. Phenol esters and other constituents from the stem barks of Stereospermum acuminatissimum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2011;13:1128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The compounds were tested against Candida albicans ATCC 24433, C. albicans ATCC 90028, Candida glabrata ATCC 90030, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019. Some of them were moderately active. ..
  47. Yamakawa N, Suemasu S, Matoyama M, Tanaka K, Katsu T, Miyata K, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of loxoprofen derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:3299-311 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to loxoprofen, oral administration of 31 to rats produced fewer gastric lesions but showed an equivalent anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest that 31 is likely to be a therapeutically beneficial and safer NSAID. ..
  48. Okazaki Sakai S, Yoshimoto S, Yagi K, Wakasugi T, Takeda Y, Yamagishi M. Insulin autoimmune syndrome caused by an adhesive skin patch containing loxoprofen-sodium. Intern Med. 2013;52:2447-51 pubmed
    ..Considering the changes in the titer of anti-insulin autoantibodies, the repeated 75 gOGTT and the repeated Scatchard analysis, we determined LOXs to be the cause of the IAS and evaluated the characteristics of the autoantibodies. ..
  49. Lee J, Chan B, Mitchell A. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Food Chem. 2017;215:301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms. ..
  50. Kuwabara N, Oyama T, Tomioka D, Ohashi M, Yanagisawa J, Shimizu T, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have multiple binding points that accommodate ligands in various conformations: phenylpropanoic acid-type PPAR ligands bind to PPAR in different conformations, depending on the subtype. J Med Chem. 2012;55:893-902 pubmed publisher
    ..These results might indicate that hPPAR ligand binding pockets have multiple binding points that can be utilized to accommodate structurally flexible hPPAR ligands. ..
  51. Lv Y, Wang C, Guo S, Dong H. [Comparison of rutin and syringin content between tissue culturing seedlings and botanical drug of Saussurea involucrata]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010;35:2666-8 pubmed
    ..And syringin in tissue culturing seedlings was increased 4.35 times. It has a good prospect to acquire high-quality S. involucrata by tissue culturing seedlings. ..
  52. Lee S, Kim C, Ann J, Thorat S, Kim E, Park J, et al. Pyrazole C-region analogues of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides as potent TRPV1 antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:4383-4388 pubmed publisher
    ..The docking study of compounds 13S and 16S in our hTRPV1 homology model indicated that the binding modes differed somewhat, with that of 13S more closely resembling that of GRT12360. ..
  53. Mu R, Bao C, Chen Z, Zheng Y, Wang G, Zhao D, et al. Efficacy and safety of loxoprofen hydrogel patch versus loxoprofen tablet in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. Clin Rheumatol. 2016;35:165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..No serious adverse events were reported in the LX-P group, whereas one case was reported in LX-T group. Based on the present study, topical loxoprofen patch was non-inferior to oral loxoprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis. ..
  54. D Alto M. An update on the use of ambrisentan in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2012;6:331-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term data and hemodynamic data confirm the benefits can be compared with other ERAs with fewer drug-drug interactions and a better liver safety profile. ..
  55. Jones A, Chattopadhyay A, Shukla M, Zon J, Saxena P. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana). BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:75 pubmed publisher
    ..A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division...
  56. Zhang C, Xiao Y, Taniguchi M, Baba K. [Studies on chemical constituents from roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum III]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:1005-6 pubmed
    ..Compounds 1-5 were isolated from this plant for the first time. ..
  57. Andoh T, Haza S, Saito A, Kuraishi Y. Involvement of leukotriene B4 in spontaneous itch-related behaviour in NC mice with atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:894-8 pubmed publisher
    ..BLT1 receptor and 5-lipoxygenase in the skin may be effective pharmacological targets for the treatment of itch in atopic dermatitis. ..
  58. Kim W, Seong K, Youn B. Phenylpropanoids in radioregulation: double edged sword. Exp Mol Med. 2011;43:323-33 pubmed
    ..This review is intended to provide an overview of recent investigations on the usage of phenylpropanoids in combination with radiotherapy in cancer treatment. ..
  59. Nagasaka R, Yamsaki T, Uchida A, Ohara K, Ushio H. ?-Oryzanol recovers mouse hypoadiponectinemia induced by animal fat ingestion. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:669-71 pubmed publisher
    ..e., P<0.05). Diverse physiological functions of ORZ in crop bran might be promising us to prevent chronic inflammations in the pathogeneses of the metabolic or insulin resistance syndromes. ..
  60. Kridelbaugh D, Hughes S, Allen T, Doerner K. Production of 4-ethylphenol from 4-hydroxycinnamic acid by Lactobacillus sp. isolated from a swine waste lagoon. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;109:190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..4-Ethylphenol, a malodourant of swine and beef wastes, is generated from plant materials by indigenous lactobacilli suggesting that altering the amount dietary of plant material may influence levels of 4-ethylphenol in the wastes. ..
  61. TAKEDA Y, Tanigawa N, Sunghwa F, Ninomiya M, Hagiwara M, Matsushita K, et al. Morroniside cinnamic acid conjugate as an anti-inflammatory agent. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:4855-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2 microM), 7-O-methylmorroniside, and morroniside itself. As a result, 7-O-cinnamoylmorroniside was observed to be a potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha-induced E-selectin expression. ..
  62. Rubin L. Endothelin receptor antagonists for the treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension. Life Sci. 2012;91:517-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite failure to demonstrate efficacy of ERAs in other cardiopulmonary conditions, ERAs have a major role in the treatment algorithm for PAH. ..
  63. Joubert E, De Beer D, Malherbe C, Muller N, Bonnet S, van der Westhuizen J, et al. Occurrence and sensory perception of Z-2-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-phenylpropenoic acid in rooibos (Aspalathus linearis). Food Chem. 2013;136:1078-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This leads to large variation in the fermented plant material, infusions and food-grade extracts. PPAG was shown to have a slightly bitter to astringent taste and a detection threshold of 0.4 mg/l in water...
  64. Tong S, Zheng Y, Yan J. Application and comparison of high performance liquid chromatography and high speed counter-current chromatography in enantioseparation of (±)-2-phenylpropionic acid. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1281:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the optimum conditions a complete HSCCC enantioseparation of 40 mg of 2-propylpropionic acid in a recycling elution mode gave 15-18 mg of (+)-2-PPA and (-)-2-PPA enantiomers with 95-98% purity and 85-93% recovery. ..
  65. Bao Y, Yanase E, Nakatsuka S. Isolation of campesteryl ferulate and epi-campesteryl ferulate, two components of ?-oryzanol from rice bran. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:877-9 pubmed
    ..Their purities and structures of 3a and 3b thus obtained were confirmed by HPLC analysis and physical data (1H- and 13C-NMR, MS spectra, and X-ray crystallography). ..
  66. Liu Z, Liu Y, Zhao L, Xu J, Tian X. The phenylpropanoids of Aster flaccidus. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..67+/-8.47 microM - 72 h, IC(50): 50.51+/-6.11 microM). ..
  67. Zhang J, Mi Y, Chen S, Wang F, Liang Y, Zheng L, et al. Euphorbia factor L1 reverses ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance involving interaction with ABCB1 independent of ABCB1 downregualtion. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:1076-83 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, EFL1 inhibited the efflux of ABCB1 in KBv200 and MCF-7/adr cells. In addition, EFL1 did not downregulate expression of ABCB1 in KBv200 and MCF-7/adr cells either in mRNA or protein level. ..