homovanillic acid


Summary: A 3-O-methyl ETHER of (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid.

Top Publications

  1. Jonsson E, Saetre P, Edman Ahlbom B, Sillén A, Gunnar A, Andreou D, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene variation influences cerebrospinal fluid 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol concentrations in healthy volunteers. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2008;115:1695-9 pubmed publisher
    ..BDNF gene polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy volunteers (n = 132)...
  2. LeWitt P, Schultz L, Auinger P, Lu M. CSF xanthine, homovanillic acid, and their ratio as biomarkers of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2011;1408:88-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of homovanillic acid (the major catabolite of dopamine) and the purine compound xanthine for a comparison of 217 unmedicated ..
  3. Coccaro E, Lee R. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and homovanillic acid: reciprocal relationships with impulsive aggression in human subjects. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2010;117:241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that simultaneous examination of both CSF 5-HIAA and CSF homovanillic acid (HVA), which co-vary in human subjects may clarify differences in reported findings in different groups of ..
  4. Kałużna Czaplińska J, Socha E, Rynkowski J. Determination of homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid in urine of autistic children by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Med Sci Monit. 2010;16:CR445-50 pubmed
    ..Quantification of urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) can be a very important tool in the study of disorders of dopamine ..
  5. Okamoto T, Yoshimura R, Ikenouchi Sugita A, Hori H, Umene Nakano W, Inoue Y, et al. Efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy is associated with changing blood levels of homovanillic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in refractory depressed patients: a pilot study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying ECT's effect on refractory depression may be related to dopaminergic neurons and BDNF. ..
  6. Chotai J, Murphy D, Constantino J. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels in human newborn infants born in winter differ from those born in summer. Psychiatry Res. 2006;145:189-97 pubmed
    ..Studies relating season of birth to monoaminergic turnover at different stages of life may yield important clues about the gestational and perinatal origins of neurodevelopment. ..
  7. Ramirez Bermudez J, Ruiz Chow A, Perez Neri I, Soto Hernandez J, Flores Hernandez R, Nente F, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid is correlated to psychotic features in neurological patients with delirium. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2008;30:337-43 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) are related to the clinical features of delirium in a group of patients with acute onset neurological illness...
  8. Gołembiowska K, Dziubina A, Kowalska M, Kaminska K. Effect of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on L-DOPA-induced hydroxyl radical formation in rat striatum. Neurotox Res. 2009;15:155-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Summing up, A(2A) antagonists, used as a supplement of L: -DOPA therapy, depending on the dose used, may have a beneficial or adverse effect on ongoing neurodegenerative processes and accompanying oxidative stress. ..
  9. Arrue A, Dávila R, Zumárraga M, Basterreche N, González Torres M, Goienetxea B, et al. GABA and homovanillic acid in the plasma of Schizophrenic and bipolar I patients. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:247-53 pubmed publisher
    We have determined the plasma (p) concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the pHVA/pGABA ratio in schizophrenic and bipolar patients...

More Information


  1. Nikisch G, Baumann P, Wiedemann G, Kiessling B, Weisser H, Hertel A, et al. Quetiapine and norquetiapine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients treated with quetiapine: correlations to clinical outcome and HVA, 5-HIAA, and MHPG in CSF. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:496-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood and CSF samples were obtained on days 1 and 28, and CSF levels of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) concentrations were ..
  2. Molero Luís M, Serrano M, Ormazabal A, Perez Duenas B, Garcia Cazorla A, Pons R, et al. Homovanillic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of 1388 children with neurological disorders. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013;55:559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlations among CSF homovanillic acid (HVA) values and other biochemical, clinical, neuroradiological, and electrophysiological parameters were ..
  3. Scapolla C, Cangemi G, Barco S, Barbagallo L, Bugnone D, Maffia A, et al. Identification and structural characterization by LC-ESI-IONTRAP and LC-ESI-TOF of some metabolic conjugation products of homovanillic acid in urine of neuroblastoma patients. J Mass Spectrom. 2012;47:816-24 pubmed publisher
    The levels of urinary catecholamine metabolites, such as homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid, are routinely used as a clinical tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroblastoma (NB) patients...
  4. Andreou D, Saetre P, Werge T, Andreassen O, Agartz I, Sedvall G, et al. D-amino acid oxidase activator gene (DAOA) variation affects cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy Caucasians. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012;262:549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..fluid (CSF) samples were drawn by lumbar puncture, and the concentrations of the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and the major noradrenaline ..
  5. Combet E, Lean M, Boyle J, Crozier A, Davidson D. Dietary flavonols contribute to false-positive elevation of homovanillic acid, a marker of catecholamine-secreting tumors. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:165-9 pubmed publisher
    Urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) measurement is used routinely as a marker of the first test for the screening of catecholamine-secreting tumors and dopamine metabolism, but generates a large number of false-positive results...
  6. Garcia Cazorla A, Duarte S, Serrano M, Nascimento A, Ormazabal A, Carrilho I, et al. Mitochondrial diseases mimicking neurotransmitter defects. Mitochondrion. 2008;8:273-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Abnormal CSF findings among the 4 patients without treatment included low levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) in 3 patients, with associated low 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations in two of them...
  7. Durocher L, Hinchcliff K, Williamson K, McKenzie E, Holbrook T, Willard M, et al. Effect of strenuous exercise on urine concentrations of homovanillic acid, cortisol, and vanillylmandelic acid in sled dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68:107-11 pubmed
    To determine whether prolonged exercise by conditioned sled dogs affects urine concentrations of homovanillic acid (a metabolite of dopamine), vanillylmandelic acid (a metabolite of norepinephrine and epinephrine), and cortisol...
  8. Coccaro E, Hirsch S, Stein M. Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of learning problems in healthy volunteer and personality disordered subjects. Psychiatry Res. 2007;149:297-302 pubmed
    ..We tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic activity, as reflected by plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), may be related to dimensional aspects of ADHD in adults...
  9. Markianos M, Panas M, Kalfakis N, Vassilopoulos D. Plasma homovanillic acid and prolactin in Huntington's disease. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:917-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma prolactin (pPRL), two correlates of dopaminergic activity, in 116 subjects with CAG ..
  10. Andreou D, Saetre P, Werge T, Andreassen O, Agartz I, Sedvall G, et al. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene 1 (TPH1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers. Psychiatry Res. 2010;180:63-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the major norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy volunteers (..
  11. Willemsen M, Verbeek M, Kamsteeg E, de Rijk van Andel J, Aeby A, Blau N, et al. Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency: a treatable disorder of brain catecholamine biosynthesis. Brain. 2010;133:1810-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of homovanillic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol, with normal 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid cerebrospinal fluid ..
  12. LeWitt P. Recent advances in CSF biomarkers for Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18 Suppl 1:S49-51 pubmed publisher
    ..While investigations of dopamine metabolism (as reflected by its major metabolite, homovanillic acid [HVA]) have been relatively uninformative, we found that indexing HVA concentration to that of the purine ..
  13. Brautigam C, Weykamp C, Hoffmann G, Wevers R. Neurotransmitter metabolites in CSF: an external quality control scheme. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2002;25:287-98 pubmed
    ..The neurotransmitter metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) are analysed to ..
  14. Rapoport S, Schapiro M, May C. Reduced brain delivery of homovanillic acid to cerebrospinal fluid during human aging. Arch Neurol. 2004;61:1721-4 pubmed
    ..However, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA), a major dopamine metabolite, is reported to not change or to increase in elderly individuals...
  15. Mori S, Takanaga H, Ohtsuki S, Deguchi T, Kang Y, Hosoya K, et al. Rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3) is responsible for brain-to-blood efflux of homovanillic acid at the abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003;23:432-40 pubmed
    The mechanism that removes homovanillic acid (HVA), an end metabolite of dopamine, from the brain is still poorly understood...
  16. Jonsson E, Bah J, Melke J, Abou Jamra R, Schumacher J, Westberg L, et al. Monoamine related functional gene variants and relationships to monoamine metabolite concentrations in CSF of healthy volunteers. BMC Psychiatry. 2004;4:4 pubmed
    ..and the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) genes and CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy volunteers (n = 90)...
  17. Abe K, Taguchi K, Wasai T, Ren J, Utsunomiya I, Shinohara T, et al. Stereoselective effect of (R)- and (S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines on a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res Bull. 2001;56:55-60 pubmed
  18. Scheepers F, Gispen de Wied C, Westenberg H, Kahn R. The effect of olanzapine treatment on monoamine metabolite concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;25:468-75 pubmed
    ..the effect of olanzapine in schizophrenic patients on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites of dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA) and serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA)...
  19. Sher L, Oquendo M, Li S, Huang Y, Grunebaum M, Burke A, et al. Lower CSF homovanillic acid levels in depressed patients with a history of alcoholism. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:1712-9 pubmed
    ..CSF was sampled and homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were assayed by high-..
  20. Köhnke M, Wiatr G, Kolb W, Köhnke A, Schick S, Lutz U, et al. Plasma homovanillic acid: a significant association with alcoholism is independent of a functional polymorphism of the human catechol-O-methyltransferase gene. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:1004-10 pubmed
    The central dopamine system seems to influence addictive disorders. Plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) is an indicator of central dopaminergic activity...
  21. Kanemaru K, Yamanouchi H. Assessment of CSF homovanillic acid levels distinguishes dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol. 2002;249:1125-6 pubmed
  22. Zhang Z, Peet M, Ramchand C, Shah S, Reynolds G. Plasma homovanillic acid in untreated schizophrenia--relationship with symptomatology and sex. J Psychiatr Res. 2001;35:23-8 pubmed
    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations are considered to reflect, in part, central dopamine metabolism and thus may be of value in assessing the role of dopamine neurotransmission in schizophrenia...
  23. Battaglia G, Fornai F, Busceti C, Aloisi G, Cerrito F, De Blasi A, et al. Selective blockade of mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors is protective against methamphetamine neurotoxicity. J Neurosci. 2002;22:2135-41 pubmed
    ..We conclude that endogenous activation of mGlu5 receptors enables the development of MA neurotoxicity and that mGlu5 receptor antagonists are neuroprotective without interfering with the primary mechanism of action of MA. ..
  24. Sanchez V, Zeini M, Camarero J, O Shea E, Bosca L, Green A, et al. The nNOS inhibitor, AR-R17477AR, prevents the loss of NF68 immunoreactivity induced by methamphetamine in the mouse striatum. J Neurochem. 2003;85:515-24 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that both the reduction of NF68 immunoreactivity and the loss of dopamine concentration are due to an oxidative stress process mediated by reactive nitrogen species, and are not due to changes in body temperature. ..
  25. Antkiewicz Michaluk L, Karolewicz B, Romańska I, Michaluk J, Bojarski A, Vetulani J. 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline protects against rotenone-induced mortality and biochemical changes in rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;466:263-9 pubmed
    ..1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ), on the concentration of dopamine and its metabolites (homovanillic acid-HVA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid-DOPAC, and 3-methoxytyramine-3-MT)) in three brain areas was studied by ..
  26. Sher L, Mann J, Traskman Bendz L, Winchel R, Huang Y, Fertuck E, et al. Lower cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid levels in depressed suicide attempters. J Affect Disord. 2006;90:83-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we compared demographic and clinical parameters, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homovanillic acid (HVA) levels in depressed suicide attempters without comorbid Axis II disorders, depressed non-attempters ..
  27. Mitani H, Shirayama Y, Yamada T, Kawahara R. Plasma levels of homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and cortisol, and serotonin turnover in depressed patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30:531-4 pubmed
    ..The plasma levels of a dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were significantly decreased in the patients...
  28. Thiffault C, Langston J, Di Monte D. Increased striatal dopamine turnover following acute administration of rotenone to mice. Brain Res. 2000;885:283-8 pubmed
    ..but caused a significant increase in both DA metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)...
  29. Leite E, Leroyer A, Nisse C, Haguenoer J, De Burbure C, Buchet J, et al. Urinary homovanillic acid and serum prolactin levels in children with low environmental exposure to lead. Biomarkers. 2002;7:49-57 pubmed
    ..study was to assess the levels of two peripheral dopaminergic markers--serum prolactin (Pro-S) and urinary homovanillic acid (HVA-U)--in children living around two lead smelters, who are presumed to be exposed to high environmental ..
  30. Rogers J, Martin L, Comuzzie A, Mann J, Manuck S, Leland M, et al. Genetics of monoamine metabolites in baboons: overlapping sets of genes influence levels of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylglycol, and homovanillic acid. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:739-44 pubmed
    ..Levels of the monoamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were measured in ..
  31. Antkiewicz Michaluk L, Michaluk J, Mokrosz M, Romanska I, Lorenc Koci E, Ohta S, et al. Different action on dopamine catabolic pathways of two endogenous 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines with similar antidopaminergic properties. J Neurochem. 2001;78:100-8 pubmed
    ..1BnTIQ) administration on concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites: homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 3-methoxytyramine (3MT) in three brain areas was ..
  32. Placidi G, Oquendo M, Malone K, Huang Y, Ellis S, Mann J. Aggressivity, suicide attempts, and depression: relationship to cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;50:783-91 pubmed
    ..In the present study we investigated the relationship of monoamine metabolites to aggressivity, suicidal behavior, and depression in patients with mood disorders...
  33. Assmann B, Robinson R, Surtees R, Brautigam C, Heales S, Wevers R, et al. Infantile Parkinsonism-dystonia and elevated dopamine metabolites in CSF. Neurology. 2004;62:1872-4 pubmed
    ..Pyramidal tract signs also emerged in the course of the disease in two patients. This combination of symptoms and biochemical findings suggests a unique pathogenic mechanism. ..
  34. Stuerenburg H, Ganzer S, Müller Thomsen T. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with Alzheimer's disease, depression and mild cognitive impairment. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2004;25:435-7 pubmed
    ..we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in Alzheimer (AD) patients (n=75), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=9) and patients ..
  35. Brodnik Z, Double M, Espana R, Jaskiw G. L-Tyrosine availability affects basal and stimulated catecholamine indices in prefrontal cortex and striatum of the rat. Neuropharmacology. 2017;123:159-174 pubmed publisher
    ..dialysis of L-TYR elevated in vivo levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (L-TYR 250-1000 ?M), homovanillic acid (HVA) (L-TYR 1000 ?M) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) (L-TYR 500-1000 ?M)...
  36. Dellu Hagedorn F, Fitoussi A, De Deurwaerdère P. Correlative analysis of dopaminergic and serotonergic metabolism across the brain to study monoaminergic function and interaction. J Neurosci Methods. 2017;280:54-63 pubmed publisher
    ..monoaminergic systems in selected regions for the metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and/or homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) alone or with respect to the turnover indexes DOPAC/DA, DOPAC+..
  37. Brambilla F, Dalle Grave R, Calugi S, Marchesini G, Baroni S, Marazziti D. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on Eating Disorders: neurotransmitter secretory response to treatment. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to see whether or not CBT modifies the secretion of central DA (blood homovanillic acid=HVA), NE (blood 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol=MHPG) and the 5-HT transporter (as evaluated by the ..
  38. Schou Pedersen A, Hansen S, Tveden Nyborg P, Lykkesfeldt J. Simultaneous quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biogenic metabolites intracellularly and extracellularly in primary neuronal cell cultures and in sub-regions of guinea pig brain. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016;1028:222-230 pubmed publisher
    ..cerebellum tissue with higher amounts of dopamine and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in frontal cortex, as compared to cerebellum...
  39. Liu L, Chen W, Xie J, Wong M. Neuroprotective effects of genistein on dopaminergic neurons in the mice model of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Res. 2008;60:156-61 pubmed
    ..decreased the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum, which could be restored by genistein or estrogen pretreatment...
  40. Güldenpfennig M, Wolmarans D, du Preez J, Stein D, Harvey B. Cortico-striatal oxidative status, dopamine turnover and relation with stereotypy in the deer mouse. Physiol Behav. 2011;103:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Frontal cortical and striatal dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione and ..
  41. Nowak P, Bortel A, Dabrowska J, Biedka I, Slomian G, Roczniak W, et al. Histamine H(3) receptor ligands modulate L-dopa-evoked behavioral responses and L-dopa derived extracellular dopamine in dopamine-denervated rat striatum. Neurotox Res. 2008;13:231-40 pubmed
    ..Consequently, the histaminergic system represents a viable target for modulating the effectiveness of L-DOPA therapy in Parkinson's disease. ..
  42. Samanta S, Kumar K, Roy A, Karmakar S, Lahiri S, Palit G, et al. An insight on the neuropharmacological activity of Telescopium telescopium--a mollusc from the Sunderban mangrove. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008;22:683-91 pubmed publisher
    ..It was observed that both TTE and the 80S fraction significantly altered the brain noradrenaline and homovanillic acid levels without affecting the brain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) concentration...
  43. Hagiwara H, Hashimoto K. [Progress in diagnosis of psychiatric diseases using blood samples--recent findings of brain-periphery interaction in drug abusers]. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2008;43:77-86 pubmed
  44. Bloemen O, de Koning M, Gleich T, Meijer J, De Haan L, Linszen D, et al. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding following dopamine depletion in subjects at Ultra High Risk for psychosis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;23:126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher synaptic dopamine concentration was associated with more severe positive symptoms and a greater reduction of these symptoms following depletion. ..
  45. Rydén E, Johansson C, Blennow K, Landen M. Lower CSF HVA and 5-HIAA in bipolar disorder type 1 with a history of childhood ADHD. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2009;116:1667-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This lends biological support to the notion that those with childhood ADHD represent a valid subphenotype of bipolar disorder. ..
  46. Xu M, Fang C, Xu J, Zhang G, Ge L. [Dynamic changes of dopamine and its metabolite levels in the rat striatum after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and electroacupuncture]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2009;34:230-5 pubmed
    ..The concentrations of DA and its metabolites [3,4- dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)] in the extracellular fluid of the striatum were determined by microdialysis and high performance ..
  47. Ramirez Bermudez J, Perez Neri I, Montes S, Ramirez Abascal M, Nente F, Abundes Corona A, et al. Imbalance between nitric oxide and dopamine may underly aggression in acute neurological patients. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:1659-65 pubmed publisher
    ..as measured by the Mini Mental State Examination), and biochemical markers of dopamine neurotransmission (homovanillic acid, HVA) and nitric oxide synthesis (nitrite plus nitrate, NO(x)) in cerebrospinal fluid from 70 patients with ..
  48. Benrick A, Kokosar M, Hu M, Larsson M, Maliqueo M, Marcondes R, et al. Autonomic nervous system activation mediates the increase in whole-body glucose uptake in response to electroacupuncture. FASEB J. 2017;31:3288-3297 pubmed publisher
    ..GIR was higher after EA in controls and women with PCOS. Plasma serotonin levels and homovanillic acid, markers of vagal activity, decreased in both controls and patients with PCOS...
  49. Ookubo M, Yokoyama H, Kato H, Araki T. Gender differences on MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) neurotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;311:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study showed that the decrease of dopamine, DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and HVA (homovanillic acid) content in female mice was more pronounced than that in male animals 1, 3 and 7 days after MPTP treatment...
  50. Wojcikowski J, Gołembiowska K, Daniel W. The regulation of liver cytochrome p450 by the brain dopaminergic system. Curr Drug Metab. 2007;8:631-8 pubmed
    ..g. steroids), clinically important drugs (e.g. psychotropics, calcium channel antagonists, antibiotics) and toxins. ..
  51. Remane D, Grunwald S, Hoeke H, Mueller A, Roeder S, von Bergen M, et al. Validation of a multi-analyte HPLC-DAD method for determination of uric acid, creatinine, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid and 2-methylhippuric acid in human urine. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015;998-999:40-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Creatinine, uric acid, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were separated by gradient ..
  52. Chen S, Zhang X, Xie W, Qiu H, Liu H, LE W. A New VMAT-2 Inhibitor NBI-641449 in the Treatment of Huntington Disease. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2015;21:662-71 pubmed publisher
    ..HPLC showed that NBI-641449 caused a dose-dependent decrease of DA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid levels in the striatum...
  53. Akhtar S, Arif M, Mushtaq N, Saify Z, Ahmed A, Haleem D, et al. Behavioral and neurochemical profile of some novel phenacyl based isonipecotamide derivatives. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012;25:705-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these compounds have also shown the decreased level of 5-HT alone with increased level of dopamine as an indication of their antagonism towards 5-HT receptor. ..
  54. Wisłowska Stanek A, Hamed A, Lehner M, Bidziński A, Turzyńska D, Sobolewska A, et al. Effects of midazolam and buspirone on in vivo concentration of amino acids and monoamine metabolites in the rat hippocampus. Pharmacol Rep. 2008;60:209-18 pubmed
    ..Buspirone increased also the extracellular levels of dopamine metabolites: homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)...
  55. Umene Nakano W, Yoshimura R, Yoshii C, Hayashi K, Ikenouchi Sugita A, Katsuki A, et al. Plasma levels of metabolites of catecholamine in nicotine-dependent patients treated with varenicline. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14:486-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To confirm the hypothesis, we investigated the association of plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) levels in patients with nicotine dependence in comparison ..
  56. Karpova I, Mikheev V, Marysheva V, Bychkov E, Proshin S. Oxytocin-Induced Changes in Monoamine Level in Symmetric Brain Structures of Isolated Aggressive C57Bl/6 Mice. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2016;160:605-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are discussed in the context of lateralization of neurotransmitter systems responsible for intraspecific aggression caused by long-term social isolation. ..
  57. Cassano T, Gaetani S, Morgese M, Macheda T, Laconca L, Dipasquale P, et al. Monoaminergic changes in locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus following noradrenaline depletion. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:1417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..A decrease of DA metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), was found in the DRN of NA-depleted mice...
  58. Hernandez G, Haines E, Rajabi H, Stewart J, Arvanitogiannis A, Shizgal P. Predictable and unpredictable rewards produce similar changes in dopamine tone. Behav Neurosci. 2007;121:887-95 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, indistinguishable changes in DA concentration were observed in the 2 groups. Thus, reward predictability had no discernable effect on a measure believed to track the slower components of DA signaling. ..
  59. Dhir A, Kulkarni S. Involvement of nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in the antidepressant action of bupropion, a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;568:177-85 pubmed
    ..was investigated besides its actions on various brain transmitters like norepinephrine, dopamine and homovanillic acid. Bupropion (10, 15, 20 and 40 mg/kg., i.p...
  60. Dávila R, Zumárraga M, Basterreche N, Arrue A, Anguiano J. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients: correlation with negative symptoms. Psychiatry Res. 2007;151:163-8 pubmed
    The relation between changes in the levels of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and clinical evolution during neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenic patients has not been satisfactorily characterized, as a number of conflicting findings ..
  61. Yoshimura R, Shinkai K, Ueda N, Nakamura J. Valproic acid improves psychotic agitation without influencing plasma risperidone levels in schizophrenic patients. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2007;40:9-13 pubmed
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    ..Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that PAc has neuroprotective effects on MPTP treated C57BL/6J mice and may be useful in clinical treatment of PD. ..
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    ..The behavioral testing of mice was assessed using pole-climbing test. The levels of Dopamine (DA) and Homovanillic acid (HVA) in striatum were determined by Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight ..
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    ..The plasma levels of BDNF were decreased in depressive patients compared with manic patients or healthy controls. However, the administration of risperidone did not alter plasma BDNF levels. ..
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    ..Since similar behavior was previously observed after intranigral administration of rotenone and MPP(+) but not 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), it may indicate a common mechanism of action shared by these neurotoxins. ..
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    ..influences: (a) the presence of psychosis in type I bipolar patients; (b) the blood plasma concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), which are metabolites of dopamine and noradrenaline ..
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    ..8-O-4-DFA was completely degraded by the intestinal microbiota of the majority of donors, yielding homovanillic acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as the main metabolites...
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    ..The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels are related to suicidal behaviour...
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    ..Our results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of the selective ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine agonist PNU-282987 in attenuating neuroinflammation and toxin-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the acute MPTP mouse model of PD. ..
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    ..behavior in rhesus monkeys with decreased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid. Neuroimaging data in IFN-alpha-treated patients also suggest that activation of neural circuits (dorsal ..
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