quinuclidinyl benzilate

Summary

Summary: A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.

Top Publications

  1. Varastet M, Brouillet E, Chavoix C, Prenant C, Crouzel C, Stulzaft O, et al. In vivo visualization of central muscarinic receptors using [11C]quinuclidinyl benzilate and positron emission tomography in baboons. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992;213:275-84 pubmed
    The muscarinic antagonist, quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), labeled with carbon 11 was used as a radioligand to visualize in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) the central muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in baboons (..
  2. Baker S, Buss D, Epstein M, Posner P. Effect of chronic hypoxia on cardiac beta-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors during maturation. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1989;63:307-15 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that hypoxia during the first 3 weeks of postnatal development in the rabbit induces alterations in the cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor with no effect on the development of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor. ..
  3. Latifpour J, Morita T, O Hollaren B, Kondo S, Weiss R. Characterization of autonomic receptors in neonatal urinary tract smooth muscle. Dev Pharmacol Ther. 1989;13:1-10 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate the existence of functional autonomic receptors in neonatal urinary tract smooth muscle. ..
  4. Rzeszotarski W, McPherson D, Ferkany J, Kinnier W, Noronha Blob L, Kirkien Rzeszotarski A. Affinity and selectivity of the optical isomers of 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate and related muscarinic antagonists. J Med Chem. 1988;31:1463-6 pubmed
    ..2.2]octyl) alpha-hydroxy-alpha,alpha-diphenylacetate (3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, QNB, 1) 3-(1-azabicyclo[2.2...
  5. Vickroy T, Malphurs W, Defiebre N. Absence of receptor reserve at hippocampal muscarinic autoreceptors which inhibit stimulus-dependent acetylcholine release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993;267:1198-204 pubmed
    ..PrBCM treatment caused a marked reduction in the density of high-affinity [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites (46%, 72% and 90% reductions after 3, 6 or 10 nM PrBCM, respectively) but had no apparent ..
  6. Misik J, Korabecny J, Nepovimova E, Kracmarova A, Kassa J. Effects of novel tacrine-related cholinesterase inhibitors in the reversal of 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate-induced cognitive deficit in rats--Is there a potential for Alzheimer's disease treatment?. Neurosci Lett. 2016;612:261-268 pubmed publisher
    ..Cognitive impairment was induced by 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB, 2mgkg(-1)), administered intraperitoneally 1h before training sessions...
  7. Murayama T, Itahashi Y, Nomura Y. Possible involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins and D2 dopamine receptors in the A1 adenosine receptor-adenylate cyclase system in rat cerebral cortex. J Neurochem. 1990;55:1631-8 pubmed
    ..There was no effect of apomorphine on displacement of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (muscarinic ligand) binding by carbachol...
  8. Tietje K, Goldman P, Nathanson N. Cloning and functional analysis of a gene encoding a novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in chick heart and brain. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:2828-34 pubmed
    ..The receptor expressed in CHO and Y1 cells exhibits high affinity binding for the muscarinic antagonists quinuclidinyl benzilate and atropine, as well as the M1-selective antagonist pirenzepine and the M2-selective antagonist AF-DX ..
  9. Sundquist S, Modiri A, Nilsson B, Hacksell U, Gillberg P, Nilvebrant L. Pharmacological characterisation of the enantiomers of BM-5, a muscarinic partial agonist with opposed enantioselectivity between affinity and efficacy. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2000;86:44-50 pubmed
    ..R)-BM-5 showed agonist activity in vivo, confirming in vitro findings. From affinity and efficacy data it can be concluded that the effects of racemic BM-5 are mediated by the (R)-enantiomer. ..

More Information

Publications112 found, 100 shown here

  1. Mansfield K, Chandran J, Vaux K, Millard R, Christopoulos A, Mitchelson F, et al. Comparison of receptor binding characteristics of commonly used muscarinic antagonists in human bladder detrusor and mucosa. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;328:893-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Radioligand binding studies with the muscarinic antagonist [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) were performed separately on detrusor and mucosal membranes...
  2. Hejnova L, Tucek S, El Fakahany E. Positive and negative allosteric interactions on muscarinic receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995;291:427-30 pubmed
    ..to cardiac muscarinic receptors by a positive allosteric action while its effect on the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate is negative...
  3. Novi F, Scarselli M, Corsini G, Maggio R. An unusual form of the association binding kinetics of N-[3H]methylscopolamine to the split muscarinic M2trunk/M2tail receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305:786-95 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this peculiar form of the [(3)H]NMS association binding to the muscarinic M(2trunk)/M(2tail) receptor is attributable to a less stable interaction between the trunk and the tail fragments of the split receptor...
  4. Coccini T, Randine G, Castoldi A, Grandjean P, Ostendorp G, Heinzow B, et al. Effects of developmental co-exposure to methylmercury and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) on cholinergic muscarinic receptors in rat brain. Neurotoxicology. 2006;27:468-77 pubmed
    ..MR changes were detected in both immature and adult animals and the interaction of MeHg and PCB153 at the level of these receptors occurred in a non-additive manner. ..
  5. Shiraishi M, Minami K, Uezono Y, Yanagihara N, Shigematsu A. Inhibition by tramadol of muscarinic receptor-induced responses in cultured adrenal medullary cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing cloned M1 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;299:255-60 pubmed
    ..Moreover, tramadol inhibited the specific binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB)...
  6. Pakrasi S, Colloby S, Firbank M, Perry E, Wyper D, Owens J, et al. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor status in Alzheimer's disease assessed using (R, R) 123I-QNB SPECT. J Neurol. 2007;254:907-13 pubmed
  7. Cambray Deakin M, Pearce B, Morrow C, Murphy S. Effects of neurotransmitters on astrocyte glycogen stores in vitro. J Neurochem. 1988;51:1852-7 pubmed
    ..were found to be present on astrocyte membranes using [3H]dihydroalprenolol, [3H]serotonin, and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate, respectively, as ligands...
  8. Meng W, Ayata C, Waeber C, Huang P, Moskowitz M. Neuronal NOS-cGMP-dependent ACh-induced relaxation in pial arterioles of endothelial NOS knockout mice. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:H411-5 pubmed
    ..The density and distribution of muscarinic receptors in the brain were determined by quantitative [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate autoradiography and did not differ between the eNOS mutants and wild-type mice...
  9. Renuka T, Ani D, Paulose C. Alterations in the muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor gene expression in the brain stem during pancreatic regeneration and insulin secretion in weanling rats. Life Sci. 2004;75:2269-80 pubmed
    ..Central muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor subtypes functional balance is suggested to regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, which in turn control the islet cell proliferation and glucose homeostasis. ..
  10. Colozo A, Park P, Sum C, Pisterzi L, Wells J. Cholesterol as a determinant of cooperativity in the M2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;74:236-55 pubmed
    ..The data can be described quantitatively in terms of cooperative effects among six or more interacting sites. Cholesterol therefore appears to promote cooperativity in the binding of antagonists to the M2 muscarinic receptor. ..
  11. Honkanen R, Abdel Latif A. Characterization of cholinergic muscarinic receptors in the rabbit iris. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:2575-83 pubmed
    ..acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) of the rabbit iris employing [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS) and L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB) as probes...
  12. Blake A, Anthony N, Chen H, Harrison J, Nathanson N, Sattelle D. Drosophila nervous system muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: transient functional expression and localization by immunocytochemistry. Mol Pharmacol. 1993;44:716-24 pubmed
    ..The most intense staining was localized to the glomeruli of the antennal lobes, an area of the insect brain where first-order synaptic processing of olfactory information occurs. ..
  13. Nakagawa T, Ukai K, Kubo S. Antidepressive effects of the stereoisomer cis-dosulepin hydrochloride. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993;43:11-5 pubmed
    ..extremely potent anticholinergic action in oxotremorine induced tremor, isolated ileums and the 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding test...
  14. Latifpour J, Nishimoto T, Marian M, Yoshida M, Weiss R. Differential regulation of bladder beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in experimental diabetes. Diabetes. 1991;40:1150-6 pubmed
    ..Receptor binding studies with [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in bladder dome demonstrated an upregulation of muscarinic receptors in diabetic and sucrose-fed rats ..
  15. Ballesta J, Borges R, Garcia A, Hidalgo M. Secretory and radioligand binding studies on muscarinic receptors in bovine and feline chromaffin cells. J Physiol. 1989;418:411-26 pubmed
    ..However, it is unclear why the bovine behaves differently from the feline chromaffin cell as far as the muscarine-evoked effects are concerned.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  16. Popova J, Petkov V, Tokuschieva L. The effect of chronic diazepam and medazepam treatment on the number and affinity of muscarinic receptors in different rat brain structures. Gen Pharmacol. 1988;19:227-31 pubmed
    ..5. The altered brain muscarinic receptor functions after chronic diazepam- or medazepam treatment suggest the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in the mechanism of action of benzodiazepines. ..
  17. Shiozaki K, Iseki E. Decrease in GTP-sensitive high affinity agonist binding of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in autopsied brains of dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2004;223:145-8 pubmed
    ..Displacement curves of [(3)H]l-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding by carbamylcholine were analyzed by the nonlinear least-squares methods...
  18. Masuda H, Goto M, Tamaoki S, Kamikawatoko S, Tokoro T, Azuma H. M3-type muscarinic receptors predominantly mediate neurogenic quick contraction of bovine ciliary muscle. Gen Pharmacol. 1998;30:579-84 pubmed
  19. Kimura Y, Ohue M, Kitaura T, Kihira K. Amnesic effects of the anticholinergic drugs, trihexyphenidyl and biperiden: differences in binding properties to the brain muscarinic receptor. Brain Res. 1999;834:6-12 pubmed
    ..In the Scatchard analysis, trihexyphenidyl competed with [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([(3)H]QNB) on the muscarinic receptor (showed increased K(d) and unchanged B(max) value), while ..
  20. Kojima M, Ishima T, Taniguchi N, Kimura K, Sada H, Sperelakis N. Developmental changes in beta-adrenoceptors, muscarinic cholinoceptors and Ca2+ channels in rat ventricular muscles. Br J Pharmacol. 1990;99:334-9 pubmed
    ..Ca2+ channels were determined with the use of specific radioligands, [3H]-dihydroalprenolol (DNA), [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), and [3H]-nitrendipine (NTD), respectively. 3...
  21. Fitzgerald B, Costa L. Modulation of muscarinic receptors and acetylcholinesterase activity in lymphocytes and in brain areas following repeated organophosphate exposure in rats. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1993;20:210-6 pubmed
    ..Using the mAChR antagonist [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) to label mAChRs, we found that exposure to disulfoton for 14 days (2 mg/kg/day by gavage) caused a ..
  22. Christopoulos A, Wilson K. Interaction of anandamide with the M(1) and M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Brain Res. 2001;915:70-8 pubmed
    ..Experiments utilized the antagonists, [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine and [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate. When acetylcholine was used as the inhibiting ligand, shallow, biphasic isotherms were observed at both ..
  23. Roman S, Vivas N, Badia A, Clos M. Interaction of a new potent anticholinesterasic compound (+/-)huprine X with muscarinic receptors in rat brain. Neurosci Lett. 2002;325:103-6 pubmed
    ..The present results demonstrate that this acetylcholinesterase inhibitor has an ample cholinergic profile, which suggests a potential source of interest of (+/-)huprine X in Alzheimer's disease therapy. ..
  24. Glendenning K. Distribution of muscimol, QNB, and 5HT binding in the vertebrate diencephalon: a comparative study of eight mammals and three non-mammals. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;62:247-61 pubmed
    The distribution of muscimol, quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), and serotonin (5HT)-bound receptors in the diencephalon was examined by conventional receptor-binding methods in 11 species of amniotes including 2 reptiles, 1 bird, and 8 ..
  25. Lee K, Ito A, Koshimura K, Ohue T, Takagi Y, Miwa S. Differential effects of hypoxia on ligand binding properties of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 1995;64:874-82 pubmed
    ..Nicotine-evoked 22Na+ flux into the cells was suppressed by hypoxia. In contrast, specific [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to the intact cells was unaffected by hypoxia...
  26. Sutyagin P, Kalinina E, Pylaev A. Relative distribution densities of cholinergic and adrenoceptor structures in the central part of the sinoatrial node in rat heart. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2005;140:92-5 pubmed
    ..by autoradiography on semithin sections by determining the density of (3)H-dihydroalprenolol and (3)H-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites...
  27. Hori K, Konishi K, Watanabe K, Uchida H, Tsuboi T, Moriyasu M, et al. Influence of anticholinergic activity in serum on clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychobiology. 2011;63:147-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that SAA in AD patients would be associated with clinical symptoms, especially delusion and diurnal rhythm disturbances. ..
  28. Amenta F, Cavallotti C, Franch F, Ricci A. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the hippocampus of the aged rat: effects of long-term hydergine administration. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1989;297:225-34 pubmed
    ..The possibility that the therapeutic effects of hydergine administration on memory function in the elderly might be related to an effect on cholinergic muscarinic receptors of the ageing hippocampus is discussed. ..
  29. Hess M, Barasha B, Winters S, Levin R. Effect of thyroxine on urinary bladder autonomic receptor densities and contractility. Pharmacology. 1993;46:248-53 pubmed
  30. Park P, Ng C, Buck S, Wells J, Cheng Y, Pennefather P. Characterization of radioligand binding to a transmembrane receptor reconstituted into Lipobeads. FEBS Lett. 2004;567:344-8 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates the feasibility of using Lipobeads to study the binding properties of the M(2) muscarinic receptor and offers a promising approach to the study of transmembrane protein biology in general. ..
  31. Rodriguez M, Robledo P, Andrade C, Mahy N. In vivo co-ordinated interactions between inhibitory systems to control glutamate-mediated hippocampal excitability. J Neurochem. 2005;95:651-61 pubmed
    ..In this situation, a co-ordinated response of hippocampal retaliatory systems takes place to control neuron excitability. ..
  32. Tokita Y, Yuzurihara M, Satoh K, Iizuka S, Imamura S, Kase Y, et al. The cholinergic nervous system plays an important role in rat postoperative intestinal adhesion. Surgery. 2008;143:226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations of gastrointestinal function might be a cause of adhesion formation. ..
  33. Hosoi R, Kobayashi K, Ishida J, Yamaguchi M, Inoue O. Effect of sabcomeline on muscarinic and dopamine receptor binding in intact mouse brain. Ann Nucl Med. 2003;17:123-30 pubmed
    ..muscarinic receptor occupancy by sabcomeline in mouse brain regions and heart was estimated using [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and [3H]N-methylpiperidyl benzilate (NMPB) as radioligands...
  34. Sun T, Ma T, Ho I. Differential modulation of muscarinic receptors in the rat brain by repeated exposure to methyl parathion. J Toxicol Sci. 2003;28:427-38 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that down-regulation of muscarinic receptors plays a role in the development of tolerance to MP. And, the regulations of muscarinic receptors were different among receptor subtypes and brain regions. ..
  35. Siddiqui M, Singh G, Kashyap M, Khanna V, Yadav S, Chandra D, et al. Influence of cytotoxic doses of 4-hydroxynonenal on selected neurotransmitter receptors in PC-12 cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008;22:1681-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The PC-12 cells appear to be vulnerable to cytotoxic concentrations of HNE. Experimental HNE exposure provides an intriguing model of toxicant-cell interactions involving neurotransmitter receptors in HNE neurotoxicity. ..
  36. Miao Y, McCammon J. Graded activation and free energy landscapes of a muscarinic G-protein-coupled receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:12162-12167 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the applicability of GaMD for exploring free energy landscapes of large biomolecules and the simulations provide important insights into the GPCR functional mechanism. ..
  37. Klaassen A, Dooper M, Rodrigues de Miranda J, Krabbendam H. Differences in innervation and secretory behaviour of two nasal glandular parts in the rat. Acta Otolaryngol. 1987;104:545-51 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, rat nasal glandular muscarinic receptors appear to be different from those in smooth muscle of rat ileum. ..
  38. Khoshayand M, Abdollahi H, Moeini A, Shamsaie A, Ghaffari A, Abbasian S. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of chlordiazepoxide and clidinium using multivariate calibration techniques. Drug Test Anal. 2010;2:430-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The predictive models that we built were successfully applied to simultaneously determine the levels of chlordiazepoxide and clidinium in coated tablets. ..
  39. Schneyer C, Humphreys Beher M, Hall H. Effects of electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nerve on the levels of cholinergic muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors and cyclic nucleotides in rat salivary glands. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1988;187:22-5 pubmed
    ..Cyclic AMP was generally unchanged. These changes in muscarinic receptors and cyclic GMP are apparently closely related to the kind of neural stimulation, unlike the condition when stimulation of the sympathetic nerve was employed. ..
  40. Hutchins J. Development of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the ferret retina. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1994;82:45-61 pubmed
    ..Combined with the results of earlier studies, these observations suggest that the subtypes, number and distribution of muscarinic receptor proteins changes during retinal synaptogenesis...
  41. Altenberg G, Subramanyam M, Bergmann J, Johnson K, Reuss L. Muscarinic stimulation of gallbladder epithelium. I. Electrophysiology and signaling mechanisms. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:C1604-12 pubmed
    ..Receptor activation stimulates phospholipase C and elevates cellular levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and [Ca2+]i. The elevation in [Ca2+]i activates K+ channels but apparently not Cl- channels...
  42. Fukamauchi F, Aihara O, Kusakabe M. Internalization and down-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in cerebellar granule cells of tenascin-gene deficient mice. Neurochem Int. 2000;36:153-8 pubmed
    ..binding; however, down-regulation of total muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, measured with [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate, was inhibited in granule cells from tenascin-C-negative mice...
  43. Gavett S, Wills Karp M. Elevated lung G protein levels and muscarinic receptor affinity in a mouse model of airway hyperreactivity. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:L493-500 pubmed
  44. Kragie L, Kwon Y, Smiehorowski R. Rat cardiac calcium channels and their relationships with beta-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in hypothyroidism. Endocr Res. 1993;19:57-71 pubmed
    ..3H]-isradipine), beta-adrenoceptors ([125I]-iodocyanopindolol) and atrial muscarinic receptors ([3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate) and related these data to contraction and heart rate responses to isoproterenol, carbachol and calcium...
  45. Tsuga H, Kameyama K, Haga T, Honma T, Lameh J, Sadee W. Internalization and down-regulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes. Role of third intracellular m2 loop and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5323-30 pubmed
    ..by measuring loss of [3H]N-methylscopolamine binding sites from the cell surface, and transfer of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites from the plasma membrane into the light-vesicle fractions separated by sucrose density ..
  46. Park P, Sum C, Pawagi A, Wells J. Cooperativity and oligomeric status of cardiac muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Biochemistry. 2002;41:5588-604 pubmed
    ..The M(2) muscarinic receptor therefore appears to comprise at least four interacting sites, presumably within a tetramer or larger array, and ligands appear to bind in a cooperative manner under at least some conditions. ..
  47. Edgar V, Cremaschi G, Sterin Borda L, Genaro A. Altered expression of autonomic neurotransmitter receptors and proliferative responses in lymphocytes from a chronic mild stress model of depression: effects of fluoxetine. Brain Behav Immun. 2002;16:333-50 pubmed
    ..Fluoxetine treatment reverted the alterations induced by CMS. These findings suggest a possible mechanism for the immune alterations found in depressive disorders and for the effect of fluoxetine treatment on immune response. ..
  48. Norbury R, Travis M, Erlandsson K, Waddington W, Owens J, Pimlott S, et al. In vivo imaging of muscarinic receptors in the aging female brain with (R,R)[123I]-I-QNB and single photon emission tomography. Exp Gerontol. 2005;40:137-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, in this population of healthy women, there was an age-related reduction in muscarinic receptor density. This may contribute to age-related differences in cognitive function and risk for Alzheimer's disease. ..
  49. Kitamura Y, Hayashi S, Nomura Y. Effects of WEB 1881 FU, a novel nootropic, on cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in the rat brain: action on M1-muscarinic receptors. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1990;52:597-607 pubmed
    ..p.) for 21 days resulted in a significant decrease in the Bmax of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum...
  50. Hommes F. The effect of hyperphenylalaninaemia on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in the HPH-5 mouse brain. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16:962-74 pubmed
    ..Since the hippocampus has been shown to be involved in the long-term storage of information, damage to this structure by hyperphenylalaninaemia may provide a clue to the global mental retardation observed in untreated PKU. ..
  51. Aguero Peña R, Pascuzzo Lima C, Granado Duque A, Bonfante Cabarcas R. [Propofol-induced myocardial depression: possible role of atrial muscarinic cholinergic receptors]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2008;55:81-5 pubmed
    ..The interaction of propofol with human atrial MCRs was determined by means of inhibition tests using [3H] quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H] QNB)...
  52. Shivnaraine R, Huang X, Seidenberg M, Ellis J, Wells J. Heterotropic cooperativity within and between protomers of an oligomeric M(2) muscarinic receptor. Biochemistry. 2012;51:4518-40 pubmed
    ..Those differences appear to arise from inter- and intramolecular cooperativity between gallamine and the radioligand. ..
  53. Nordvall G, Sundquist S, Glas G, Gogoll A, Nilvebrant L, Hacksell U. Analogues of the muscarinic agent 2'-methylspiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,4'-[1,3]dioxolane]: synthesis and pharmacology. J Med Chem. 1992;35:1541-50 pubmed
    ..The new compounds were compared to cis- and trans-1 with regard to their ability to displace (-)-[3H]-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate ((-)-[3H]QNB) from muscarinic receptors in cerebral cortex, heart, parotid gland, and urinary bladder ..
  54. Klangkalya B, Chan A. The effects of ovarian hormones on beta-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in rat heart. Life Sci. 1988;42:2307-14 pubmed
    ..However, progestins but not estrogenic compounds inhibited the binding of the radioligand, [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate, to muscarinic receptors in vitro, with progesterone as the most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 37 microM, ..
  55. Faull K, Bowersox S, Zeller DeAmicis L, Maddaluno J, Ciaranello R, Dement W. Influence of freezer storage time on cerebral biogenic amine and metabolite concentrations and receptor ligand binding characteristics. Brain Res. 1988;450:225-30 pubmed
    ..These findings have significance for the measurement of dopamine and norepinephrine concentrations in autopsied brains kept frozen in storage. ..
  56. Sharkey J, Ritz M, Schenden J, Hanson R, Kuhar M. Cocaine inhibits muscarinic cholinergic receptors in heart and brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;246:1048-52 pubmed
    Cocaine inhibits M2 muscarinic cholinergic binding measured with [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in heart and brain with a Ki of 18.8 microM...
  57. Gadbut A, Toupin D, Kilbourne E, Galper J. Low density lipoproteins induce parasympathetic responsiveness in embryonic chick ventricular myocytes in parallel with a coordinate increase in expression of genes coding for the M2 muscarinic receptor, G alpha i2, and the acetylcholine-sensitive K+. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:30707-12 pubmed
    ..E.) increase in muscarinic receptor number as demonstrated by [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding and a 4.7 +/- 1.0 (+/- S.E...
  58. Franchini C, Noja F, Corbo F, Lentini G, Tortorella V, Bartolini A, et al. Stereoselectivity in central analgesic action of tocainide and its analogs. Chirality. 1993;5:135-42 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological tests and [3H] quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB) binding assay, taken together, seem to show that the antinociceptive effect of (-)-(R)-..
  59. Tucek S, Musílková J, Nedoma J, Proska J, Shelkovnikov S, Vorlicek J. Positive cooperativity in the binding of alcuronium and N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1990;38:674-80 pubmed
    ..Positive cooperativity induced by alcuronium appears to be specific for the m2 (cardiac) subtype of muscarinic receptors...
  60. Andre C, Marullo S, Convents A, Lu B, Guillet J, Hoebeke J, et al. A human embryonic lung fibroblast with a high density of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Eur J Biochem. 1988;171:401-7 pubmed
    Binding studies with the radiolabeled muscarinic antagonists dexetimide, quinuclidinyl benzilate and N-methylscopolamine showed that the human embryonic lung fibroblast CCL137 possesses approximately 2 X 10(5) muscarinic receptors/cell, ..
  61. Pohorecki R, Head R, Domino E. Effects of selected muscarinic cholinergic antagonists on [3H]acetylcholine release from rat hippocampal slices. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;244:213-7 pubmed
    ..However, the order of promoting maximal release of [3H]ACh was atropine greater than dexetimide greater than methylatropine greater than aprophen greater than benactyzine greater than pirenzepine...
  62. Inoue O, Kobayashi K, Takai N, Furusawa Y, Ando K, Nakano T, et al. An increase in [3H]QNB binding by proton-beam irradiation in intact rat brain: an apparent positive cooperativity of binding. Neurosci Lett. 1998;250:33-6 pubmed
    After focal irradiation of rat brains with a beam of proton (dose, 30 Gy), [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding, both in vitro and in vivo, was measured, using either autoradiographic or tissue-dissection methods...
  63. Ruiz de Azua I, Del Olmo E, Pazos A, Salles J. Transmembrane signaling through phospholipase C-beta in the developing human prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci Res. 2006;84:13-26 pubmed
  64. Grammas P, Dereski M, Diglio C, Giacomelli F, Wiener J. Autonomic receptor interactions in isolated cardiac myocytes from hypertensive rats. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1989;21:807-15 pubmed
    ..Binding assays were performed using quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) for cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptors, respectively...
  65. Wei J, Hung W. Evidence for the coupling of muscarinic M1 receptors to polyphosphoinositide turnover in rat cortical synaptosomes. Chin J Physiol. 1989;32:103-14 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that there is evidence to support the view that muscarinic M1 receptors are coupled to the PPI turnover event in rat cortical synaptosomes. ..
  66. Llorens J, Crofton K, Tilson H, Ali S, Mundy W. Characterization of disulfoton-induced behavioral and neurochemical effects following repeated exposure. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1993;20:163-9 pubmed
    ..Repeated exposure to disulfoton decreased brain AChE activity and the number of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites...
  67. Dunlap M, Bibevski S, Rosenberry T, Ernsberger P. Mechanisms of altered vagal control in heart failure: influence of muscarinic receptors and acetylcholinesterase activity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H1632-40 pubmed
    ..Therefore, reduced vagal control in HF is most likely due to changes of presynaptic function (ganglionic), because postsynaptic mechanisms augment vagal control in HF. ..
  68. Basu N, Scheuhammer A, Grochowina N, Klenavic K, Evans D, O Brien M, et al. Effects of mercury on neurochemical receptors in wild river otters (Lontra canadensis). Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:3585-91 pubmed
    ..Given the importance of cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in animal physiology, the ecological implications of these changes need to be investigated...
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