Summary: Derivatives of benzylic acid, including its salts and esters,

Top Publications

  1. Silver N, Sandage B, Sabounjian L, Schwiderski U, Shipley J, Harnett M. Pharmacokinetics of once-daily trospium chloride 60 mg extended release and twice-daily trospium chloride 20 mg in healthy adults. J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;50:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, with the extended-release formulation, trospium concentrations are less likely to reach the threshold where adverse events may sometimes occur. ..
  2. Yamada S, Ito Y, Taki Y, Seki M, Nanri M, Yamashita F, et al. The N-oxide metabolite contributes to bladder selectivity resulting from oral propiverine: muscarinic receptor binding and pharmacokinetics. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:1314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, M-2 may contribute greatly to the relatively selective and long-lasting occupation of bladder muscarinic receptors after oral administration of propiverine. ..
  3. Chancellor M, Oefelein M, Vasavada S. Obesity is associated with a more severe overactive bladder disease state that is effectively treated with once-daily administration of trospium chloride extended release. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010;29:551-4 pubmed publisher
    ..0001) for WHO obesity levels I and II. Obesity is associated with a more severe OAB disease state. Once daily trospium chloride XR is efficacious in the obese patient with the OAB syndrome. ..
  4. Sandage B, Sabounjian L, Shipley J, Profy A, Lasseter K, Fox L, et al. Predictive power of an in vitro system to assess drug interactions of an antimuscarinic medication: a comparison of in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction studies of trospium chloride with digoxin. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;46:776-84 pubmed
    ..The in vitro system for assessment of a potential interaction of 2 drugs excreted primarily through the kidney was predictive of the pharmacokinetic outcomes obtained from a clinical setting. ..
  5. Maruyama O, Kawachi Y, Hanazawa K, Koizumi K, Yamashita R, Sugimura S, et al. Naftopidil monotherapy vs naftopidil and an anticholinergic agent combined therapy for storage symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A prospective randomized controlled study. Int J Urol. 2006;13:1280-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, naftopidil is a useful agent as the first choice in BPH patients with storage symptoms. ..
  6. Wuest M, Braeter M, Schoeberl C, Ravens U. Juvenile pig detrusor: effects of propiverine and three of its metabolites. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;524:145-8 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless order of potency and efficacy of propiverine and its metabolites M-5 and M-14 are similar in juvenile and mature pigs, while M-6 only reduces atropine-sensitive contractions in the juvenile organism. ..
  7. Junemann K, Hessdörfer E, Unamba Oparah I, Berse M, Brünjes R, Madersbacher H, et al. Propiverine hydrochloride immediate and extended release: comparison of efficacy and tolerability in patients with overactive bladder. Urol Int. 2006;77:334-9 pubmed
    ..Both formulations are safe and well tolerated. The extended release formulation of propiverine is a suitable new option for the treatment of the overactive bladder. ..
  8. Lee K, Choo M, Kim D, Kim J, Kim H, Min K, et al. Combination treatment with propiverine hydrochloride plus doxazosin controlled release gastrointestinal therapeutic system formulation for overactive bladder and coexisting benign prostatic obstruction: a prospective, randomized, controlled multicent. J Urol. 2005;174:1334-8 pubmed
  9. Zellner M, Madersbacher H, Palmtag H, Stöhrer M, Bödeker R. Trospium chloride and oxybutynin hydrochloride in a german study of adults with urinary urge incontinence: results of a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, flexible-dose noninferiority trial. Clin Ther. 2009;31:2519-39 pubmed publisher
    ..German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices Registration Number 4022383. ..

More Information


  1. Wuest M, Hecht J, Christ T, Braeter M, Schoeberl C, Hakenberg O, et al. Pharmacodynamics of propiverine and three of its main metabolites on detrusor contraction. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;145:608-19 pubmed
    ..5. The investigated responses to propiverine and its metabolites suggest that impairment of maximum CCh-induced contractions is due to strong effect on I(Ca) and that this may be associated with the presence of the aliphatic side chain. ..
  2. Staskin D, Kay G, Tannenbaum C, Goldman H, Bhashi K, Ling J, et al. Trospium chloride has no effect on memory testing and is assay undetectable in the central nervous system of older patients with overactive bladder. Int J Clin Pract. 2010;64:1294-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of both pharmacological and neuropsychological testing support the hypothesis of a lack of detectable CNS penetration for the quaternary amine trospium chloride. ..
  3. Wenge B, Geyer J, Bonisch H. Oxybutynin and trospium are substrates of the human organic cation transporters. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011;383:203-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, hOCTs very probably contribute to the active tubular and hepatobiliary secretion of trospium. Furthermore, hOCT(1) and hOCT(3) may be involved in the tissue uptake of this drug in the urinary bladder. ..
  4. Zhu H, Brain K, Aishima M, Shibata A, Young J, Sueishi K, et al. Actions of two main metabolites of propiverine (M-1 and M-2) on voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ currents and Ca2+ transients in murine urinary bladder myocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;324:118-27 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that M-1 acts, at least in part, as a Ca(2+) channel antagonist (as it inhibited I(Ca)), whereas M-2 has more direct antimuscarinic actions. ..
  5. May K, Westphal K, Giessmann T, Wegner D, Adam U, Lerch M, et al. Disposition and antimuscarinic effects of the urinary bladder spasmolytics propiverine: influence of dosage forms and circadian-time rhythms. J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;48:570-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that oral absorption of propiverine is site-dependent and influenced by dosage form and circadian-time-dependent elimination processes. ..
  6. Yokoyama T, Uematsu K, Watanabe T, Sasaki K, Kumon H, Nagai A. Naftopidil and propiverine hydrochloride for treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia and concomitant overactive bladder: a prospective randomized controlled study. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that each treatment showed effectiveness for male LUTS with OAB. However, there are some possibilities of adverse effects with propiverine hydrochloride monotherapy. ..
  7. Uchida S, Kurosawa S, Fujino Oki T, Kato Y, Nanri M, Yoshida K, et al. Binding activities by propiverine and its N-oxide metabolites of L-type calcium channel antagonist receptors in the rat bladder and brain. Life Sci. 2007;80:2454-60 pubmed
  8. Tomalik Scharte D, Jetter A, Kinzig Schippers M, Skott A, Sorgel F, Klaassen T, et al. Effect of propiverine on cytochrome P450 enzymes: a cocktail interaction study in healthy volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005;33:1859-66 pubmed
    ..93-1.00, 0.84-0.96, and 0.97-1.07, respectively). All study drugs were well tolerated. In conclusion, propiverine has a minor potential to cause drug-drug interactions. ..
  9. Selent J, Brandt W, Pamperin D, Göber B. Enantiomeric N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilates as muscarinic receptor ligands: Radioligand binding studies and docking studies to models of the three muscarinic receptors M1, M2 and M3. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006;14:1729-36 pubmed
    Benzilic ester derivatives with a basic moiety like N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilates are potential drugs for the treatment of urinary incontinence, duodenal and gastric ulcers and Parkinson's disease...
  10. Mora A, Fitch A, Ramirez B, Delgado G, Brunelli M, Wright J. Structure of lithium benzilate hemihydrate solved by simulated annealing and difference Fourier synthesis from powder data. Acta Crystallogr B. 2003;59:378-83 pubmed
    ..At the outer edge of the channels, weaker intermolecular C-H.Ph hydrogen bonds along [100] and [001] contribute to the supramolecular aggregation of the structure. ..
  11. Van Rillaer W, Beernaert H. Determination of residual bromopropylate and coumaphos in honey and honeycomb by capillary gas chromatography. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 1989;188:135-7 pubmed
    ..BP and Cph could not be detected in the honey samples. Samples of honey-honeycomb recently treated with Perizin (Cph) and Folbex VA (BP) contained different amounts of BP and Cph. ..
  12. Sand P, Dmochowski R, Zinner N, Staskin D, Appell R. Trospium chloride extended release is effective and well tolerated in women with overactive bladder syndrome. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2009;20:1431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Adverse events considered at least possibly related to treatment with trospium ER included dry mouth (11.4%) and constipation (8.9%). Trospium ER was effective and well tolerated in women with OAB. ..
  13. Staskin D, Sand P, Zinner N, Dmochowski R. Once daily trospium chloride is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of overactive bladder: results from a multicenter phase III trial. J Urol. 2007;178:978-83; discussion 983-4 pubmed
    ..Dry mouth was elicited at the lowest reported rate in the oral antimuscarinic drug class. ..
  14. Kosilov K, Loparev S, Ivanovskaya M, Kosilova L. Effectiveness of Solifenacin and Trospium for Managing of Severe Symptoms of Overactive Bladder in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Am J Mens Health. 2016;10:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination of trospium and solifenacin in standard doses is an efficient and safe method of management of severe symptoms of OAB in the course of the treatment of with tamsulosin in patients more than 50 years of age. ..
  15. Urbanova M, Šturcová A, Brus J, Benes H, Skorepova E, Kratochvíl B, et al. Characterizing crystal disorder of trospium chloride: a comprehensive,(13) C CP/MAS NMR, DSC, FTIR, and XRPD study. J Pharm Sci. 2013;102:1235-48 pubmed publisher
    ..2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1235-1248, 2013. ..
  16. Wüst M, Averbeck B, Reif S, Bräter M, Ravens U. Different responses to drugs against overactive bladder in detrusor muscle of pig, guinea pig and mouse. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;454:59-69 pubmed
    ..Thus, a comparison of drug effects is only feasible in the same animal model and the results cannot easily be transferred to humans. ..
  17. Yokoyama O, Miwa Y, Oyama N, Aoki Y, Ito H, Akino H. Antimuscarinic drug inhibits detrusor overactivity induced by topical application of prostaglandin E2 to the urethra with a decrease in urethral pressure. J Urol. 2007;178:2208-12 pubmed
    ..Propiverine may compensate for detrusor function by decreasing urethral resistance in the voiding phase. ..
  18. Asimakopoulos A, Cerruto M, Del Popolo G, La Martina M, Artibani W, Carone R, et al. An overview on mixed action drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder and detrusor overactivity. Urol Int. 2012;89:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Propiverine shows a better tolerability profile than oxybutynin. Both drugs improve HRQoL of patients affected by OAB. Profiles of each drug and dosage differ and should be considered in making treatment choices. ..
  19. Sha Q, Arman H, Doyle M. Asymmetric synthesis of 1H-pyrrol-3(2H)-ones from 2,3-diketoesters by combination of aldol condensation with benzilic acid rearrangement. Chem Commun (Camb). 2016;52:108-11 pubmed publisher
    ..An efficient two-step protocol for the asymmetric synthesis of 1H-pyrrol-3(2H)-one derivatives in 99% ee from conveniently accessed 2,3-diketoesters has been developed. ..
  20. Biastre K, Burnakis T. Trospium chloride treatment of overactive bladder. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..For now, it appears to be a feasible alternative for patients who cannot tolerate oxybutynin. ..
  21. Sugaya K, Nishijima S, Kadekawa K, Miyazato M, Mukouyama H. Relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary ATP in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or overactive bladder. Biomed Res. 2009;30:287-94 pubmed
    ..Measurement of urinary ATP can be used as a marker of pathologic bladder function. ..
  22. Staskin D, Cardozo L. Baseline incontinence severity is predictive of the percentage of patients continent after receiving once-daily trospium chloride extended release. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:973-6 pubmed publisher
    ..g. 1 UUI/day) can expect higher 'dry rates' following treatment (e.g. up to 75%) than those with more severe OAB. This information can provide a useful tool for the physician and patient in establishing expectations during therapy. ..
  23. Kaya S, Akbayrak T, Beksac S. Comparison of different treatment protocols in the treatment of idiopathic detrusor overactivity: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25:327-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiotherapy protocol we introduced in the present study with or without anticholinergic therapy has a substantial positive impact on the treatment of female patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity. ..
  24. Wuest M, Christ T, Hiller N, Braeter M, Ravens U. Effects of three metabolites of propiverine on voltage-dependent L-type calcium currents in human atrial myocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;598:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..6). We conclude, that propiverine and M-14 reduce cardiac I(Ca)(,L) at higher concentrations than in detrusor cells and therefore preferentially reduce I(Ca)(,L) in the urinary bladder than in the heart. ..
  25. McKeage K. Propiverine: a review of its use in the treatment of adults and children with overactive bladder associated with idiopathic or neurogenic detrusor overactivity, and in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Clin Drug Investig. 2013;33:71-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, propiverine provides a valuable option for the treatment of adults and children with OAB associated with IDO or NDO, and in men with storage LUTS. ..
  26. Kadekawa K, Nishijima S, Ashitomi K, Yamamoto H, Sugaya K. Excitatory effect of propiverine hydrochloride on urethral activity in rats. Int J Urol. 2012;19:575-82 pubmed publisher
  27. Huang M, Tian Y, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Lin H. Determination of propiverine hydrochloride in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to the pharmacokinetic study of a sustained release formulation. Arzneimittelforschung. 2011;61:494-501 pubmed
    ..The major pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy Chinese volunteers are given for the first time and the sustained release characteristics of the sustained release formulation are evaluated. [corrected]. ..
  28. Bittner N, Merrick G, Brammer S, Niehaus A, Wallner K, Butler W, et al. Role of trospium chloride in brachytherapy-related detrusor overactivity. Urology. 2008;71:460-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Nearly 80% of patients with brachytherapy-related detrusor overactivity responded favorably to trospium with improvements in IPSS (especially urgency). This was accomplished with an acceptable morbidity profile. ..
  29. Alloussi S, Mürtz G, Gitzhofer S, Eichel R, Lang C, Madersbacher H, et al. Failure of monotherapy in primary monosymptomatic enuresis: a combined desmopressin and propiverine treatment regimen improves efficacy outcomes. BJU Int. 2009;103:1706-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the case for further optimizing the inaugurated treatment algorithm of PME for treatment duration, dose-titration and structured withdrawal programmes, thus possibly further decreasing relapse rates. ..
  30. Nezhinskaia G, Vladykin A, Sapronov N. [Non-neuronal effects of muscarinic antagonists in the prophylaxis of stress]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2008;71:46-8 pubmed
    ..Estimation of the AFC response and corticosterone level after WIS shows the efficacy ofprophylaxis of the gastric stress lesion. ..
  31. Onur R, Ozcan M, Tuygun U, Ozan T, Ayar A, Orhan I. Effects of combined use of trospium chloride and melatonin on in vitro contractility of rat urinary bladder. Urology. 2010;75:873-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings may offer an insight into lowering the dose of an antimuscarinic by combining it with an antioxidant and endogenous hormone, melatonin. ..
  32. Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Clinical efficacy of clenbuterol and propiverine in menopausal women with urinary incontinence: improvement in quality of life. J Med. 2000;31:311-9 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrated the necessity of contributed urinary incontinence with improvement in quality of life of postmenopausal women. ..
  33. Miyazato M, Sugaya K, Nishijima S, Oda M, Ogawa Y. A gap junction blocker inhibits isolated whole bladder activity in normal rats and rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction. Biomed Res. 2006;27:203-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, inhibition of intercellular communication in the bladder via gap junctions may be useful for treating detrusor overactivity, as well as propiverine hydrochloride. ..
  34. Ho T, Fauziah M, Saleh I. Laboratory evaluation of five pesticides for control of Leptotrombidium fletcheri (Acari: Trombiculidae). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1992;23:125-7 pubmed
    ..8 ppm, LC99 = 118.1 ppm), fenthion (LC50 = 15.4 ppm, LC99 = 29.7 ppm), and malathion (LC50 = 84.7 ppm, LC99 = 313.9 ppm). Dieldrin was the most toxic. Dicofol was recommended for further evaluation in field trials...
  35. Kim S, Song S, Ku J. Bladder training versus combination of propiverine with bladder training for female urinary frequency. A prospective, randomized, comparative study. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2008;65:123-7 pubmed
    ..However, we could not find that there was more symptomatic improvement when anticholinergics combined with bladder training were compared with bladder training alone. ..
  36. Staskin D, MacDiarmid S. Using anticholinergics to treat overactive bladder: the issue of treatment tolerability. Am J Med. 2006;119:9-15 pubmed
    ..Recent dose-adjustment data with extended-release oxybutynin suggest that, given some control in the process, patients are willing to tolerate certain side effects in exchange for symptom relief. ..
  37. Propping S, Braeter M, Grimm M, Wirth M, Ravens U, Wuest M. Anticholinergic effects of cis- and trans-isomers of two metabolites of propiverine. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2010;381:329-38 pubmed publisher
    ..However, at higher concentration ranges, all four compounds seem to have additional effects on Ca(2+) influx. ..
  38. Kubota Y, Kojima Y, Shibata Y, Imura M, Kohri K, Sasaki S. Correlation between improvements in Overactive Bladder Symptom Score and health-related quality of life questionnaires in overactive bladder patients treated with an antimuscarinic drug. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30:1309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Improvement in the OABSS correlated with improvements in HRQOL after treatment. The OABSS is a useful tool to evaluate OAB symptom severity after medical treatment. ..
  39. Schulte Baukloh H, Mürtz G, Henne T, Michael T, Miller K, Knispel H. Urodynamic effects of propiverine hydrochloride in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity: a prospective analysis. BJU Int. 2006;97:355-8 pubmed
    ..Because of its dual mode of action, it is well tolerated even in children who need higher doses. Propiverine hydrochloride is a preferable alternative to oxybutynin, the anticholinergic most frequently used in children with NDO to date. ..
  40. Wuest M, Witte L, Michel Reher M, Propping S, Braeter M, Strugala G, et al. The muscarinic receptor antagonist propiverine exhibits ?(1)-adrenoceptor antagonism in human prostate and porcine trigonum. World J Urol. 2011;29:149-55 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains to be determined clinically, how these additional properties contribute to the clinical effects of propiverine, particularly in male voiding dysfunction. ..
  41. Oertel R, Richter K, Fauler J, Kirch W. Increasing sample throughput in pharmacological studies by using dual-column liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2002;948:187-92 pubmed
    ..The system was tested and used for the determination of several drugs, metabolites and endogenous compounds (i.e., propiverine, talinolol, scopolamine and leukotrienes). ..
  42. Zinner N. Trospium chloride: an anticholinergic quaternary ammonium compound for the treatment of overactive bladder. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005;6:1409-20 pubmed
    ..The fast-acting efficacy of trospium chloride, coupled with its good safety profile and tolerability, make it an important new option for treatment of OAB. ..
  43. Bodor N, Buchwald P. Designing safer (soft) drugs by avoiding the formation of toxic and oxidative metabolites. Methods Mol Biol. 2002;186:301-12 pubmed
  44. Ma B, Sherman P, Moskwa J, Koeppe R, Kilbourn M. Sensitivity of [11C]N-methylpyrrolidinyl benzilate ([11C]NMPYB) to endogenous acetylcholine: PET imaging vs tissue sampling methods. Nucl Med Biol. 2004;31:393-7 pubmed
  45. Ozdedeli S, Karapolat H, Akkoc Y. Comparison of intravaginal electrical stimulation and trospium hydrochloride in women with overactive bladder syndrome: a randomized controlled study. Clin Rehabil. 2010;24:342-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Discontinuation of both treatments caused deterioration in most of the objective and subjective symptoms of overactive bladder syndrome. ..
  46. Karaman A, Samdanci E, Sayin S, Karabulut I, Fadillioglu E. Effects of tolterodine and trospium chloride on renal damage induced by partial upper urinary tract obstruction. Urology. 2013;82:194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Antimuscarinic medications such as tolterodine and trospium chloride exert renoprotective effects, probably by prevention of pelvic pressure increases. ..
  47. Visco A, Brubaker L, Jelovsek J, Wilson T, Norton P, Zyczynski H, et al. Adherence to Oral Therapy for Urgency Urinary Incontinence: Results from the Anticholinergic Versus Botox Comparison (ABC) Trial. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 2016;22:24-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the AC group, higher baseline incontinence severity and better UUI Quality of Life were associated with decreased adherence. Smokers were less adherent. ..
  48. Dmochowski R, Sand P, Zinner N, Staskin D. Trospium 60 mg once daily (QD) for overactive bladder syndrome: results from a placebo-controlled interventional study. Urology. 2008;71:449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..5% versus 1.8%, respectively). Central nervous system side effects were rarely observed and were comparable between groups. Trospium QD represents a convenient, effective, and well-tolerated treatment option for OAB. ..
  49. Ban E, Maeng J, Woo J, Kim C. Sensitive column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of propiverine in human plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006;831:230-5 pubmed
    ..This method showed excellent sensitivity (a limit of detection of 0.5 ng/ml), good precision and accuracy. This method is suitable for bioequivalence studies following single dose in healthy volunteers. ..
  50. Cho S, Lee H, Im H, Park W, Baek M, Lee K. Quantification of propiverine by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application to a bioequivalence study of two formulations in healthy subjects. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005;39:670-6 pubmed
    ..46 and 109.41%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of two propiverine hydrochloride tablet formulations (20 mg) in 24 healthy subjects after a single administration. ..
  51. MacDiarmid S, Ellsworth P, Ginsberg D, Oefelein M, Sussman D. Safety and efficacy of once-daily trospium chloride extended-release in male patients with overactive bladder. Urology. 2011;77:24-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3 vs -1.4; P < .05) in men at week 12 (the coprimary efficacy variables). Trospium XR is safe and effective in men with OAB. The risk of urinary retention is low and may be further decreased by careful patient selection. ..
  52. Itoh T, Tanaka M, Kobayashi K, Suzuki K, Inoue O. Binding kinetics of 11C-N-methyl piperidyl benzilate (11C-NMPB) in a rhesus monkey brain using the cerebellum as a reference region. Ann Nucl Med. 2005;19:499-505 pubmed
    ..When 11C-NMPB binding was compared between ketamine-treated and awake animals, a significant increase in 11C-NMPB binding was observed in the striatum but not in other brain regions of ketamine-treated animals. ..
  53. Schulte Baukloh H, Mürtz G, Heine G, Austin P, Miller K, Michael T, et al. Urodynamic effects of propiverine in children and adolescents with neurogenic bladder: results of a prospective long-term study. J Pediatr Urol. 2012;8:386-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term efficacy and tolerability of propiverine for NDO in children and adolescents is promising: clinically relevant improvements in key urodynamic outcomes were paralleled by improvements in incontinence score. ..
  54. Tanaka K, Ishihara T, Sugizaki T, Kobayashi D, Yamashita Y, Tahara K, et al. Mepenzolate bromide displays beneficial effects in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2686 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we propose that mepenzolate bromide may be an effective therapeutic for the treatment of COPD due to its anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory activities. ..
  55. Kato M, Matsukawa Y, Kato K, Kondo A, Yamada S, Hattori R, et al. [Efficacy and safety of propiverine on improvement of symptoms and QOL for female patients with wet overactive bladder]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2008;54:165-71 pubmed
    ..The incidence of adverse events was 23.8% and none were serious. Propiverine hydrochloride was shown to contribute not only to the improvement of symptoms in female patients with wet overactive bladder but also to their QOL. ..
  56. Sasaki Y, Hamada K, Yamazaki C, Seto T, Kimura Y, Ukai Y, et al. Effect of NS-21, an anticholinergic drug with calcium antagonistic activity, on lower urinary tract function in a rat model of urinary frequency. Int J Urol. 1997;4:401-6 pubmed
  57. El Shahawi M. Retention profiles of some commercial pesticides, pyrethroid and acaricide residues and their application to tomato and parsley plants. J Chromatogr A. 1997;760:179-92 pubmed
    ..Analysis of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, humidity, wet and dry mass of tomato and parsley untreated and sprayed for different time intervals--i.e. 24, 72 and 120 h--with Chlorpyrifos, was carried out. ..
  58. Kamimura N, Hatakeyama S, Kudo S, Yoneyama T, Hashimoto Y, Koie T, et al. [Additional effect of propiverine for naftopidil-resistant nocturia in the patient with benign prostate hypertrophy]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2011;57:71-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results indicate that additional administration of propiverine may be useful for the patients with BPH who have naftopidil-resistant nocturia. However, caution must be exercised regarding Qmax and PSA levels. ..
  59. Levin S, Kiselman I. Salivatory effects induced by pirenzepine, atropine, metacine and hexamethonium in preganglionar chronically denervated human parotid gland. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1989;41:868-71 pubmed
    ..The authors discuss the essence of the revealed paradoxical phenomena. ..
  60. Mo C, Wang R, Meng X, Long C, Wang H. [Therapeutic effects of benthiactzine against respiratory failure induced by cholinesterase inhibitor in rats]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2009;21:652-5 pubmed
    ..The lungs of rats treated with benthiactzine showed less intense pathological changes. The new medicine against poisoning benthiactzine can be a favourable drug against respiratory failure induced by organophosphorus pesticides. ..
  61. Oki T, Yamada S, Tohma A, Kimura R. Muscarinic receptor binding characteristics in rat tissues after oral administration of oxybutynin and propiverine. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24:491-5 pubmed
  62. Kaneko K, Fujinaga S, Ohtomo Y, Shimizu T, Yamashiro Y. Combined pharmacotherapy for nocturnal enuresis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2001;16:662-4 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of the combined therapy in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis appears to be greater than that reported for either drug alone, and therefore can be a choice of treatment in order to motivate children with nocturnal enuresis. ..
  63. Flodstrom S, Hemming H, Warngard L, Ahlborg U. Promotion of altered hepatic foci development in rat liver, cytochrome P450 enzyme induction and inhibition of cell-cell communication by DDT and some structurally related organohalogen pesticides. Carcinogenesis. 1990;11:1413-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, no strict correlation between cytochrome P450b induction/liver growth and tumour promotion-related effects in vivo and in vitro was apparent for these organohalogen pesticides in the present study. ..
  64. Oka T, Nakano K, Kirimoto T, Matsuura N. Effects of antimuscarinic drugs on both urinary frequency and cognitive impairment in conscious, nonrestrained rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001;87:27-33 pubmed
    ..Propiverine showed slight aggravation of errors, but with no statistical significance at any dose, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg. These results suggest that propiverine has comparatively less effect on the cognitive impairment than oxybutynin. ..
  65. Siegmund W, Siegert J, Richter K, Schnabel F, Feustel C, Kirch W. Influence of a fat-rich meal on bioavailability of extended-release and immediate-release propiverine. J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;52:681-90 pubmed publisher
  66. Pehl C, Wendl B, Kaess H, Pfeiffer A. Effects of two anticholinergic drugs, trospium chloride and biperiden, on motility and evoked potentials of the oesophagus. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998;12:979-84 pubmed
  67. Amend B, Hennenlotter J, Schäfer T, Horstmann M, Stenzl A, Sievert K. Effective treatment of neurogenic detrusor dysfunction by combined high-dosed antimuscarinics without increased side-effects. Eur Urol. 2008;53:1021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The appearance of side-effects was comparable to that of normal-dosed antimuscarinics. Further studies are required to investigate the long-term pharmacological and physiological background of our findings. ..
  68. Marschall Kehrel A, Mürtz G, Kramer G, Junemann K, Madersbacher H, Hjalmas K. [A suggested treatment algorithm in nocturnal enuresis with emphasis on partial responders]. Urologe A. 2004;43:795-802 pubmed
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    ..Furthermore, the lower urinary tract obstruction will be a predictor of increase in urinary residual volume. ..
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    ..Neither drug's renal clearance was affected. No safety/tolerability issues of concern were observed with coadministration. No dosage adjustment is necessary for metformin when coadministered with trospium chloride XR. ..
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    ..Trospium was stable in the battery of stability studies viz., bench-top, auto-sampler, dry extracts and freeze/thaw cycles. The developed assay method was applied to an oral pharmacokinetic study in humans. ..
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    ..5%) of adverse events evidences a favourable risk-benefit profile of propiverine hydrochloride, considering in particular the total documented treatment and surveillance period of 171 patient years and nine months. ..
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    ..Consequently, we have thought that a combination of trospium and galantamine could be recommended for the management of the elderly patients with UUI and AD, which are common problems in the elderly. ..
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    ..This was reported both in patients who have already been medicated with trospium chloride and those who have never taken any kind of medication. Regarding side effects, solifenacin is quite well-tolerated in both groups. ..
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    ..Nocturnal improvements were associated with sleep-related QoL benefits. These results indicate that the XR formulation of trospium chloride provides effective 24-hr coverage of OAB symptoms. ..
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