4 dihydroxyphenylacetic acid 3


Summary: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.

Top Publications

  1. Lorenc Duda A, Berezińska M, Urbańska A, Gołembiowska K, Zawilska J. Dopamine in the Turkey retina-an impact of environmental light, circadian clock, and melatonin. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;38:12-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Si W, Aluisio L, Okamura N, Clark S, Fraser I, Sutton S, et al. Neuropeptide S stimulates dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex. J Neurochem. 2010;115:475-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Dopamine release in the mPFC has been previously linked to modulation of anxiety states and fear extinction. The present results may thus provide a physiological and anatomical basis for the reported effects of NPS on these behaviors. ..
  3. Basaran N, Buyukuysal R, Millington W, Cavun S. Glycyl-glutamine (beta-endorphin(30-31)) inhibits morphine-induced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2010;381:467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the hypothesis that Gly-Gln abolishes the rewarding effect of morphine by inhibiting the ability of morphine to stimulate dopamine release in the NAc. ..
  4. Zumárraga M, Dávila R, Basterreche N, Arrue A, Goienetxea B, Zamalloa M, et al. Catechol O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase A genotypes, and plasma catecholamine metabolites in bipolar and schizophrenic patients. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:774-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results suggest that this polymorphism, alone or associated with other polymorphisms, could have an important role in the genetic control of monoamine concentration and its metabolites. ..
  5. OLAH M, Feher P, Ihm Z, Bacskay I, Kiss T, Freeman M, et al. Dopamine-regulated adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in lactating rats: functional plasticity of melanotropes. Neuroendocrinology. 2009;90:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical denervation of the IL elevated basal plasma levels of ACTH. Taken together, these data indicate that melanotropes synthesize ACTH during lactation and its release from these cells is regulated by NEDA neurons. ..
  6. Wright G. Bee pheromones: signal or agent of manipulation?. Curr Biol. 2009;19:R547-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have provided a new perspective on the relationship between the honey bee queen and her colony. They suggest that the queen produces a pheromone which pharmacologically manipulates her workers. ..
  7. Korkmaz O, Tuncel N, Tuncel M, Oncü E, Sahinturk V, Celik M. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) treatment of Parkinsonian rats increases thalamic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and alters the release of nerve growth factor (NGF) by mast cells. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;41:278-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the protective effect of VIP on motor function is possibly related to the increased levels of GABA in the VATh, and its neuroprotective actions may be mediated by the release of NGF from brain mast cells. ..
  8. Kabuto H, Amakawa M, Mankura M, Yamanushi T, Mori A. Docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester enhances 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal damage by induction of lipid peroxidation in mouse striatum. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:1299-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that DHA-Et enhances 6-OHDA-induced DA depression by increasing lipid peroxidation, and that excessive use of DHA-Et may increase the susceptibility of Parkinson disease in animal model. ..
  9. Berlin I, Heilbronner C, Georgieu S, Meier C, Launay J, Spreux Varoquaux O. Reduced monoamine oxidase A activity in pregnant smokers and in their newborns. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:728-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Smoking is associated with MAOA inhibition in pregnant women and in their newborns at birth. Further studies are needed to estimate the behavioral significance of these findings. ..

More Information


  1. Tareke E, Lyn Cook B, Duhart H, Newport G, Ali S. Acrylamide decreased dopamine levels and increased 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels in PC 12 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2009;458:89-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data suggest that acrylamide-induced decrease in DA levels in PC 12 cells may be associated with peroxynitrite formation, measured as 3-NT levels. ..
  2. Xi Z, Kleitz H, Deng X, Ladenheim B, Peng X, Li X, et al. A single high dose of methamphetamine increases cocaine self-administration by depletion of striatal dopamine in rats. Neuroscience. 2009;161:392-402 pubmed publisher
  3. Carpenter R, Summers C. Learning strategies during fear conditioning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;91:415-23 pubmed
    ..Elevated plasma cortisol levels represent classical fear conditioning in non-escaping fish, while a lack of fear conditioning and a decreased latency to escape over the training period in escapers indicates learned escape. ..
  4. Cao Q, Zhao H, He Y, Ding N, Wang J. Electrochemical sensing of melamine with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as recognition element. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;675:24-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0 x 10(-6) M with a linear coefficiency of 0.997. The detection limit is 3.0 x 10(-9) M. The proposed method displayed an excellent sensitivity and was successfully applied to the determination of melamine in milk products. ..
  5. Dluzen D, McDermott J, Darvesh A. Relationships among gender, age, time, and temperature in methamphetamine-induced striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Neuroscience. 2010;167:985-93 pubmed publisher
  6. Leite L, Rodrigues A, Soares D, Marubayashi U, Coimbra C. Central fatigue induced by losartan involves brain serotonin and dopamine content. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:1469-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the interaction between 5-HT and DA within the hypothalamus seems to contribute to hyperthermia and premature central fatigue after angiotensinergic inhibition. ..
  7. Hsu C, Wang C, Chiu T. Caffeine and a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist induce sensitization and cross-sensitization behavior associated with increased striatal dopamine in mice. J Biomed Sci. 2010;17:4 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptor may play an important role in the striatal neuroadaptations observed in the caffeine-sensitized and SCH58261-sensitized mice. ..
  8. Hagiwara H, Iyo M, Hashimoto K. Mithramycin protects against dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the mouse brain after administration of methamphetamine. Brain Res. 2009;1301:189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future, however, another Sp1 inhibitors with fewer side effects might be more appropriate. ..
  9. Zadori D, Geisz A, Vamos E, Vecsei L, Klivenyi P. Valproate ameliorates the survival and the motor performance in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;94:148-53 pubmed publisher
  10. Llorente R, O Shea E, Gutierrez Lopez M, Llorente Berzal A, Colado M, Viveros M. Sex-dependent maternal deprivation effects on brain monoamine content in adolescent rats. Neurosci Lett. 2010;479:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, MD animals showed increased levels of DA in PFC as well as increased levels of DA and a decrease of DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA ratios in striatum. The effect of MD on the monoaminergic systems was in several cases sex-dependent. ..
  11. Seo J, Leow P, Cho S, Lim H, Kim J, Patel B, et al. Development of inlaid electrodes for whole column electrochemical detection in HPLC. Lab Chip. 2009;9:2238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The PET device was stable and robust to leaks to pressures well in excess of those required for chromatographic separations. ..
  12. Kesby J, Cui X, Ko P, McGrath J, Burne T, Eyles D. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters dopamine turnover in neonatal rat forebrain. Neurosci Lett. 2009;461:155-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Correspondingly, expression of the enzyme required for this conversion, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), was decreased. These results suggest that DVD-deficiency influences dopamine turnover during development. ..
  13. Matsuo T, Izumi Y, Wakita S, Kume T, Takada Takatori Y, Sawada H, et al. Haloperidol, spiperone, pimozide and aripiprazole reduce intracellular dopamine content in PC12 cells and rat mesencephalic cultures: Implication of inhibition of vesicular transport. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;640:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the inhibition of vesicular dopamine transport by haloperidol, spiperone, pimozide and aripiprazole results in a reduction in vesicular dopamine content. ..
  14. Oyama G, Yoshimi K, Natori S, Chikaoka Y, Ren Y, Funayama M, et al. Impaired in vivo dopamine release in parkin knockout mice. Brain Res. 2010;1352:214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed parkin deficiency may affect DA release in PKO mice, although it does not cause massive nigral degeneration or parkinsonian symptoms as in humans. ..
  15. Goldstein D, Holmes C, Kaler S. Relative efficiencies of plasma catechol levels and ratios for neonatal diagnosis of menkes disease. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:1464-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma DA:NE and DOPAC:DHPG ratios are remarkably sensitive and specific for diagnosing Menkes disease in at-risk newborns. Affected newborns also have elevated DOPA and EPI:NE ratios, which decreased DBH activity alone cannot explain. ..
  16. Dzahini K, Dentresangle C, Le Cavorsin M, Bertrand A, Detraz I, Savasta M, et al. Pre-synaptic glutamate-induced activation of DA release in the striatum after partial nigral lesion. J Neurochem. 2010;113:1459-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that a partial unilateral nigral lesion induces a bilateral increase of DA turn-over in the non-denervated striata through GLU afferences to the DA terminals. ..
  17. Farias F, Passos C, Arbo M, Zuanazzi J, Steffen V, Henriques A. Monoamine levels in rat striatum after acute intraperitoneal injection of strictosidinic acid isolated from Psychotria myriantha Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae). Phytomedicine. 2010;17:289-91 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) and HVA (52.5%). The results indicate that strictosidinic acid has a promising effect in the central nervous system, justifying more studies about the central actions of Psychotria compounds. ..
  18. Balthazar C, Leite L, Rodrigues A, Coimbra C. Performance-enhancing and thermoregulatory effects of intracerebroventricular dopamine in running rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;93:465-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide further evidence that central activation of dopaminergic pathways plays an important role in exercise performance. ..
  19. Matsuda S, Saika S, Amano K, Shimizu E, Sajiki J. Changes in brain monoamine levels in neonatal rats exposed to bisphenol A at low doses. Chemosphere. 2010;78:894-906 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that BPA exposure at lower doses than environmentally relevant levels may have a great impact on monoamine levels in neonatal brain over 28d after its disappearance. ..
  20. Dluzen D, Ji J, McDermott J. Age-related changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in heterozygous mutant dopamine transporter knock-out mice. Neurosci Lett. 2010;476:66-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal the significance of interactions between a mutation of the dopamine transporter and aging upon NSDA function and the importance of isolating such variables when using knock-out models. ..
  21. Natividad L, Tejeda H, Torres O, O Dell L. Nicotine withdrawal produces a decrease in extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens that is lower in adolescent versus adult male rats. Synapse. 2010;64:136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, they suggest that GABA systems are underdeveloped during adolescence and this reduced inhibition of dopamine neurons in the VTA may lead to reduced decreases in NAcc dopamine of young animals experiencing withdrawal. ..
  22. Faro L, Alfonso M, Cervantes R, Duran R. Comparative effects of pesticides on in vivo dopamine release in freely moving rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;105:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that different classes of pesticides, with different structures and biochemical activities, may affect the striatal dopaminergic system differently, inducing neurotoxicity. ..
  23. Marcellino D, Suárez Boomgaard D, Sánchez Reina M, Aguirre J, Yoshitake T, Yoshitake S, et al. On the role of P2X(7) receptors in dopamine nerve cell degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: studies with the P2X(7) receptor antagonist A-438079. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2010;117:681-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this was not associated with a reduction of DA cell loss. Blockade of P2X(7) receptors may represent a novel protective strategy for striatal DA terminals in Parkinson's disease and warrants further future investigation. ..
  24. Mertens B, Vanderheyden P, Michotte Y, Sarre S. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation decreases dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:1038-44 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and 1 microM) and candesartan (10 nM). Together, these data suggest that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the striatum exert an opposite effect on the modulation of DA synthesis rather than DA release. ..
  25. Cass W, Peters L. Neurturin effects on nigrostriatal dopamine release and content: comparison with GDNF. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:727-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NTN, like GDNF, can augment striatal DA release, and the magnitude of the NTN effects are similar to those of GDNF. ..
  26. Holmes C, Whittaker N, Heredia Moya J, Goldstein D. Contamination of the norepinephrine prodrug droxidopa by dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. Clin Chem. 2010;56:832-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Droxidopa is contaminated with DOPAL. After oral droxidopa administration, DOPAL is detected in plasma of humans. Droxidopa is susceptible to extensive nonenzymatic conversion to DOPAL. ..
  27. Romero E, Guaza C, Castellano B, Borrell J. Ontogeny of sensorimotor gating and immune impairment induced by prenatal immune challenge in rats: implications for the etiopathology of schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:372-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that prenatal LPS administration throughout pregnancy causes maturation-dependent PPI deficits and age-dependent alterations in dopamine activity, as well as in synaptophysin expression and cytokine levels. ..
  28. Malanga C, Ren J, Guerriero R, Kosofsky B. Augmentation of cocaine-sensitized dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of adult mice following prenatal cocaine exposure. Dev Neurosci. 2009;31:76-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect was not due to fetal malnutrition or changes in the total tissue DA content. Early developmental cocaine exposure may alter adaptation of brain reward systems to chronic psychostimulant exposure in adulthood. ..
  29. Nickell J, Krishnamurthy S, Norrholm S, Deaciuc G, Siripurapu K, Zheng G, et al. Lobelane inhibits methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release via inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;332:612-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The current results reveal that lobelane, a selective VMAT2 inhibitor, inhibits methamphetamine-evoked DA release and is a promising lead for the development of a pharmacotherapeutic for methamphetamine abuse. ..
  30. Tsunoda M, Aoyama C, Nomura H, Toyoda T, Matsuki N, Funatsu T. Simultaneous determination of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in mouse striatum using mixed-mode reversed-phase and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;51:712-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed method was applicable to the determination of dopamine and DOPAC in mouse striatum. The concentrations of dopamine and DOPAC in mouse striatum were 4.98+/-0.66 and 1.00+/-0.11 microM, respectively (n=10). ..
  31. Schwendt M, Rocha A, See R, Pacchioni A, McGinty J, Kalivas P. Extended methamphetamine self-administration in rats results in a selective reduction of dopamine transporter levels in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum not accompanied by marked monoaminergic depletion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Greater understanding of the neuroadaptations underlying persistent methamphetamine seeking and cognitive deficits could yield targets suitable for future therapeutic interventions...
  32. Obermann M, Kuper M, Kastrup O, Yaldizli O, Esser S, Thiermann J, et al. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and CSF dopamine depletion in HIV. J Neurol. 2009;256:948-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate changes in the nigrostriatal system in HIV-infected patients that are detectable as hyperechogenic SN precede prominent extrapyramidal symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. ..
  33. Samad N, Haleem D. Behavioral and neurochemical profile of m-CPP following exposure to single restraint stress in rat. Acta Neurol Belg. 2009;109:24-31 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that behavioral responses to m-CPP and stress are similar The attenuation of m-CPP changes in 5-HIAA and DOPAC levels may be due to a decreased responsiveness of 5-HT-2C receptors in restrained animals. ..
  34. Ma Y, Meng L, Guo C, Han J, Lee D, Cui C. Dose- and time-dependent, context-induced elevation of dopamine and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens of morphine-induced CPP rats. Behav Brain Res. 2009;204:192-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e., in the home cage). These results suggest that that the long-lasting elevation of DA and its metabolites in the NAc is attributable mainly to drug-associated context, rather than the residual effect of morphine. ..
  35. Luo D, Zhang Q, Wang H, Cui Y, Sun Z, Yang J, et al. Fucoidan protects against dopaminergic neuron death in vivo and in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;617:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that fucoidan has protective effect in MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in this model of Parkinson's disease via its antioxidative activity...
  36. Ling Z, Zhu Y, Tong C, Snyder J, Lipton J, Carvey P. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide does not accelerate progressive dopamine neuron loss in the rat as a result of normal aging. Exp Neurol. 2009;216:312-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The progressive DA neuron loss seen in these animals is, however, primarily a result of normal aging. ..
  37. Kitanaka N, Kitanaka J, Watabe K, Takemura M. Low-dose pretreatment with clorgyline decreases the levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in the striatum and nucleus accumbens and attenuates methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats. Neuroscience. 2010;165:1370-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant decrease in the MHPG/NE ratio in the striatum and NAc was apparent in the rats pretreated with 0.1 mg/kg clorgyline. Overall, the present study demonstrated that low-dose clorgyline attenuated METH-induced CPP in rats...
  38. Ishii T, Ishikawa M, Miyoshi N, Yasunaga M, Akagawa M, Uchida K, et al. Catechol type polyphenol is a potential modifier of protein sulfhydryls: development and application of a new probe for understanding the dietary polyphenol actions. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide an alternative approach to understand that catechol type polyphenol is a potential modifier of redox-dependent cellular events through sulfhydryl modification. ..
  39. Yoshitake T, Yoshitake S, Kehr J. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R) and its main constituent flavonoids and ginkgolides increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:659-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding may be one of the mechanisms underlying the reported effects of G. biloba in improving cognitive function. ..
  40. von Ameln N, von Ameln Mayerhofer A. Atypical development of behavioural sensitization to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') in adolescent rats and its expression in adulthood: role of the MDMA chirality. Addict Biol. 2010;15:35-44 pubmed publisher
  41. Ward R, Colivicchi M, Allen R, Schol F, Lallemand F, De Witte P, et al. Neuro-inflammation induced in the hippocampus of 'binge drinking' rats may be mediated by elevated extracellular glutamate content. J Neurochem. 2009;111:1119-28 pubmed publisher
  42. Nencioni A, Lourenço G, Lebrun I, Florio J, Dorce V. Central effects of Tityus serrulatus and Tityus bahiensis scorpion venoms after intraperitoneal injection in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2009;463:234-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Scorpion venoms seem to exert a small but important central effect. More studies in this field are necessary because they may be useful in developing new strategies to reduce the damage caused by scorpion stings. ..
  43. Cao P, Yuan Y, Pehek E, Moise A, Huang Y, Palczewski K, et al. Alpha-synuclein disrupted dopamine homeostasis leads to dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9312 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide in vivo evidence supporting a critical role for dopamine homeostasis in supporting dopaminergic neuron integrity. ..
  44. Wang J, Rahman M, Duhart H, Newport G, Patterson T, Murdock R, et al. Expression changes of dopaminergic system-related genes in PC12 cells induced by manganese, silver, or copper nanoparticles. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:926-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Mn and Cu nanoparticles-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity may share some common mechanisms associated with neurodegeneration. ..
  45. Misztal T, Górski K, Tomaszewska Zaremba D, Fulop F, Romanowicz K. Effects of a structural analogue of salsolinol, 1-MeDIQ, on pituitary prolactin release and dopaminergic activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus in nursing sheep. Brain Res. 2010;1307:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, 1-MeDIQ is able to inhibit prolactin secretion in lactating sheep, acting at the CNS level. In addition, one of the way of 1-MeDIQ action may be directed to the local salsolinol release within the mediobasal hypothalamus. ..
  46. Rees J, Florang V, Eckert L, Doorn J. Protein reactivity of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a toxic dopamine metabolite, is dependent on both the aldehyde and the catechol. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1256-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that DOPAL is highly reactive toward protein nucleophiles with the potential for protein cross-linking. ..
  47. Rada P, Barson J, Leibowitz S, Hoebel B. Opioids in the hypothalamus control dopamine and acetylcholine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 2010;1312:1-9 pubmed publisher
  48. Bethel Brown C, Zhang H, Fowler S, Chertoff M, Watson G, Stanford J. Within-session analysis of amphetamine-elicited rotation behavior reveals differences between young adult and middle-aged F344/BN rats with partial unilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;96:423-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for estimating DA depletion in preclinical studies using rats of different ages. ..
  49. Cass W, Peters L. Neurturin protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced reductions in evoked dopamine overflow in rat striatum. Neurochem Int. 2010;57:540-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support that within the experimental parameters used in this study, NTN is as effective as GDNF in protecting against the dopamine-depleting effects of intrastriatal 6-OHDA. ..
  50. Jinsmaa Y, Florang V, Rees J, Anderson D, Strack S, Doorn J. Products of oxidative stress inhibit aldehyde oxidation and reduction pathways in dopamine catabolism yielding elevated levels of a reactive intermediate. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:835-41 pubmed publisher
  51. Michalkiewicz S, Skorupa A. Anodic oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid on carbon electrodes in acetic acid solutions. Bioelectrochemistry. 2010;79:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented can help to explain biochemical and antioxidative properties of DOPAC in a living cell and can be useful in determination of this compound in real samples. ..
  52. Li X, Ma H, Ma Z, Li L, Xu C, Qu R, et al. Ameliorative and neuroprotective effect in MPTP model of Parkinson's disease by Zhen-Wu-Tang (ZWT), a traditional Chinese medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This study proved that ZWT could ameliorate the typical symptom of PD and protect dopaminergic system. These results suggested that ZWT possessed protective and ameliorative properties of dopaminergic neurons. ..
  53. Heermann S, Opazo F, Falkenburger B, Krieglstein K, Spittau B. Aged Tgfbeta2/Gdnf double-heterozygous mice show no morphological and functional alterations in the nigrostriatal system. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2010;117:719-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that a combined haploinsufficiency for Tgfbeta2 and Gdnf has no impact on the function and the survival of midbrain DA neurons under normal aging conditions. ..