Genomes and Genes
Summary: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
- Zhan Y, Du X, Chen H, Liu J, Zhao B, Huang D, et al. Cytosporone B is an agonist for nuclear orphan receptor Nur77. Nat Chem Biol. 2008;4:548-56 pubmed publisher..Thus, Csn-B may represent a promising therapeutic drug for cancers and hypoglycemia, and it may also be useful as a reagent to increase understanding of Nur77 biological function. ..
- Silber H, Burgener C, Letellier I, Peyrou M, Jung M, King J, et al. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of blood and joint synovial fluid concentrations of robenacoxib from healthy dogs and dogs with osteoarthritis. Pharm Res. 2010;27:2633-45 pubmed publisher..The purpose of this population analysis was to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties of robenacoxib in blood and stifle joint synovial fluid of dogs...
- Lindstrom R, Kim T. Ocular permeation and inhibition of retinal inflammation: an examination of data and expert opinion on the clinical utility of nepafenac. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22:397-404 pubmed..Preclinical data suggest nepafenac may also provide unique efficacy in the posterior segment...
- Furlong C, Holland N, Richter R, Bradman A, Ho A, Eskenazi B. PON1 status of farmworker mothers and children as a predictor of organophosphate sensitivity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006;16:183-90 pubmed..Of particular concern are exposures of pregnant mothers and newborns with low PON1 status. ..
- Fernandez C, Ferrández A, Miñambres B, Diaz E, Garcia J. Genetic characterization of the phenylacetyl-coenzyme A oxygenase from the aerobic phenylacetic acid degradation pathway of Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:7422-6 pubmed..The primary structure of the subunits of bacterial phenylacetyl-CoA oxygenases revealed that these enzymes constitute the prototype of a new and distinct group of the large bacterial diiron multicomponent oxygenase family. ..
- Di Gennaro P, Ferrara S, Ronco I, Galli E, Sello G, Papacchini M, et al. Styrene lower catabolic pathway in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST: identification and characterization of genes for phenylacetic acid degradation. Arch Microbiol. 2007;188:117-25 pubmed..The function of some of the isolated genes has been proved by means of biotransformation experiments. ..
- Mohamed M, Ismail W, Heider J, Fuchs G. Aerobic metabolism of phenylacetic acids in Azoarcus evansii. Arch Microbiol. 2002;178:180-92 pubmed..evansiigrowing aerobically with PA showed a probable organization of the paa genes in three operons. The similarity of the PA metabolic products pattern and of gene sequences suggests a common aerobic bacterial PA pathway...
- O Leary N, O Connor K, Duetz W, Dobson A. Transcriptional regulation of styrene degradation in Pseudomonas putida CA-3. Microbiology. 2001;147:973-9 pubmed..putida CA-3 was grown on styrene together with an additional carbon source and it is reported that catabolite repression may involve a different mechanism to transcriptional repression by an additional carbon source. ..
- Chen Z, Koralov S, Gendelman M, Carroll M, Kelsoe G. Humoral immune responses in Cr2-/- mice: enhanced affinity maturation but impaired antibody persistence. J Immunol. 2000;164:4522-32 pubmed..These observations suggest that B cell activation/survival signals mediated by CD21 and/or the retention of Ag by CD21/CD35 play important roles in the generation, quality, and maintenance of serum Ab. ..
- Di Benedetto M, Starzec A, Colombo B, Briane D, Perret G, Kraemer M, et al. Aponecrotic, antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of a novel dextran derivative on breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;135:1859-71 pubmed..6. NaPaC acts like NaPa and CMDB but in more potent manner than components used separately. Its antiproliferative, aponecrotic and anti-angiogenic actions make it a good candidate for a new anti-cancer drug. ..
- Ismail W, El Said Mohamed M, Wanner B, Datsenko K, Eisenreich W, Rohdich F, et al. Functional genomics by NMR spectroscopy. Phenylacetate catabolism in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:3047-54 pubmed..The subsequent beta-oxidation-type degradation of the resulting CoA dicarboxylate via beta-ketoadipyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA appears to be catalyzed by the PaaJ, PaaF and PaaH proteins. ..
- Bao W, Williams A, Faden A, Tortella F. Selective mGluR5 receptor antagonist or agonist provides neuroprotection in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Brain Res. 2001;922:173-9 pubmed..Therefore, both types of compounds may prove to have therapeutic potential for the treatment of stroke. ..
- Kim H, Kang T, Hyun J, Kang H. Regulation of penicillin G acylase gene expression in Escherichia coli by repressor PaaX and the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33253-62 pubmed..This implies that PaaX and the cAMP-CRP compete for binding to the region around the CRP-binding site I and therefore have antagonistic effects on pga expression. ..
- Arias Barrau E, Olivera E, Luengo J, Fern ndez C, Gal n B, Garc a J, et al. The homogentisate pathway: a central catabolic pathway involved in the degradation of L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and 3-hydroxyphenylacetate in Pseudomonas putida. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5062-77 pubmed publisher..putida U funnels also into the homogentisate central pathway, revealing that the hmg cluster is a key catabolic trait for biodegradation of a small number of aromatic compounds...
- Cazac B, Roes J. TGF-beta receptor controls B cell responsiveness and induction of IgA in vivo. Immunity. 2000;13:443-51 pubmed..The data reveal differential roles of TbetaR in homeostasis and antigen responsiveness of B cell subpopulations and establish a critical function of the TGF-beta receptor ligand pair in the induction of IgA responses in vivo. ..
- Ward P, de Roo G, O Connor K. Accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate from styrene and phenylacetic acid by Pseudomonas putida CA-3. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:2046-52 pubmed..The maximum yields for PHA from styrene, phenylacetic acid, and glucose are 0.11, 0.17, and 0.22 g of PHA per g of carbon, respectively. ..
- Voulalas P, Holtzclaw L, Wolstenholme J, Russell J, Hyman S. Metabotropic glutamate receptors and dopamine receptors cooperate to enhance extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in striatal neurons. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3763-73 pubmed..Thus, signal transduction pathways activated by DR1/5 and mGluR5 interact to modify downstream events in striatal neurons while retaining numerous regulatory checkpoints...
- de Vinuesa C, Cook M, Ball J, Drew M, Sunners Y, Cascalho M, et al. Germinal centers without T cells. J Exp Med. 2000;191:485-94 pubmed..Thus, there is a fail-safe mechanism against autoreactivity, even in the event of thymus-independent germinal center formation. ..
- Sidell N, Kirma N, Morgan E, Nair H, Tekmal R. Inhibition of estrogen-induced mammary tumor formation in MMTV-aromatase transgenic mice by 4-chlorophenylacetate. Cancer Lett. 2007;251:302-10 pubmed..The data suggest that 4-CPA is a novel therapeutic agent that could be used in the prevention or treatment of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer. ..
- Ferrer Sevillano F, Fernández Cañón J. Novel phacB-encoded cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Aspergillus nidulans with 3-hydroxyphenylacetate 6-hydroxylase and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 6-hydroxylase activities. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:514-20 pubmed..This cytochrome P450 protein also uses PhAc as a substrate to generate 2-OH-PhAc with a very low efficiency. The phacB gene is the first member of a new CYP450 subfamily (CYP504B). ..
- Mingot J, Peñalva M, Fernández Cañón J. Disruption of phacA, an Aspergillus nidulans gene encoding a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing phenylacetate 2-hydroxylation, results in penicillin overproduction. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:14545-50 pubmed
- Bartolom Mart n D, Mart nez Garc a E, Mascaraque V, Rubio J, Perera J, Alonso S. Characterization of a second functional gene cluster for the catabolism of phenylacetic acid in Pseudomonas sp. strain Y2. Gene. 2004;341:167-79 pubmed publisher..The co-existence of two functional gene clusters for the degradation of phenylacetic acid in a bacterium has not been reported so far...
- Sidell N, Pasquali M, Malkapuram S, Barua A, Wanichkul T, Wada R. In vitro and in vivo effects of easily administered, low-toxic retinoid and phenylacetate compounds on human neuroblastoma cells. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:412-9 pubmed..Taken together, these findings demonstrate the possibility that RAG and/or 4-CPA may serve as effective, less-toxic alternatives to 13-cis RA, which is presently being utilised for nb therapy. ..
- White S, Berry D, McNeil B. Effect of phenylacetic acid feeding on the process of cellular autolysis in submerged batch cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. J Biotechnol. 1999;75:173-85 pubmed..chrysogenum. By contrast, exploitation of the toxicity of PAA is proposed as a means to bring forward or enhance autolysis, providing a reliable method of 'induction' with which to study the phenomenon in P. chrysogenum. ..
- Maruyama M, Lam K, Rajewsky K. Memory B-cell persistence is independent of persisting immunizing antigen. Nature. 2000;407:636-42 pubmed
- Driver D, McHeyzer Williams L, Cool M, Stetson D, McHeyzer Williams M. Development and maintenance of a B220- memory B cell compartment. J Immunol. 2001;167:1393-405 pubmed
- Rodríguez Sáiz M, Barredo J, Moreno M, Fernández Cañón J, Peñalva M, Diez B. Reduced function of a phenylacetate-oxidizing cytochrome p450 caused strong genetic improvement in early phylogeny of penicillin-producing strains. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5465-71 pubmed..The mutation has been tracked down to Wisconsin 49-133, a mutant obtained at the Department of Botany of the University of Wisconsin in 1949, at the beginning of the development of the Wisconsin family of strains. ..
- Lamas Maceiras M, Vaca I, Rodriguez E, Casqueiro J, Martin J. Amplification and disruption of the phenylacetyl-CoA ligase gene of Penicillium chrysogenum encoding an aryl-capping enzyme that supplies phenylacetic acid to the isopenicillin N-acyltransferase. Biochem J. 2006;395:147-55 pubmed..The peroxisomal co-localization of these two proteins indicates that the last two enzymes of the penicillin pathway form a peroxisomal functional complex. ..
- Movsesyan V, Stoica B, Faden A. MGLuR5 activation reduces beta-amyloid-induced cell death in primary neuronal cultures and attenuates translocation of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor. J Neurochem. 2004;89:1528-36 pubmed..Thus, mGluR5 activation limits the release of mitochondrial proteins associated with induction of both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis. ..
- O Leary N, O Connor K, Ward P, Goff M, Dobson A. Genetic characterization of accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate from styrene in Pseudomonas putida CA-3. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:4380-7 pubmed publisher..putida CA-3. Cloning and functional characterization of the pha locus, responsible for PHA polymerization/depolymerization is also reported and the significance and future prospects of this novel bioconversion are discussed...
- Scaglia F, Carter S, O Brien W, Lee B. Effect of alternative pathway therapy on branched chain amino acid metabolism in urea cycle disorder patients. Mol Genet Metab. 2004;81 Suppl 1:S79-85 pubmed..These findings suggest that better titration of protein restriction could be achieved with branched chain amino acid supplementation in patients with UCDs who are on alternative route therapy. ..
- Alonso S, Bartolomé Martín D, del Alamo M, Diaz E, Garcia J, Perera J. Genetic characterization of the styrene lower catabolic pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain Y2. Gene. 2003;319:71-83 pubmed..Although the upper and lower styrene catabolic clusters are adjacent in the Pseudomonas sp. strain Y2 chromosome, their particular base composition and codon usage suggest a distinct evolutionary history. ..
- Navarro Llorens J, Drzyzga O, Perera J. Genetic analysis of phenylacetic acid catabolism in Arthrobacter oxydans CECT386. Arch Microbiol. 2008;190:89-100 pubmed publisher..The results of this study broaden the knowledge regarding the range of metabolic potential of this strain and eventually make it attractive for environmental applications. ..
- Somers E, Ptacek D, Gysegom P, Srinivasan M, Vanderleyden J. Azospirillum brasilense produces the auxin-like phenylacetic acid by using the key enzyme for indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:1803-10 pubmed..The synthesis of PAA by A. brasilense is discussed in relation to previously reported biocontrol properties of A. brasilense...
- Parry G, Delbarre A, Marchant A, Swarup R, Napier R, Perrot Rechenmann C, et al. Novel auxin transport inhibitors phenocopy the auxin influx carrier mutation aux1. Plant J. 2001;25:399-406 pubmed..Whilst results indicate that 1-NOA and CHPAA represent useful tools for physiological studies addressing the role of auxin influx in planta, 1-NOA is likely to prove the more useful of the two compounds. ..
- Angelin Duclos C, Cattoretti G, Lin K, Calame K. Commitment of B lymphocytes to a plasma cell fate is associated with Blimp-1 expression in vivo. J Immunol. 2000;165:5462-71 pubmed..Together, these data support a model in which B cell fate decisions occur within the germinal center and Blimp-1 expression is critical for commitment to a plasma cell, rather than a memory cell, fate. ..
- Vermeulen N, Ganzle M, Vogel R. Influence of peptide supply and cosubstrates on phenylalanine metabolism of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) and Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1.468. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:3832-9 pubmed..In L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451, a combination of both citric acid and alpha-ketoglutarate increased PLA formation. The combined effect of citric acid and alpha-ketoglutarate can be attributed to changes in the NAD/NADH ratio. ..
- Ferrandez A, Garcia J, Diaz E. Transcriptional regulation of the divergent paa catabolic operons for phenylacetic acid degradation in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12214-22 pubmed..These global regulators may adjust the transcriptional output from Pa and Pz promoters to the overall growth status of the cell. ..
- Liu J, Li J, Sidell N. Modulation by phenylacetate of early estrogen-mediated events in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2007;59:217-25 pubmed
- Joyce M, Levy C, Gabor K, Pop S, Biehl B, Doukov T, et al. CprK crystal structures reveal mechanism for transcriptional control of halorespiration. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28318-25 pubmed..These structures provide a structural framework for further studies on transcriptional control by CRP-FNR homologs in general and of halorespiration regulation by CprK in particular...
- Rodríguez Sáiz M, Díez B, Barredo J. Why did the Fleming strain fail in penicillin industry?. Fungal Genet Biol. 2005;42:464-70 pubmed..Our data thus show that a loss of function in P. chrysogenum PahA is directly related to penicillin overproduction, and support the historic choice of P. chrysogenum as the industrial producer of penicillin. ..
- O Leary N, Duetz W, Dobson A, O Connor K. Induction and repression of the sty operon in Pseudomonas putida CA-3 during growth on phenylacetic acid under organic and inorganic nutrient-limiting continuous culture conditions. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;208:263-8 pubmed..putida CA-3, during growth on phenylacetic acid under continuous culture conditions, involves regulatory mechanisms coordinately affecting both the upper and lower pathways and acting at the level of gene transcription. ..
- Hannum L, Haberman A, Anderson S, Shlomchik M. Germinal center initiation, variable gene region hypermutation, and mutant B cell selection without detectable immune complexes on follicular dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2000;192:931-42 pubmed..Moreover, as indicated by the presence and pattern of somatic mutations, memory cell formation and selection appear normal in these IC-deficient GCs. ..
- Sidell N, Hao L, Pasquali M, McDonald J. Carcinogenic effects in a phenylketonuria mouse model. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4292 pubmed publisher..Together, these studies support the use of PAH(enu2) mice as a model for studying human PKU. Chronically elevated levels of PA in the PAH(enu2) mice were not protective against cancer. ..
- Huang Y, Jiang B, Nuntanakorn P, Kennelly E, Shord S, Lawal T, et al. Fukinolic acid derivatives and triterpene glycosides from black cohosh inhibit CYP isozymes, but are not cytotoxic to Hep-G2 cells in vitro. Curr Drug Saf. 2010;5:118-24 pubmed
- Douma R, Deshmukh A, de Jonge L, de Jong B, Seifar R, Heijnen J, et al. Novel insights in transport mechanisms and kinetics of phenylacetic acid and penicillin-G in Penicillium chrysogenum. Biotechnol Prog. 2012;28:337-48 pubmed publisher..Also, for PenG transport, a dynamic model was constructed and validated with experimental data. The outcome of the model simulations was in agreement with the presence of a facilitated transport system for PenG. ..
- Nochi R, Kato T, Kaneko J, Itou Y, Kuribayashi H, Fukuda S, et al. Involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling in activity-related proliferation of adult hippocampal neural stem cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2273-83 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that glutamates released by the elevated neural activities after MCAO may trigger mGluR5 signaling in neural stem cells to promote their proliferation. ..
- Tamijevendane S, Saravanane R, Rajesh R, Sivacoumar R. Anaerobic stabilization and conversion of transformed intermediates of antibiotic pharmaceutical effluent in a fluidized bed reactor. J Environ Sci Eng. 2011;53:231-6 pubmed
- Zhan Y, Chen Y, Zhang Q, Zhuang J, Tian M, Chen H, et al. The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 regulates LKB1 localization and activates AMPK. Nat Chem Biol. 2012;8:897-904 pubmed publisher..This study attains a mechanistic understanding of the regulation of LKB1-AMPK axis and implicates Nur77 as a new and amenable target for the design and development of therapeutics to treat metabolic diseases. ..
- Carasel I, Yamnitz C, Winter R, Gokel G. Halide ions complex and deprotonate dipicolinamides and isophthalamides: assessment by mass spectrometry and UV-visible spectroscopy. J Org Chem. 2010;75:8112-6 pubmed publisher..A solution of either host changed color when mixed with a F(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), di- or triphenylacetate solution. ..
- Niu S, Li Q, Ren R, Zhang S. Enzyme-enhanced fluorescence detection of DNA on etched optical fibers. Biosens Bioelectron. 2009;24:2943-6 pubmed publisher..69 pM to 169 pM. It is facile to regenerate this sensor through surface treatment with concentrated urea solution. It was discovered that the sensor can retain 70% of its original activity after three detection-regeneration cycles. ..
- Aquino A, Wanderley K, Paiva Santos C, de Sa G, Alexandre M, Júnior S, et al. Coordination polymer adsorbent for matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of pesticides during analysis of dehydrated Hyptis pectinata medicinal plant by GC/MS. Talanta. 2010;83:631-6 pubmed publisher..9987 to 0.9998. Comparison between [Zn(BDC)(H(2)O)(2)](n) and the commercial phase C(18)-bonded silica showed good performance of the [Zn(BDC)(H(2)O)(2)](n) polymeric sorbent for the pesticides tested...
- Margulis A, Houben E, Hallas J, Overbeek J, Pottegård A, Torp Pedersen T, et al. Ophthalmic nepafenac use in the Netherlands and Denmark. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;95:509-517 pubmed publisher..To describe nepafenac use in the Netherlands and Denmark with reference to its approved indications. For context, we also describe the use of ketorolac and diclofenac...
- McGinty D, Letizia C, Api A. Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50 Suppl 2:S457-61 pubmed publisher..A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. ..
- Grishin A, Ajamian E, Zhang L, Rouiller I, Bostina M, Cygler M. Protein-protein interactions in the ?-oxidation part of the phenylacetate utilization pathway: crystal structure of the PaaF-PaaG hydratase-isomerase complex. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37986-96 pubmed publisher..The association of PaaF and PaaG into a stable complex might serve to speed up the steps of the pathway following the conversion of phenylacetyl-CoA to a toxic and unstable epoxide-CoA by PaaABCE monooxygenase. ..
- Laryea M, Herebian D, Meissner T, Mayatepek E. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of phenylbutyrate, phenylacetate benzoate and their corresponding metabolites phenylacetylglutamine and hippurate in blood and urine. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2010;33 Suppl 3:S321-8 pubmed publisher..Inter- and intraday relative standard deviations were <10%. Our newly developed LC-MS/MS represents a robust, sensitive, and rapid method that allows simultaneous determination of the five compounds in plasma and urine. ..
- Saito H, Iwai R, Uchiyama T, Miyake M, Miyairi S. Chiral Induction by cinchona alkaloids in the rhodium(II) catalyzed O-H insertion reaction. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:872-4 pubmed..g., -10 degrees C, and provided mandelate in up to 50% ee. The results reported here are the highest asymmetric inductions obtained to date for O-H insertions via a Rh-carbenoid. ..
- Loane D, Stoica B, Byrnes K, Jeong W, Faden A. Activation of mGluR5 and inhibition of NADPH oxidase improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:403-12 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that the neuroprotective effects of activating mGluR5 receptors after TBI are mediated, in part, via the inhibition of NADPH oxidase...
- Wang J, Wang H, Cong Z, Zhang X, Zhou X, Zhang D. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 reduces the secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;430:1016-21 pubmed publisher..These results provide the substantial evidence that activation of mGluR5 reduces the secondary brain injury after TBI, in part, through modulating microglia-associated neuro-inflammation. ..
- Sadeghian H, Attaran N, Jafari Z, Saberi M, Seyedi S, Eshghi H, et al. Design and synthesis of 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid esters as 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors and SAR comparative studies of them. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:2327-35 pubmed publisher..The selectivity of the synthetic esters in inhibiting of 15-HLOb was also compared with 15-HLOa by molecular modeling and multiple alignment techniques. ..