mandelic acids


Summary: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).

Top Publications

  1. Ward M, Yu B, Wyatt V, Griffith J, Craft T, Neurath A, et al. Anti-HIV-1 activity of poly(mandelic acid) derivatives. Biomacromolecules. 2007;8:3308-16 pubmed
    ..Additionally, FT-IR spectroscopy indicated the complete absence of C=O functionality in the H2SO4-prepared PMDA. ..
  2. He Y, Xu J, Pan J, Ouyang L, Xu Y. Preparation of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid and its derivatives from racemates by enantioselective degradation with a newly isolated bacterial strain Alcaligenes sp. ECU0401. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2008;31:445-51 pubmed
    ..e. > 99.9%). (R)-(-)-Mandelic acid could also be obtained after 12 h of biotransformation with 41.5% isolated yield and >99.9% e.e...
  3. Chang T, Teleshova N, Rapista A, Paluch M, Anderson R, Waller D, et al. SAMMA, a mandelic acid condensation polymer, inhibits dendritic cell-mediated HIV transmission. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:4596-602 pubmed
    ..In addition, SAMMA blocked HIV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion. This study suggests that SAMMA prevents HIV infection through multiple mechanisms. ..
  4. Sand P, Zinner N, Newman D, Lucente V, Dmochowski R, Kelleher C, et al. Oxybutynin transdermal system improves the quality of life in adults with overactive bladder: a multicentre, community-based, randomized study. BJU Int. 2007;99:836-44 pubmed
    ..0% of participants. OXY-TDS treatment was well tolerated in this diverse, community-based population, and resulted in clinically significant improvements in HRQoL, regardless of baseline characteristics. ..
  5. Brubaker L, Chapple C, Coyne K, Kopp Z. Patient-reported outcomes in overactive bladder: importance for determining clinical effectiveness of treatment. Urology. 2006;68:3-8 pubmed
    ..We provide an overview of instruments used to assess symptoms, health-related quality of life, and treatment satisfaction in patients with OAB and discuss how PROs can be incorporated into clinical trial protocols...
  6. Zellner M, Madersbacher H, Palmtag H, Stöhrer M, Bödeker R. Trospium chloride and oxybutynin hydrochloride in a german study of adults with urinary urge incontinence: results of a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, flexible-dose noninferiority trial. Clin Ther. 2009;31:2519-39 pubmed publisher
    ..German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices Registration Number 4022383. ..
  7. He P, Conrad J, Moran G. The rate-limiting catalytic steps of hydroxymandelate synthase from Amycolatopsis orientalis. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1998-2007 pubmed publisher
  8. Xue Y, Xu S, Liu Z, Zheng Y, Shen Y. Enantioselective biocatalytic hydrolysis of (R,S)-mandelonitrile for production of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid by a newly isolated mutant strain. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;38:337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..3 mmol h(-1) g(-1). The results showed that mutant strain A. faecalis ZJUTB10 was a new candidate for efficient R-MA production from (R,S)-mandelonitrile and could potentially be used in industrial production...
  9. Bhushan R, Agarwal C. Direct enantiomeric TLC resolution of dl-penicillamine using (R)-mandelic acid and l-tartaric acid as chiral impregnating reagents and as chiral mobile phase additive. Biomed Chromatogr. 2008;22:1237-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The spots were detected with iodine vapors and the detection limits were found to be 0.12 microg for each enantiomer of penicillamine with L-tartaric acid, under both the conditions, and 0.11 microg with (R)-mandelic acid. ..

More Information


  1. Rustler S, Motejadded H, Altenbuchner J, Stolz A. Simultaneous expression of an arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens and a (S)-oxynitrilase from Manihot esculenta in Pichia pastoris for the synthesis of (S)-mandelic acid. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;80:87-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The chiral analysis of the products formed revealed a high enantiomeric excess for the (S)-enantiomers. ..
  2. Brownlee J, He P, Moran G, Harrison D. Two roads diverged: the structure of hydroxymandelate synthase from Amycolatopsis orientalis in complex with 4-hydroxymandelate. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2002-13 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that this difference in the ring orientation of the substrate and the corresponding intermediates influences the site of hydroxylation. ..
  3. Sand P, Goldberg R, Dmochowski R, McIlwain M, Dahl N. The impact of the overactive bladder syndrome on sexual function: a preliminary report from the Multicenter Assessment of Transdermal Therapy in Overactive Bladder with Oxybutynin trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195:1730-5 pubmed
    ..1% at baseline, improved significantly. (all P < .0001). Overactive bladder negatively affects sexual function. Treatment with transdermal oxybutynin improved sexual function and marital relationships. ..
  4. Banerjee A, Kaul P, Banerjee U. Enhancing the catalytic potential of nitrilase from Pseudomonas putida for stereoselective nitrile hydrolysis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;72:77 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a fed batch reaction was set up on a preparative scale to produce 1.95 g of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid with an enantiomeric excess of 98.8%...
  5. Appell R, Sand P, Dmochowski R, Anderson R, Zinner N, Lama D, et al. Prospective randomized controlled trial of extended-release oxybutynin chloride and tolterodine tartrate in the treatment of overactive bladder: results of the OBJECT Study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:358-63 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and tolerability of extended-release oxybutynin chloride and tolterodine tartrate at 12 weeks in participants with overactive bladder...
  6. Diokno A, Appell R, Sand P, Dmochowski R, Gburek B, Klimberg I, et al. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy and tolerability of the extended-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine for overactive bladder: results of the OPERA trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:687-95 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and tolerability of extended-release formulations of oxybutynin chloride and tolterodine tartrate in women with overactive bladder...
  7. Dmochowski R, Sand P, Zinner N, Gittelman M, Davila G, Sanders S. Comparative efficacy and safety of transdermal oxybutynin and oral tolterodine versus placebo in previously treated patients with urge and mixed urinary incontinence. Urology. 2003;62:237-42 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and safety of an oxybutynin transdermal delivery system (OXY-TDS) and oral, long-acting tolterodine (TOL-LA) with placebo in previously treated patients with urge or mixed urinary incontinence...
  8. Velasco C, Guarneri L, Leonardi A, Testa R. Influence of pump compliance (peristaltic vs. infusion) on urodynamic measurement during cystometry in conscious rats. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2001;45:215-21 pubmed
    ..The present findings indicate that cystometrographic parameters obtained during pump-evoked micturition with a system at high compliance (peristaltic pump) are equivalent to those observed during physiological micturition. ..
  9. Zobrist R, Schmid B, Feick A, Quan D, Sanders S. Pharmacokinetics of the R- and S-enantiomers of oxybutynin and N-desethyloxybutynin following oral and transdermal administration of the racemate in healthy volunteers. Pharm Res. 2001;18:1029-34 pubmed
    ..The differences between R-OXY and R-DEO following the two routes of administration support the potential for comparable clinical efficacy and reduced anticholinergic side-effects with transdermal treatment. ..
  10. Dmochowski R, Davila G, Zinner N, Gittelman M, Saltzstein D, Lyttle S, et al. Efficacy and safety of transdermal oxybutynin in patients with urge and mixed urinary incontinence. J Urol. 2002;168:580-6 pubmed
    ..Doses of 2.6 and 3.9 mg. oxybutynin TDS daily improve overactive bladder symptoms and quality of life, and are well tolerated. Transdermal oxybutynin is an innovative new treatment for overactive bladder. ..
  11. Todorova A, Vonderheid Guth B, Dimpfel W. Effects of tolterodine, trospium chloride, and oxybutynin on the central nervous system. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;41:636-44 pubmed
    ..The minimal qEEG changes observed with tolterodine and trospium chloride reflect most probably a rebound message from the peripheral target organs. Prescription of oxybutynin thus implicates a higher risk of CNS side effects. ..
  12. Zobrist R, Quan D, Thomas H, Stanworth S, Sanders S. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of transdermal oxybutynin: in vitro and in vivo performance of a novel delivery system. Pharm Res. 2003;20:103-9 pubmed
    ..The consistent delivery, absorption, and pharmacokinetics should result in an effective treatment of patients with overactive bladder. ..
  13. MacDiarmid S. Overactive bladder: improving the efficacy of anticholinergics by dose escalation. Curr Urol Rep. 2003;4:446-51 pubmed
    ..This paper critically evaluates the pros and cons of dose escalation in the hope to improve efficacy in patients with OAB...
  14. Tsou A, Ransom S, Gerlt J, Buechter D, Babbitt P, Kenyon G. Mandelate pathway of Pseudomonas putida: sequence relationships involving mandelate racemase, (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase, and benzoylformate decarboxylase and expression of benzoylformate decarboxylase in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1990;29:9856-62 pubmed
    ..The gene for benzoylformate decarboxylase has been expressed in Escherichia coli with the trc promoter, and homogeneous enzyme has been isolated from induced cells. ..
  15. Appell R, Chancellor M, Zobrist R, Thomas H, Sanders S. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and saliva output during transdermal and extended-release oral oxybutynin administration in healthy subjects. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:696-702 pubmed
    ..Lower N-desethyloxybutynin plasma concentration and greater saliva output during transdermal treatment correspond to the reported low incidence of dry mouth in patients with overactive bladder. ..
  16. Alberti I, Grenier A, Kraus H, Carrara D. Pharmaceutical development and clinical effectiveness of a novel gel technology for transdermal drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2005;2:935-50 pubmed
    ..This gel technology has demonstrated to be efficient for many drugs, as shown in the preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic studies presented in this technology evaluation. ..
  17. Kim Y, Yoshimura N, Masuda H, De Miguel F, Chancellor M. Antimuscarinic agents exhibit local inhibitory effects on muscarinic receptors in bladder-afferent pathways. Urology. 2005;65:238-42 pubmed
    ..To investigate the potential of antimuscarinic agents for sensory mechanisms in overactive bladder using intravesical instillation...
  18. Bennett N, O Leary M, Patel A, Xavier M, Erickson J, Chancellor M. Can higher doses of oxybutynin improve efficacy in neurogenic bladder?. J Urol. 2004;171:749-51 pubmed
    ..4% of the patients in our study. The onset of clinical efficacy can occur within 1 week, and doses up to 30 mg are well tolerated and effective in this population. ..
  19. O Leary M, Erickson J, Smith C, McDermott C, Horton J, Chancellor M. Effect of controlled-release oxybutynin on neurogenic bladder function in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003;26:159-62 pubmed
    ..Oxybutynin XL is safe and effective in patients with detrusor hyperreflexia secondary to SCI. The onset of clinical efficacy occurs within 1 week, and daily dosages up to 30 mg are well tolerated. ..
  20. Dmochowski R, Nitti V, Staskin D, Luber K, Appell R, Davila G. Transdermal oxybutynin in the treatment of adults with overactive bladder: combined results of two randomized clinical trials. World J Urol. 2005;23:263-70 pubmed
    ..1% (3.3% discontinuation rate). Transdermal oxybutynin was shown to be efficacious, with a proven safety profile. It may be utilized for patients with overactive bladder as a treatment option that could enhance compliance. ..
  21. Shimizu I, Kawashima K, Ishii D, Oka M. Urodynamics in a rat neurogenic bladder model with a unilateral electrolytic lesion of the basal forebrain. BJU Int. 2003;91:861-7 pubmed
    ..The RBF-lesioned rat may be a useful model for the neurogenic bladder of supraspinal origin. Moreover, AH-9700 effectively improves bladder dysfunction in this model. ..
  22. Zinner N, Tuttle J, Marks L. Efficacy and tolerability of darifenacin, a muscarinic M3 selective receptor antagonist (M3 SRA), compared with oxybutynin in the treatment of patients with overactive bladder. World J Urol. 2005;23:248-52 pubmed
    ..Darifenacin (15 mg q.d.) provides comparable efficacy with improved tolerability versus oxybutynin (5 mg t.i.d.) in the treatment of patients with OAB. ..
  23. Sussman D, Garely A. Treatment of overactive bladder with once-daily extended-release tolterodine or oxybutynin: the antimuscarinic clinical effectiveness trial (ACET). Curr Med Res Opin. 2002;18:177-84 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the greater efficacy and tolerability of tolterodine ER 4 mg suggests improved clinical effectiveness compared with oxybutynin ER 10 mg. ..
  24. Yu Y, Nichol M, Yu A, Ahn J. Persistence and adherence of medications for chronic overactive bladder/urinary incontinence in the california medicaid program. Value Health. 2005;8:495-505 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that persistence and treatment discontinuation remains problematic for the OAB/UI population. ..
  25. Davila G, Daugherty C, Sanders S. A short-term, multicenter, randomized double-blind dose titration study of the efficacy and anticholinergic side effects of transdermal compared to immediate release oral oxybutynin treatment of patients with urge urinary incontinence. J Urol. 2001;166:140-5 pubmed
    ..Transdermal delivery of oxybutynin resulted in comparable efficacy and a significantly improved anticholinergic side effect profile compared with oral administration in adults with urge urinary incontinence. ..
  26. Gunsior M, Ravel J, Challis G, Townsend C. Engineering p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase to a p-hydroxymandelate synthase and evidence for the proposed benzene oxide intermediate in homogentisate formation. Biochemistry. 2004;43:663-74 pubmed
    ..The structure of the latter was determined to be an oxepinone derived from the benzene-oxide intermediate long hypothesized in HPD catalysis. ..
  27. Marchand A, Aranda Rodriguez R, Tardif R, Nong A, Haddad S. Evaluation and modeling of the impact of coexposures to VOC mixtures on urinary biomarkers. Inhal Toxicol. 2016;28:260-73 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no significant interactions were observed at levels used in this study. PBPK models for urinary biomarkers proved to be a good tool in quantifying exposure to VOC. ..
  28. Desoi D, Kier L, Cheng C, Karnes H. An expanded cellular automata model for enantiomer separations using a ?-cyclodextrin stationary phase. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1291:73-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in injection volume resulted in an increase in retention time of the modeled enantiomers as was observed in the published laboratory results. ..
  29. Shamliyan T, Kane R, Wyman J, Wilt T. Systematic review: randomized, controlled trials of nonsurgical treatments for urinary incontinence in women. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:459-73 pubmed
    ..Duloxetine improved but did not resolve urinary incontinence. The effects of electrostimulation, medical devices, injectable bulking agents, and local estrogen therapy were inconsistent. ..
  30. Yamada S, Seki M, Ogoda M, Fukata A, Nakamura M, Ito Y. Selective binding of bladder muscarinic receptors in relation to the pharmacokinetics of a novel antimuscarinic agent, imidafenacin, to treat overactive bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;336:365-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the imidafenacin excreted in urine may play an important role in pharmacokinetic and pharmacological selectivity. ..
  31. Sharma P, Patel D, Sanyal M, Guttikar S, Shrivastav P. Parallel achiral-chiral determination of oxybutynin, N-desethyl oxybutynin and their enantiomers in human plasma by LC-MS/MS to support a bioequivalence trial. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2014;88:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The reproducibility in the measurement of study data was demonstrated by reanalysis of 20 incurred samples. ..
  32. Ito Y, Kashiwabara M, Yoshida A, Hikiyama E, Onoue S, Yamada S. Muscarinic Receptor Binding in Rat Bladder Urothelium and Detrusor Muscle by Intravesical Solifenacin. Biol Pharm Bull. 2016;39:1167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These bladder muscarinic receptors may be significantly affected by solifenacin excreted in the urine. ..
  33. Parkan K, Werner L, Lövyová Z, Prchalová E, Kniezo L. An approach to stereoselective preparation of 3-C-glycosylated D- and L-glucals. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:352-62 pubmed publisher
  34. Triebig G, Bruckner T, Seeber A. Occupational styrene exposure and hearing loss: a cohort study with repeated measurements. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2009;82:463-80 pubmed publisher
    ..With few exceptions (at frequencies of 1,000 and 1,500 Hz) no dose-response relationship between threshold and exposure data was found. Improvements of hearing thresholds during work- and exposure-free period are possible. ..
  35. Mesquita P, Wilson S, Manlow P, Fischetti L, Keller M, Herold B, et al. Candidate microbicide PPCM blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in cell and tissue cultures and prevents genital herpes in a murine model. J Virol. 2008;82:6576-84 pubmed publisher
  36. Gish P, Mosholder A, Truffa M, Johann Liang R. Spectrum of central anticholinergic adverse effects associated with oxybutynin: comparison of pediatric and adult cases. J Pediatr. 2009;155:432-4 pubmed publisher
    ..CNS stimulation was prominent in the pediatric cases. ..
  37. He Y, Zhang Z, Xu J, Liu Y. Biocatalytic synthesis of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid from racemic mandelonitrile by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-permeabilized cells of Alcaligenes faecalis ECU0401. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;37:741-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Efficient biocatalyst recycling was achieved as a result of cell immobilization in calcium alginate, with a product-to-biocatalyst ratio of 3.82 g (R)-(-)-mandelic acid g(-1) dry cell weight (dcw) cell after 20 cycles of repeated use...
  38. Colli E, Parazzini F, Olivieri L, Cipriani S, Bertozzi R, Meschia M, et al. Number of daytime micturitions and volume voided per micturition in the evaluation of efficacy of drugs for overactive bladder: findings from randomized clinical trials. Eur Urol. 2007;52:525-30 pubmed
    ..85 for solifenacin, and r=-0.34 for placebo. The results of this analysis suggest that in the evaluation of the efficacy of a drug for overactive bladder, the mean volume voided per micturition may be a useful measure of efficacy. ..
  39. Lackner T, Wyman J, McCarthy T, Monigold M, Davey C. Efficacy of oral extended-release oxybutynin in cognitively impaired older nursing home residents with urge urinary incontinence: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2011;12:639-47 pubmed publisher
  40. Wu Y, Guo H, James T, Zhao J. Enantioselective recognition of mandelic acid by a 3,6-dithiophen-2-yl-9H-carbazole-based chiral fluorescent bisboronic acid sensor. J Org Chem. 2011;76:5685-95 pubmed publisher
  41. Klausner A, Sharma S, Fletcher S, Neff P, Yang S, Son H, et al. Does oxybutynin alter plaques, amyloid beta peptides and behavior in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease?. J Urol. 2008;179:1173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..9% +/- 1.6% vs 35.6% +/- 18.9%, p <0.05). The greatest difference was noted at 3 months of treatment compared to vehicle. These results suggest that oxybutynin may slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease in this model. ..
  42. Montaldo P, Tafuro L, Rea M, Narciso V, Iossa A, Del Gado R. Desmopressin and oxybutynin in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and an assessment of predictive factors. BJU Int. 2012;110:E381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultrasonography-measured bladder variables can provide useful predictive clues for MNE. Predictive factors can help to differentiate treatment subtypes and guide clinical management in primary nocturnal enuresis. ..
  43. Shangguan J, Fan L, Ju X, Zhu Q, Wang F, Zhao J, et al. Expression and characterization of a novel enantioselective lipase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;168:1820-33 pubmed publisher
    ..features render this cold-active novel lipase AFL67 attractive for biotechnological applications in the field of enantioselective synthesis of chiral mandelic acids, o-acylated mandelic acids, and their derivates and detergent additives.
  44. Wolosker N, De Campos J, Kauffman P, Yazbek G, Neves S, Puech Leao P. Use of oxybutynin for treating plantar hyperhidrosis. Int J Dermatol. 2013;52:620-3 pubmed publisher
    ..7%). Treatment of plantar hyperhidrosis with oxybutynin presents good results and improves quality of life. We believe that this therapeutic alternative is an excellent choice for the initial treatment of plantar hyperhidrosis. ..
  45. Tsiouris S, Sioka C, Marinarou A, Al Bokharhli J, Sionti I, Fotopoulos A. Vesicoureteric reflux deterioration in monozygotic twins. Indian J Pediatr. 2008;75:285-7 pubmed
    ..Heredity issues, the impact of age and dysfunctional voiding in the clinical course, and the contribution of nuclear medicine in VUR management are discussed. ..
  46. Michel M, Hegde S. Treatment of the overactive bladder syndrome with muscarinic receptor antagonists: a matter of metabolites?. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2006;374:79-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that more comprehensive studies of drug metabolites are required for an improved understanding of their clinical effects. ..
  47. Siitonen J, Sainio T. Steady state recycling chromatography with solvent removal-effect of solvent removal constraints on process operation under ideal conditions. J Chromatogr A. 2014;1341:15-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The benefits of SSR-SR are relatively small under ideal conditions but the design method developed here can give a good starting point for designing SSR-SR processes under non-ideal conditions. ..
  48. Johnson T, Markland A, Goode P, Vaughan C, Colli J, Ouslander J, et al. Efficacy of adding behavioural treatment or antimuscarinic drug therapy to ?-blocker therapy in men with nocturia. BJU Int. 2013;112:100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results were similar even when only those with ?2 episodes of nocturia were considered. The addition of behavioural treatment was statistically better than bladder-relaxant therapy for nocturia. ..
  49. Green B, Lee S, Welch K, Pfister J, Panter K. Fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013;344:295-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide pharmacological evidence that the piperidine alkaloid coniine is acting at fetal muscle-type nAChR in a concentration-dependent manner. ..
  50. He Q, Rohani S, Zhu J, Gomaa H. Resolution of sertraline with (R)-mandelic acid: chiral discrimination mechanism study. Chirality. 2012;24:119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The hydrogen bond is not necessarily the dominant factor while the synergy and optimization of all weak intermolecular interactions attribute to the chiral recognition. ..
  51. Zhuohang M, Ji L, Hongwei Y. Modeling of transition state by molecular dynamics. Prediction of catalytic efficiency of the mutants of mandelate racemase. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2011;28:871-9 pubmed
  52. Burns M, Lukeman M. Efficient photodecarboxylation of trifluoromethyl-substituted phenylacetic and mandelic acids. Photochem Photobiol. 2010;86:821-6 pubmed publisher
    A total of eight CF(3)-substituted phenylacetic and mandelic acids are shown to undergo efficient photodecarboxylation (PDC; Phi = 0.37-0...
  53. Saldano D, Chaviano A, Maizels M. Sustainability of remission of pediatric primary nocturnal enuresis--comparison of remission using Try for Dry vs. non-Try for Dry treatment plans. Urol Nurs. 2008;28:263-6 pubmed
    ..Remission of PNE using the Try for Dry treatment method was retained longer and more often than using a non-Try for Dry plan. ..