caffeic acids


Summary: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.

Top Publications

  1. Liao C, Ou T, Wu C, Wang C. Prevention of diet-induced hyperlipidemia and obesity by caffeic acid in C57BL/6 mice through regulation of hepatic lipogenesis gene expression. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:11082-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results indicate that caffeic acid exhibits a significant potential as an antiobesity agent by suppression of lipogenic enzymes and hepatic lipid accumulation. ..
  2. Liu R, Chen H, Bai H, Zhang W, Wang X, Qin X, et al. Suppression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase contributes to bleomycin-induced oxidative stress and fibrogenesis. Toxicol Lett. 2013;220:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results disclose a potential regulatory mechanism in pulmonary fibrosis that will aid the development of new therapies...
  3. Xiao H, Wang J, Yuan L, Xiao C, Wang Y, Liu X. Chicoric acid induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:1509-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, chicoric acid down regulated HO-1 and COX-2 via the PI3K/Akt pathway. ..
  4. Cakır T, Ozkan E, Dulundu E, Topaloglu U, Sehirli A, Ercan F, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) prevents methotrexate-induced hepatorenal oxidative injury in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1566-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the methotrexate (MTX)-induced hepatorenal oxidative damage in rats...
  5. Zhang H, Stephanopoulos G. Engineering E. coli for caffeic acid biosynthesis from renewable sugars. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:3333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The highest specific caffeic acid production achieved was 38 mg/L/OD. Lastly, cultivation of engineered E. coli in a bioreactor resulted in a production of 106 mg/L caffeic acid after 4 days. ..
  6. Piazzon A, Vrhovsek U, Masuero D, Mattivi F, Mandoj F, Nardini M. Antioxidant activity of phenolic acids and their metabolites: synthesis and antioxidant properties of the sulfate derivatives of ferulic and caffeic acids and of the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:12312-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we first demonstrate the ex vivo synthesis of the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid by mouse liver microsomes, in addition to the phenyl glucuronide. ..
  7. Gilbert R, Zhang Y, Williams S, Zammit S, Stapleton D, Cox A, et al. A purpose-synthesised anti-fibrotic agent attenuates experimental kidney diseases in the rat. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47160 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these studies suggest that broadly antagonising growth factor actions, including those of TGF-?1 and PDGF-BB, has the potential to protect the kidney from progressive injury in both the diabetic and non-diabetic settings. ..
  8. Lin Y, Yan Y. Biosynthesis of caffeic acid in Escherichia coli using its endogenous hydroxylase complex. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Nowadays, large-scale production of drugs or drug precursors via microbial approaches provides a promising alternative to chemical synthesis and extraction from plant sources...
  9. Zhang Y, Edgley A, Cox A, Powell A, Wang B, Kompa A, et al. FT011, a new anti-fibrotic drug, attenuates fibrosis and chronic heart failure in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail. 2012;14:549-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents a novel therapy for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy associated with cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. ..

More Information


  1. Boudreau L, Maillet J, Leblanc L, Jean Francois J, Touaibia M, Flamand N, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester and its amide analogue are potent inhibitors of leukotriene biosynthesis in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31833 pubmed publisher
    ..CAPE is a potent LT biosynthesis inhibitor that blocks 5-LO activity and AA release. The CAPE structure can be used as a framework for the rational design of stable and potent inhibitors of LT biosynthesis. ..
  2. Pluemsamran T, Onkoksoong T, Panich U. Caffeic acid and ferulic acid inhibit UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 through regulation of antioxidant defense system in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Photochem Photobiol. 2012;88:961-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CA and FA provided protective effects on UVA-mediated MMP-1 induction in HaCaT cells possibly through restoration of antioxidant defense system at the cellular and molecular level. ..
  3. Weng Y, Chuang C, Chuang S, Chiu H, Kuo Y, Su M. KS370G, a synthetic caffeamide derivative, improves left ventricular hypertrophy and function in pressure-overload mice heart. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;684:108-15 pubmed publisher
    ..KS370G improved left ventricular function and inhibited cardiac hypertrophy through the decrease of the phosphorylation of ERK, AKT and GSK3? in pressure-overload mice heart...
  4. Tan S, Zhang Y, Wang B, Tan C, Zammit S, Williams S, et al. FT23, an orally active antifibrotic compound, attenuates structural and functional abnormalities in an experimental model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;39:650-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study suggest that FT23 inhibits the activity of TGF-? and attenuates structural and functional manifestations of diastolic dysfunction observed in a model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. ..
  5. Kang S, Choi O, Lee J, Hwang B, Uhm T, Hong Y. Artificial biosynthesis of phenylpropanoic acids in a tyrosine overproducing Escherichia coli strain. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:153 pubmed publisher
    ..This work forms a basis for further improvement in production and opens the possibility of microbial synthesis of more complex plant secondary metabolites derived from phenylpropanoic acids. ..
  6. Maurya D, Devasagayam T. Antioxidant and prooxidant nature of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives ferulic and caffeic acids. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:3369-73 pubmed publisher
    Dietary polyphenols are beneficial to human health by exerting various biological effects. Ferulic and caffeic acids are hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives widely distributed in plant-derived food products...
  7. Zammit S, Cox A, Gow R, Zhang Y, Gilbert R, Krum H, et al. Evaluation and optimization of antifibrotic activity of cinnamoyl anthranilates. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:7003-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3-Methoxy-4-propargyloxycinnamoyl anthranilate reduces albuminuria in a rat model of progressive diabetes, and thus has potential as an innovative treatment for diabetic nephropathy. ..
  8. Onori P, Demorrow S, Gaudio E, Franchitto A, Mancinelli R, Venter J, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester decreases cholangiocarcinoma growth by inhibition of NF-kappaB and induction of apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..CAPE both in vivo and in vitro decreases the growth of CCH cells by increasing apoptosis. These results demonstrate that CAPE might be an important therapeutic tool in the treatment of CCH. ..
  9. Gokalp O, Uz E, Cicek E, Yilmaz H, Ozer M, Altunbas A, et al. Ameliorating role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against isoniazid-induced oxidative damage in red blood cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;290:55-9 pubmed
    ..CAPE administration to INH group ameliorated above changes due to INH. ..
  10. Yang X, Qiang G, Zhang L, Zhu X, Wang S, Sun L, et al. Salvianolic acid A protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction in high-fat diet fed and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2011;13:884-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested that SalA could protect against vascular VED in diabetes, which might attribute to its suppressive effect on oxidative stress and AGEs-induced endothelial dysfunction. ..
  11. Ikeda K, Tsujimoto K, Uozaki M, Nishide M, Suzuki Y, Koyama A, et al. Inhibition of multiplication of herpes simplex virus by caffeic acid. Int J Mol Med. 2011;28:595-8 pubmed publisher
  12. Tayman C, Tonbul A, Köşüş A, Hirfanoglu I, Haltas H, Uysal S, et al. Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on intestinal damage in necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2011;27:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the preventative effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in an experimental rat model of NEC...
  13. Doiron J, Boudreau L, Picot N, Villebonet B, Surette M, Touaibia M. Synthesis and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of new cinnamoyl and caffeoyl clusters. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:1118-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Caffeoyl cluster showed an improved 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity compared to caffeic acid, with caffeoyl trimer 16 and tetramer 19 showing the best 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. ..
  14. Jung W, Lee D, Choi Y, Yea S, Choi I, Park S, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester attenuates allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in murine model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. Life Sci. 2008;82:797-805 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that oxidative stress may have a crucial function in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, and that CAPE may be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of bronchial asthma...
  15. Carrasco Legleu C, Sánchez Pérez Y, Marquez Rosado L, Fattel Fazenda S, Arce Popoca E, Hernández García S, et al. A single dose of caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents initiation in a medium-term rat hepatocarcinogenesis model. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:6779-85 pubmed
    ..To study of the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the initiation period in a medium-term assay of hepatocarcinogenesis...
  16. Liu M, Li Y, Zhang F, Yang L, Chou G, Wang Z, et al. Chromatographic fingerprinting analysis of Danshen root (Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix et Rhizoma) and its preparations using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS). J Sep Sci. 2007;30:2256-67 pubmed
    ..The established CFPs demonstrate the representative chemical profiling of the existing components and can be applied to the authentication and quality assessment of Danshen roots and other Danshen containing formulated preparations. ..
  17. Kerem Z, Chetrit D, Shoseyov O, Regev Shoshani G. Protection of lipids from oxidation by epicatechin, trans-resveratrol, and gallic and caffeic acids in intestinal model systems. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:10288-93 pubmed
  18. Jiang M, Wang X, Zhou W, Li J, Wang J, Guo L. Cerebral protection of salvianolic acid A by the inhibition of granulocyte adherence. Am J Chin Med. 2011;39:111-20 pubmed
    ..Meanwhile, Sal A inhibits of granulocyte adherence by decreasing the expression of ICAM-1 in BMEC. ..
  19. Weng Y, Chiu H, Lin Y, Chi T, Kuo Y, Su M. Antihyperglycemic effect of a caffeamide derivative, KS370G, in normal and diabetic mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:10033-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the hypoglycemic effect of KS370G in normal and diabetic mice could be attributed to the stimulation of insulin release and the increase of glucose utilization. ..
  20. Choi K, Choi C. Differential regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and NF-kappaB pathway by caffeic acid phenethyl ester in astroglial and monocytic cells. J Neurochem. 2008;105:557-64 pubmed
  21. Paek K, Murthy H, Hahn E. Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Echinacea purpurea for the production of caffeic acid derivatives. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;547:3-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The detailed methodology for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of caffeic acid derivatives present in the adventitious roots is also discussed. ..
  22. Wang S, Tian S, Yang F, Yang H, Yang X, Du G. Cardioprotective effect of salvianolic acid A on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;615:125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our study suggest that salvianolic acid A possessing antioxidant activity has a significant protective effect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. ..
  23. Ozyurt B, Ozyurt H, Akpolat N, Erdogan H, Sarsilmaz M. Oxidative stress in prefrontal cortex of rat exposed to MK-801 and protective effects of CAPE. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:832-8 pubmed
    ..The results of this study showed that MK-801-induced neurotoxicity caused oxidative stress in PFC of rats. This experimental study may also provide some evidences for the new treatment strategies with antioxidants in schizophrenia. ..
  24. Jin U, Song K, Motomura M, Suzuki I, Gu Y, Kang Y, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia U937 cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;310:43-8 pubmed
    ..From the results, it was concluded that CAPE induces the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis but not death receptors- or ER-mediated apoptosis in U937 cells...
  25. Ribeiro U, Safatle Ribeiro A. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) may be a promising adjuvant treatment in gastric cancer. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;41:871-3 pubmed
  26. Velazquez C, Navarro M, Acosta A, Angulo A, Dominguez Z, Robles R, et al. Antibacterial and free-radical scavenging activities of Sonoran propolis. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;103:1747-56 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the antibacterial and free-radical scavenging (FRS) activities of propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico [Pueblo de Alamos (PAP), Ures (UP) and Caborca (CP)]...
  27. Wei X, Ma Z, Fontanilla C, Zhao L, Xu Z, Taggliabraci V, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Neuroscience. 2008;155:1098-105 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding may further help understanding of the mechanism of glutamate-induced neuronal death and CAPE-induced neuroprotection against excitotoxicity...
  28. Zhang Y, Tang Y, Wu A, Zhu H. Salvianolic acid A displays cardioprotective effects in in vitro models of heart hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2010;12:899-915 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that 1 had significant protective effects against H/R-induced myocardial injury through its antioxidant activity. ..
  29. Wongmekiat O, Gomonchareonsiri S, Thamprasert K. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects against oxidative stress-related renal dysfunction in rats treated with cyclosporin A. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2011;25:619-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The protection afforded by CAPE is mediated, at least in part, through inhibiting renal lipid peroxidation and enhancing or maintaining the antioxidant glutathione content...
  30. Rajendra Prasad N, Karthikeyan A, Karthikeyan S, Reddy B. Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid on cancer cell proliferation by oxidative mechanism in human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell line. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;349:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that caffeic acid exhibits potent anticancer effect in HT-1080 cell line, and that it may be used as an anticancer agent...
  31. Watanabe M, Amarante M, Conti B, Sforcin J. Cytotoxic constituents of propolis inducing anticancer effects: a review. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1378-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the antitumour effects of propolis extracts and its constituents (e.g. flavonoids, terpenes and caffeic acid phenethyl ester) are discussed...
  32. Song J, Cho J, Hwang S, Cho C, Park S, Chae S. Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on LPS-induced inflammation of human middle ear epithelial cells. Acta Otolaryngol. 2008;128:1303-7 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-8 production by LPS was significantly suppressed by the CAPE pretreatment. Furthermore, LPS-induced IkappaB-alpha degradation was suppressed by the CAPE pretreatment. ..
  33. Pei L, Bao Y, Wang H, Yang F, Xu B, Wang S, et al. A sensitive method for determination of salvianolic acid A in rat plasma using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Biomed Chromatogr. 2008;22:786-94 pubmed publisher
    ..5 h, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12 h) was 698 +/- 129 ng.h/mL, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 3.29 h. ..
  34. Tomur A, Kanter M, Gurel A, Erboga M. The efficiency of CAPE on retardation of hepatic fibrosis in biliary obstructed rats. J Mol Histol. 2011;42:451-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that CAPE attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation, and fibrosis. The hepatoprotective effect of CAPE is associated with antioxidative potential...
  35. Jayakumar A, Donovan M, Tripathi V, Ramalho Ortigao M, McDowell M. Leishmania major infection activates NF-kappaB and interferon regulatory factors 1 and 8 in human dendritic cells. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..major infection either directly stimulates a signaling cascade or induces an autocrine pathway that activates IRF-1 and IRF-8, ultimately resulting in IL-12 transcription...
  36. Motawi T, Darwish H, Abd El Tawab A. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on endotoxin-induced cardiac stress in rats: a possible mechanism of protection. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2011;25:84-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The beneficial effect of CAPE might be mediated, at least in part, by the superinduction of HO-1...
  37. Chung M, Walker P, Hogstrand C. Dietary phenolic antioxidants, caffeic acid and Trolox, protect rainbow trout gill cells from nitric oxide-induced apoptosis. Aquat Toxicol. 2006;80:321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of these properties we suggest that CA could be a beneficial additive to fish feeds in aquaculture...
  38. Wang X, Stavchansky S, Zhao B, Bynum J, Kerwin S, Bowman P. Cytoprotection of human endothelial cells from menadione cytotoxicity by caffeic acid phenethyl ester: the role of heme oxygenase-1. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;591:28-35 pubmed publisher
  39. Ho J, Hong C. Salvianolic acids: small compounds with multiple mechanisms for cardiovascular protection. J Biomed Sci. 2011;18:30 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, the target proteins of salvianolic acids are also described. These results of recent advances have shed new light to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for salvianolic acids to treat cardiovascular diseases. ..
  40. Zou H, Wu H, Zhang X, Zhao Y, Stockigt J, Lou Y, et al. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationship study of novel cytotoxic aza-caffeic acid derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:6351-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Flow cytometric and western blot analysis indicate that compound 80 plays a role in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis activity by suppressing K562 cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. ..
  41. Wang L, Chu K, Liang Y, Lin Y, Chiang B. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB and protein kinase B signalling pathways and induces caspase-3 expression in primary human CD4+ T cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;160:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of CAPE for immune regulation and a rationale for the use of propolis for the treatment of allergic disorders...
  42. Celik S, Erdogan S, Tuzcu M. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) exhibits significant potential as an antidiabetic and liver-protective agent in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacol Res. 2009;60:270-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CAPE also has the ability to decrease the harmful effects of diabetes on the liver of rats. ..
  43. Wang S, Yang X, Tian S, Yang H, Du G. Effect of salvianolic acid A on vascular reactivity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Life Sci. 2009;85:499-504 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that oral administration of SAA can significantly improve glucose metabolism and inhibit oxidative injury as well as protect against impaired vascular responsiveness in STZ-induced diabetic rats. ..
  44. Jiang B, Wu W, Li M, Xu L, Sun K, Yang M, et al. Cardioprotection and matrix metalloproteinase-9 regulation of salvianolic acids on myocardial infarction in rats. Planta Med. 2009;75:1286-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that early SA treatment is effective to improve LV function; and SA may exert preventative effects against myocardial remodeling after infarction. ..
  45. Yilmaz H, Uz E, Gokalp O, Ozcelik N, Cicek E, Ozer M. Protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and erdosteine on activities of purine-catabolizing enzymes and level of nitric oxide in red blood cells of isoniazid-administered rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 2008;24:519-24 pubmed publisher
    ..CAPE and erdosteine may have protective potential in this process and they may become a promising drug in the prevention of this undesired side effect of INH...
  46. Kang N, Lee K, Shin B, Jung S, Hwang M, Bode A, et al. Caffeic acid, a phenolic phytochemical in coffee, directly inhibits Fyn kinase activity and UVB-induced COX-2 expression. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that this compound could act as a potent chemopreventive agent against skin cancer. ..
  47. Zhou F, She J, Wang Y. Synthesis of a benzyl-protected analog of arenarioside, a trisaccharide phenylpropanoid glycoside. Carbohydr Res. 2006;341:2469-77 pubmed
    ..This is the first approach on the synthesis of a trisaccharide phenylpropanoid glycoside, although the benzyl-protecting group in the backbone of the arenarioside analog could not be removed by conventional debenzylation procedures. ..
  48. Celli N, Dragani L, Murzilli S, Pagliani T, Poggi A. In vitro and in vivo stability of caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a bioactive compound of propolis. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:3398-407 pubmed
    ..Moreover, alcohols should be carefully used in vivo as solvents for caffeic acid phenethyl ester, since they can give rise to new bioactive caffeic acid esters. ..
  49. Lee E, Uhm K, Lee Y, Han M, Lee M, Park J, et al. CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) stimulates glucose uptake through AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) activation in skeletal muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:854-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, CAPE enhanced both insulin-mediated Akt activation and glucose uptake. In summary, our results suggest that CAPE may have beneficial roles in glucose metabolism via stimulation of the AMPK pathway. ..
  50. Oh K, Oh B, Mun J, Seo H, Lee B. Salvianolic acid A suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-?B signaling pathway by targeting IKK?. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:1901-6 pubmed publisher
  51. Pan H, Li D, Fang F, Chen D, Qi L, Zhang R, et al. Salvianolic acid A demonstrates cardioprotective effects in rat hearts and cardiomyocytes after ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2011;58:535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results showed that Sal A prevents I/R-induced myocardial damage by reducing necrosis and apoptosis in isolated rat hearts and cardiomyocytes. ..
  52. Chen M, Chang W, Lin C, Liu C, Wang T, Chu C, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells involving caspase and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pancreatology. 2008;8:566-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CAPE is a potent apoptosis-inducing agent. Its action is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of caspase-3/caspase-7. ..
  53. Cui L, Liu Y, Wu T, Ai C, Chen H. Osteogenic effects of D+beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid (salvianic acid A, SAA) on osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells of intact and prednisone-treated rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:321-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicated that aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza, which include SAA, may serve as an active anabolic agent and a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of GC-associated osteoporosis. ..