Summary: Derivatives of cinnamic acid (the structural formula: phenyl-HC=CH-COO-), including its salts and esters.

Top Publications

  1. Chen Y, Guo Q, Zhu Z, Zhang L. Changes in bioactive components related to the harvest time from the spicas of Prunella vulgaris. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1118-22 pubmed publisher
    ..vulgaris has been used as traditional medicine in China for over a hundred years. To our best knowledge, no study has been conducted to determine the influence of harvesting time on concentrations of bioactive compounds of P. vulgaris...
  2. Dou G, Sreekumar P, Spee C, He S, Ryan S, Kannan R, et al. Deficiency of ?B crystallin augments ER stress-induced apoptosis by enhancing mitochondrial dysfunction. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data collectively demonstrate that ?B crystallin provides critical protection of mitochondrial function during ER stress-induced RPE apoptosis. ..
  3. Monteiro M, Ozzetti R, Vergnanini A, de Brito Gitirana L, Volpato N, de Freitas Z, et al. Evaluation of octyl p-methoxycinnamate included in liposomes and cyclodextrins in anti-solar preparations: preparations, characterizations and in vitro penetration studies. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:3045-58 pubmed publisher
    ..According to our study, the lipo/OMC system is the most advantageous release system, due to its ability to both increase the amount of OMC in the epidermis and decrease the risk of percutaneous absorption. ..
  4. He L, Lee J, Jang J, Sakchaisri K, Hwang J, Cha Molstad H, et al. Osteoporosis regulation by salubrinal through eIF2? mediated differentiation of osteoclast and osteoblast. Cell Signal. 2013;25:552-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, modulation of ATF4 and NFATc1 expressions through eIF2? phosphorylation could be a valuable target for the treatment of osteoporosis...
  5. Kitsati N, Fokas D, Ouzouni M, Mantzaris M, Barbouti A, Galaris D. Lipophilic caffeic acid derivatives protect cells against H2O2-Induced DNA damage by chelating intracellular labile iron. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:7873-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Chen Y, Geis C, Sommer C. Activation of TRPV1 contributes to morphine tolerance: involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5836-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, blocking TRPV1 might be a way to reduce morphine tolerance. ..
  7. Jiang W, Xu Y, Zhang S, Hou J, Zhu H. Effect of rosmarinic acid on experimental diabetic nephropathy. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012;110:390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RA exerts an early renal protective role to DN. Inhibition of CTGF may be a potential target in DN therapy, which highlights the possibility of using RA in the treatment of DN. ..
  8. Huang X, Chen Y, Zhang H, Ma Q, Zhang Y, Xu H. Salubrinal attenuates ?-amyloid-induced neuronal death and microglial activation by inhibition of the NF-?B pathway. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:1007.e9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also suggests that modulation of A?-induced NF-?B activation could be a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease. ..
  9. Schmidt J, Kalkofen D, Donovan K, Brown W. A role for phospholipase A2 activity in membrane tubule formation and TGN trafficking. Traffic. 2010;11:1530-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PLA(2) enzymes appear to have an important role in the earliest steps of membrane tubule formation at the TGN, which are utilized for membrane trafficking. ..

More Information


  1. Petersen M, Abdullah Y, Benner J, Eberle D, Gehlen K, Hücherig S, et al. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:1663-79 pubmed publisher
  2. Niiyama Y, Kawamata T, Yamamoto J, Furuse S, Namiki A. SB366791, a TRPV1 antagonist, potentiates analgesic effects of systemic morphine in a murine model of bone cancer pain. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the analgesic effects of the combination of a transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) antagonist and morphine on pain-related behaviours in a murine model of bone cancer pain...
  3. Zdarilova A, Svobodova A, Simanek V, Ulrichova J. Prunella vulgaris extract and rosmarinic acid suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced alteration in human gingival fibroblasts. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:386-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of PVE and RA are presumably linked to their anti-inflammatory activities and thus use of PVE and RA may be relevant in modulating the inflammation process, including periodontal disease...
  4. Girish C, Koner B, Jayanthi S, Ramachandra Rao K, Rajesh B, Pradhan S. Hepatoprotective activity of picroliv, curcumin and ellagic acid compared to silymarin on paracetamol induced liver toxicity in mice. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2009;23:735-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These active phytochemicals may be developed as drugs for the treatment of liver diseases. ..
  5. Tavafi M, Ahmadvand H. Effect of rosmarinic acid on inhibition of gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Tissue Cell. 2011;43:392-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In conclusion, RA alleviates GS nephrotoxicity via antioxidant activity, increase of renal GSH content and increase of renal antioxidant enzymes activity. ..
  6. Dawson M, Fontana J. The peptidomimetic, 1-adamantyl-substituted, and flex-het classes of retinoid-derived molecules: structure-activity relationships and retinoid receptor-independent anticancer activities. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2010;10:455-91 pubmed
    ..Structure-activity relationships and potential for clinical translation as anticancer therapeutics are presented. ..
  7. Akihisa T, Kojima N, Kikuchi T, Yasukawa K, Tokuda H, T Masters E, et al. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat. J Oleo Sci. 2010;59:273-80 pubmed
    ..acetate (1a), beta-amyrin acetate (2a), lupeol acetate (3a), and butyrospermol acetate (4a), and four triterpene cinnamates, alpha-amyrin cinnamate (1c), beta-amyrin cinnamate (2c), lupeol cinnamate (3c), and butyrospermol cinnamate (4c)..
  8. Zhang P, Hamamura K, Jiang C, Zhao L, Yokota H. Salubrinal promotes healing of surgical wounds in rat femurs. J Bone Miner Metab. 2012;30:568-79 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the results herein demonstrate that subcutaneous administration of salubrinal accelerates healing of surgically generated bone holes through the modulation of eIF2? phosphorylation. ..
  9. Taylor G, Raghuwanshi S, Rowe D, Wadowsky R, Rosendorff A. Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes EBV lytic replication. Blood. 2011;118:5528-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis identified candidate genes governing lytic replication in LCLs undergoing ER stress. ..
  10. Luo Y, Qiu K, Lu X, Liu K, Fu J, Zhu H. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular modeling of cinnamic acyl sulfonamide derivatives as novel antitubulin agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:4730-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the preliminary results, compound 10c with potent inhibitory activity in tumor growth may be a potential anticancer agent. ..
  11. Shakya N, Sane S, Gupta S. Antileishmanial efficacy of fluconazole and miltefosine in combination with an immunomodulator--picroliv. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:793-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of cell-mediated immunity was also observed in animals of this group which strengthens the immunomodulatory role of picroliv. These findings suggest a new option for antileishmanial chemotherapy at lower cost and toxicity. ..
  12. Aung H, Furukawa T, Nikai T, Niwa M, Takaya Y. Contribution of cinnamic acid analogues in rosmarinic acid to inhibition of snake venom induced hemorrhage. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:2392-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, among the compound tested, it was concluded that rosmarinic acid (1) (IC(50) 0.15 ?M) was the most potent inhibitor against the venom. ..
  13. Hasan S, Ferreira M, Koetsier M, Arif M, Janssen D. Complete biodegradation of 4-fluorocinnamic acid by a consortium comprising Arthrobacter sp. strain G1 and Ralstonia sp. strain H1. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:572-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Degradation of 4-fluorobenzoic acid by strain H1 proceeded via 4-fluorocatechol, which was converted by an ortho-cleavage pathway...
  14. Hussain M, Reigosa M. A chlorophyll fluorescence analysis of photosynthetic efficiency, quantum yield and photon energy dissipation in PSII antennae of Lactuca sativa L. leaves exposed to cinnamic acid. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:1290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CA (1.5 mM) also decreased the leaf protein contents of L. sativa as compared to control. ..
  15. Majumdar G, Rooney R, Johnson I, Raghow R. Panhistone deacetylase inhibitors inhibit proinflammatory signaling pathways to ameliorate interleukin-18-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Physiol Genomics. 2011;43:1319-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidently, both TSA and CBHA caused a two- to fourfold induction of phosphatase and tensin homolog expression to counteract IL-18-induced proinflammatory signaling and cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  16. Kim H, Lee J, Lee J, Park Y, Yoon T. Rosmarinic acid down-regulates the LPS-induced production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) via the MAPK pathway in bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. Mol Cells. 2008;26:583-9 pubmed
  17. Bubna G, Lima R, Zanardo D, dos Santos W, Ferrarese M, Ferrarese Filho O. Exogenous caffeic acid inhibits the growth and enhances the lignification of the roots of soybean (Glycine max). J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:1627-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that exogenously applied caffeic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the 4CL reaction, resulting in an increase of lignin monomers that solidify the cell wall and inhibit root growth. ..
  18. Xiao Y, Gao S, Di P, Chen J, Chen W, Zhang L. Lithospermic acid B is more responsive to silver ions (Ag+) than rosmarinic acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures. Biosci Rep. 2009;30:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Further intermediate monitoring and compound feeding experiments were performed to rank the strength of this hypothesis. Our study, for the first time, provides evidence that RA is a precursor leading to LAB synthesis. ..
  19. Park G, Kim Y, Lee H, Song H, Cho D, Lee W, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of EBV-transformed B cells by cross-linking of CD70 is dependent upon generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of p38 MAPK and JNK pathway. J Immunol. 2010;185:7274-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our report reveals alternate mechanisms of direct apoptosis through CD70 signaling and provides data supporting CD70 as a viable target for an Ab-based therapy against EBV-related tumors...
  20. Furtado M, de Almeida L, Furtado R, Cunha W, Tavares D. Antimutagenicity of rosmarinic acid in Swiss mice evaluated by the micronucleus assay. Mutat Res. 2008;657:150-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of RA are not completely understood, the putative antioxidant activity of RA might explain its effect on DXR mutagenicity. ..
  21. Song J, Wang Z. RNAi-mediated suppression of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene in Salvia miltiorrhiza causes abnormal phenotypes and a reduction in rosmarinic acid biosynthesis. J Plant Res. 2011;124:183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that PAL is very important for the synthesis of major water-soluble pharmaceutical ingredients within S. miltiorrhiza...
  22. Drexler H. Synergistic apoptosis induction in leukemic cells by the phosphatase inhibitor salubrinal and proteasome inhibitors. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4161 pubmed publisher
    ..Inclusion of specific phosphatase inhibitors might therefore represent an option to improve current proteasome inhibitor-based treatment modalities for hematological cancers. ..
  23. Doody A, Antosh A, Brown W. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 antagonists inhibit multiple endocytic membrane trafficking pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;388:695-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with the model that a cytoplasmic PLA(2) plays a general role in the export of cargo from multiple endocytic compartments by mediating the formation of membrane tubules. ..
  24. Sheng R, Liu X, Zhang L, Gao B, Han R, Wu Y, et al. Autophagy regulates endoplasmic reticulum stress in ischemic preconditioning. Autophagy. 2012;8:310-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that pre-activation of autophagy by ischemic preconditioning can boost endogenous defense mechanisms to upregulate molecular chaperones, and hence reduce excessive ER stress during fatal ischemia. ..
  25. Lee H, Cho H, Park E, Kim S, Lee S, Kim C, et al. Rosmarinic acid protects human dopaminergic neuronal cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. Toxicology. 2008;250:109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RA can protect SH-SY5Y cells under oxidative stress conditions by regulating apoptotic process. Thus, RA should be clinically evaluated for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  26. Katoch M, Fazli I, Suri K, Ahuja A, Qazi G. Effect of altitude on picroside content in core collections of Picrorhiza kurrooa from the north western Himalayas. J Nat Med. 2011;65:578-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The study concludes that picroside I and II accumulation depends on altitude, which could help in the selection and collection of superior genotypes with uniform effects for utilization by the pharmaceutical industry...
  27. Jiang W, Chen X, Qu G, Yue X, Zhu H, Tian J, et al. Rosmarinic acid protects against experimental sepsis by inhibiting proinflammatory factor release and ameliorating hemodynamics. Shock. 2009;32:608-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-inflammatory mechanism of RA may inhibit activation of the nuclear factor- kappaB pathway by inhibiting IkappaB kinase activity. ..
  28. Li G, Jiang W, Tian J, Qu G, Zhu H, Fu F. In vitro and in vivo antifibrotic effects of rosmarinic acid on experimental liver fibrosis. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:282-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that RA has potentially conferring antifibrogenic effects. ..
  29. Huang X, Bie Z. Cinnamic acid-inhibited ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is mediated through decreased spermine and changes in the ratio of polyamines in cowpea. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that 0.1 mM CA inhibits RuBPC activity by decreasing the levels of endogenous free and perchloric acid soluble (PS) conjugated Spm, as well as the PAs ratio...
  30. Kawoosa T, Singh H, Kumar A, Sharma S, Devi K, Dutt S, et al. Light and temperature regulated terpene biosynthesis: hepatoprotective monoterpene picroside accumulation in Picrorhiza kurrooa. Funct Integr Genomics. 2010;10:393-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Data suggested the important roles played by light and temperature in regulating pkhmgr and pkdxs, and the picrosides level in picrorhiza...
  31. Aung H, Nikai T, Niwa M, Takaya Y. Rosmarinic acid in Argusia argentea inhibits snake venom-induced hemorrhage. J Nat Med. 2010;64:482-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of the antihemorrhage activity of RA (1), and RA (1) greatly contributes to the antihemorrhagic efficiency of A. argentea against crude snake venoms and hemorrhagic toxins...
  32. Yu J, Sun Y, Zhang Y, Ding J, Xia X, Xiao C, et al. Selective trans-cinnamic acid uptake impairs [Ca2+]cyt homeostasis and growth in Cucumis sativus L. J Chem Ecol. 2009;35:1471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that [Ca(2+)](cyt) homeostatic disturbance is one of the primary triggers for trans-CA phytotoxicity in cucumber...
  33. Li D, Lv P, Zhang H, Zhang H, Hou Y, Liu K, et al. The combination of 4-anilinoquinazoline and cinnamic acid: a novel mode of binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:5012-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound 43 has demonstrated significant EGFR (IC(50)=0.12 ?M) and tumor growth inhibitory activity as a potential anticancer agent. ..
  34. Nishidono Y, Fujita T, Kawanami A, Nishizawa M, Tanaka K. Identification of PGC-1? activating constituents in Zingiberaceous crude drugs. Fitoterapia. 2017;122:40-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the ester structure and the methoxy group are important factors responsible for the PGC-1? activity. ..
  35. Kim J, Hwang D, Moon J, Lee Y, Yoo J, Shin D, et al. Multiple UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase and Sulfotransferase Enzymes are Responsible for the Metabolism of Verproside in Human Liver Preparations. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, the pharmacokinetics of verproside may be affected by the co-administration of relevant UGT and SULT inhibitors or inducers. ..
  36. Aboul Ela M, El Lakany A, Shams Eldin S, Hammoda H. A new validated HPTLC method for quantitative determination of 1, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in Inula crithmoides roots. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012;25:721-5 pubmed
    ..No HPTLC method has been reported in literature for the determination of 1, 5-DCQA in medicinal plants. ..
  37. Upadhyay R, Mohan Rao L. An outlook on chlorogenic acids-occurrence, chemistry, technology, and biological activities. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53:968-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The consumption of coffee correlated to several health benefits such as reducing the risk of human chronic diseases such as inflammation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease owing to its antioxidant potential. ..
  38. Kim B, Ku C, Pham T, Park Y, Martin D, Xie L, et al. Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) polyphenol-rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Nutr Res. 2013;33:406-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the CBE cholesterol-lowering mechanism in apoE(-/-) mice was independent of hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. ..
  39. Mai W, Wang J, Yang L, Yuan J, Xiao Y, Mao P, et al. Silver-catalyzed radical tandem cyclization for the synthesis of 3,4-disubstituted dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-ones. Org Lett. 2014;16:204-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This method affords a novel and straightforward route to various 3,4-disubstituted dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-ones in aqueous solution. ..
  40. Kusaka E, Sugiyama M, Senoo N, Yamamoto A, Sugimoto Y. Genomic and non-genomic effects of glucocorticoids on allergic rhinitis model in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;16:279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that MF has a non-genomic effect through repression of the activation of PLC via the mGR, and MF has also a genomic effect that was influenced by the inhibition of PLA2 through transcriptional regulation via cGR. ..
  41. Lima R, Salvador V, dos Santos W, Bubna G, Finger Teixeira A, Soares A, et al. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80542 pubmed publisher
    ..By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. ..
  42. Jin X, Liu P, Yang F, Zhang Y, Miao D. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates depressive-like behaviors in a rat model of CUS and Up-regulates BDNF levels in the hippocampus and hippocampal-derived astrocytes. Neurochem Res. 2013;38:1828-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the effects of RA were inhibited by U0126. RA might be a useful treatment for depression and the changes in ERK1/2 signaling and BDNF levels may play a critical role in the pharmacological action of RA. ..
  43. Venditti A, Frezza C, Riccardelli M, Foddai S, Nicoletti M, Serafini M, et al. Unusual molecular pattern in Ajugoideae subfamily: the case of Ajuga genevensis L. from Dolomites. Nat Prod Res. 2016;30:1098-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the presence of large amounts of rosmarinic acid (1) was unexpected for a species that does not belong to subfamily Nepetoideae. ..
  44. Zhang M, Zhou J, Cao W, Feng Z, Guo J, Han Q, et al. Synthesis, Anti-inflammatory Activities and Mechanisms of 3,5- dihydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2015;14:183-98 pubmed
    ..Therefore, 3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, especially compound 7, represent potential value for antiinflammatory drug development. ..
  45. Becker B, Cooper M. Aminoglycoside antibiotics in the 21st century. ACS Chem Biol. 2013;8:105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In the face of emerging bacterial infections that are virtually untreatable, it is time to have a fresh look at this old class to reinvigorate the struggle against multidrug-resistant pathogens. ..
  46. Kim J. Extraction time and temperature affect the extraction efficiencies of coumarin and phenylpropanoids from Cinnamomum cassia bark using a microwave-assisted extraction method. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1063:196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..cassia bark when a water-based MAE method was used. This study provides a novel approach to the preparation of the water extract of C. cassia bark using MAE. ..
  47. Marcelo F, Dias C, Martins A, Madeira P, Jorge T, Florêncio M, et al. Molecular recognition of rosmarinic acid from Salvia?sclareoides extracts by acetylcholinesterase: a new binding site detected by NMR spectroscopy. Chemistry. 2013;19:6641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the combination of the NMR spectroscopy based data with molecular modelling has permitted us to detect a new binding site in AChE, which could be used for future drug development. ..
  48. Yang S, Hong C, Lee G, Kim C, Lee K. The hepatoprotection of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, major compounds of Perilla frutescens, against t-BHP-induced oxidative liver damage. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;55:92-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CA from perilla leaves plays a role in the increased hepatic GSH concentration, and shows an additive hepatic protection with RA against oxidative hepatic damage...
  49. Lo H, Chang Y, Yan T. Chiral pool based efficient synthesis of the aminocyclitol core and furanoside of (-)-hygromycin A: formal total synthesis of (-)-hygromycin A. Org Lett. 2012;14:5896-9 pubmed publisher
  50. Panya A, Kittipongpittaya K, Laguerre M, Bayrasy C, Lecomte J, Villeneuve P, et al. Interactions between ?-tocopherol and rosmarinic acid and its alkyl esters in emulsions: synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect?. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:10320-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This formation of caffeic acid was proposed to be responsible for the synergistic activity of R0 and ?-tocopherol since the formation of an additional antioxidant could further increase the oxidative stability of the emulsion. ..
  51. Karthikkumar V, Sivagami G, Vinothkumar R, Rajkumar D, Nalini N. Modulatory efficacy of rosmarinic acid on premalignant lesions and antioxidant status in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;34:949-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results showed that all three doses of RA inhibited carcinogenesis, though the effect of the intermediary dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. was more pronounced. ..
  52. Quirantes Piné R, Lozano Sánchez J, Herrero M, Ibáñez E, Segura Carretero A, Fernandez Gutierrez A. HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS as a powerful analytical tool for characterising phenolic compounds in olive-leaf extracts. Phytochem Anal. 2013;24:213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We may conclude therefore that this analytical tool is very valuable in the study of phenolic compounds in plant matrices. ..