dicarboxylic acids

Summary

Summary: Acyclic acids that contain two carboxyl groups and have the formula HO2C-R-CO2H, where R may be an aromatic or aliphatic group.

Top Publications

  1. van Roermund C, IJlst L, Wagemans T, Wanders R, Waterham H. A role for the human peroxisomal half-transporter ABCD3 in the oxidation of dicarboxylic acids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1841:563-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate a role for human ABCD3 in the oxidation of dicarboxylic acids and a role in buffering fatty acids that are overflowing from the mitochondrial ?-oxidation system.
  2. Silva M, Jia T, Samandar E, Preau J, Calafat A. Environmental exposure to the plasticizer 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) in U.S. adults (2000-2012). Environ Res. 2013;126:159-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of oxidative metabolites of DINCH in urine suggests that these oxidative metabolites can be used as DINCH biomarkers for exposure assessment even at environmental exposure levels. ..
  3. Izutsu K, Kadoya S, Yomota C, Kawanishi T, Yonemochi E, Terada K. Freeze-drying of proteins in glass solids formed by basic amino acids and dicarboxylic acids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2009;57:43-8 pubmed
    ..Mixing of the amino acid with some dicarboxylic acids (e.g., oxalic acid) also suggested an upward shift of the transition temperature...
  4. Klyuyev S, Vassylyev D. The binding site and mechanism of the RNA polymerase inhibitor tagetitoxin: an issue open to debate. Transcription. 2012;3:46-50 pubmed publisher
  5. Mastrofrancesco A, Ottaviani M, Aspite N, Cardinali G, Izzo E, Graupe K, et al. Azelaic acid modulates the inflammatory response in normal human keratinocytes through PPARgamma activation. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:813-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the activity of azelaic acid and lands additional evidences for its therapeutic effects on inflammatory skin diseases, such as rosacea...
  6. Stueckler C, Hall M, Ehammer H, Pointner E, Kroutil W, Macheroux P, et al. Stereocomplementary bioreduction of alpha,beta-unsaturated dicarboxylic acids and dimethyl esters using enoate reductases: enzyme- and substrate-based stereocontrol. Org Lett. 2007;9:5409-11 pubmed
    Asymmetric bioreduction of alpha,beta-unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, such as 2-methylmaleic/fumaric and 2-methylenesuccinic acid, as well as the corresponding dimethyl esters, using three cloned enoate reductases furnished 2-..
  7. De Filippis D, D Amico A, Cinelli M, Esposito G, Di Marzo V, Iuvone T. Adelmidrol, a palmitoylethanolamide analogue, reduces chronic inflammation in a carrageenin-granuloma model in rats. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:1086-95 pubmed publisher
    ..g. iNOS, chymase and metalloproteinase MMP-9), and mediators (e.g. nitric oxide and TNF-alpha). The results indicate that adelmidrol, given locally, may represent a potential therapeutic tool in controlling chronic inflammation...
  8. Nishshanka U, Attygalle A. Low-energy collision-induced fragmentation of negative ions derived from diesters of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids made with hydroxybenzoic acids. J Mass Spectrom. 2008;43:1502-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Appropriate deuterium labeling experiments demonstrated that the hydrogen atom transferred for the formation of the m/z 137 ion in ortho compounds is specifically derived from the alpha position of the dicarboxylic acid moiety...
  9. Yi K, Simpkins J. Protein phosphatase 1, protein phosphatase 2A, and calcineurin play a role in estrogen-mediated neuroprotection. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that in the face of cytotoxic challenges in vitro and in vivo, estrogens maintain the function of PP1, PP2A, and calcineurin...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sauer S, Opp S, Mahringer A, Kaminski M, Thiel C, Okun J, et al. Glutaric aciduria type I and methylmalonic aciduria: simulation of cerebral import and export of accumulating neurotoxic dicarboxylic acids in in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier and the choroid plexus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:552-60 pubmed publisher
    Intracerebral accumulation of neurotoxic dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) plays an important pathophysiological role in glutaric aciduria type I and methylmalonic aciduria...
  2. Brahmbhatt V, Albert C, Anbukumar D, Cunningham B, Neumann W, Ford D. {Omega}-oxidation of {alpha}-chlorinated fatty acids: identification of {alpha}-chlorinated dicarboxylic acids. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:41255-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Three different ?-chlorinated dicarboxylic acids, 2-chlorohexadecane-(1,16)-dioic acid, 2-chlorotetradecane-(1,14)-dioic acid, and 2-chloroadipic acid (2-..
  3. Cao Y, Cao Y, Lin X. Metabolically engineered Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of four-carbon 1,4-dicarboxylic acids. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;38:649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Biotechnological production of four-carbon 1,4-dicarboxylic acids (C4 diacids) from renewable plant biomass is a promising and attractive alternative to conventional ..
  4. Artsimovitch I, Svetlov V, Nemetski S, Epshtein V, Cardozo T, Nudler E. Tagetitoxin inhibits RNA polymerase through trapping of the trigger loop. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:40395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies highlight the role of TL as a target through which accessory proteins and antibiotics can alter the elongation complex dynamics...
  5. Houten S, Denis S, Argmann C, Jia Y, Ferdinandusse S, Reddy J, et al. Peroxisomal L-bifunctional enzyme (Ehhadh) is essential for the production of medium-chain dicarboxylic acids. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:1296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..fasting well but displayed a marked deficiency in the fasting-induced production of the medium-chain dicarboxylic acids adipic and suberic acid and of the carnitine esters thereof...
  6. Malinen A, Turtola M, Parthiban M, Vainonen L, Johnson M, Belogurov G. Active site opening and closure control translocation of multisubunit RNA polymerase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:7442-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The RNAP translocation mechanism is exploited by the antibiotic tagetitoxin, which mimics pyrophosphate and induces backward translocation by closing the active site...
  7. Feng L, Yang K, Zhou L, Xiao J, Yang X, Zhai L, et al. N-heterocyclic dicarboxylic acids: broad-spectrum inhibitors of metallo-?-lactamases with co-antibacterial effect against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:5185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies demonstrate that N-heterocyclic dicarboxylic acids 1a-c and pyridylmercaptothiadiazoles 2a,b are good scaffolds for future broad-spectrum inhibitors of the M?Ls...
  8. Asai K, Baik S, Kasahara Y, Moriya S, Ogasawara N. Regulation of the transport system for C4-dicarboxylic acids in Bacillus subtilis. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 2):263-71 pubmed
    ..A catabolite-responsive element (CRE) was also found in the -10 region of the promoter, suggesting negative regulation by a CRE-binding protein...
  9. Chaki S, Yoshikawa R, Hirota S, Shimazaki T, Maeda M, Kawashima N, et al. MGS0039: a potent and selective group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist with antidepressant-like activity. Neuropharmacology. 2004;46:457-67 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that MGS0039 is a potent and selective antagonist of group II mGluR, and that group II mGluR antagonists, like MGS0039, have an antidepressant-like potential in experimental animal models...
  10. Dimroth P, Schink B. Energy conservation in the decarboxylation of dicarboxylic acids by fermenting bacteria. Arch Microbiol. 1998;170:69-77 pubmed
    Decarboxylation of dicarboxylic acids (oxalate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, and malate) can serve as the sole energy source for the growth of fermenting bacteria...
  11. Jung S, Zeikus J, Hollingsworth R. A new family of very long chain alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids is a major structural fatty acyl component of the membrane lipids of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E. J Lipid Res. 1994;35:1057-65 pubmed
  12. Erb T, Berg I, Brecht V, Muller M, Fuchs G, Alber B. Synthesis of C5-dicarboxylic acids from C2-units involving crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase: the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10631-6 pubmed
    ..For methylotrophic bacteria such as Methylobacterium extorquens, extension of the serine cycle with reactions of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway leads to a simplified scheme for isocitrate lyase-independent C1 assimilation...
  13. Li Z, Abramov Y, Bordner J, Leonard J, Medek A, Trask A. Solid-state acid-base interactions in complexes of heterocyclic bases with dicarboxylic acids: crystallography, hydrogen bond analysis, and 15N NMR spectroscopy. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:8199-210 pubmed
  14. Wang L, Grosse T, Stevens H, Brinkhoff T, Simon M, Liang L, et al. Bioactive hydroxyphenylpyrrole-dicarboxylic acids from a new marine Halomonas sp.: Production and structure elucidation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;72:816-22 pubmed
    ..Both compounds showed potent anti-tumor-promoting activities...
  15. Clegg S, Seinfeld J. Thermodynamic models of aqueous solutions containing inorganic electrolytes and dicarboxylic acids at 298.15 K. 1. The acids as nondissociating components. J Phys Chem A. 2006;110:5692-717 pubmed
    Atmospheric aerosols contain a significant fraction of water-soluble organic compounds, including dicarboxylic acids. Water activities at approximately 298...
  16. Gatti R, Andrisano V, Di Pietra A, Cavrini V. Analysis of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics by liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1995;13:589-95 pubmed
    ..has been found to be a useful prechromatographic fluorescent labelling reagent for the analysis of dicarboxylic acids. The derivatization reaction of azelaic acid and meglutol with this reagent yieded stable and highly ..
  17. Kolattukudy P. Polyesters in higher plants. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2001;71:1-49 pubmed
    ..The polyesters present in agricultural waste may be used to produce high value polymers, and genetic engineering might be used to produce large quantities of such polymers in plants...
  18. Remenar J, Morissette S, Peterson M, Moulton B, MacPhee J, Guzmán H, et al. Crystal engineering of novel cocrystals of a triazole drug with 1,4-dicarboxylic acids. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:8456-7 pubmed
    Cocrystals of the poorly soluble antifungal drug cis-itraconazole (1) with 1,4-dicarboxylic acids have been prepared. The crystal structure of the succinic acid cocrystal with 1 was determined to be a trimer by single-crystal X-ray...
  19. Kawashima N, Karasawa J, Shimazaki T, Chaki S, Okuyama S, Yasuhara A, et al. Neuropharmacological profiles of antagonists of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Neurosci Lett. 2005;378:131-4 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that modulation of serotonergic neuron might be, at least in part, responsible for the antidepressant-like effects of group II mGluR antagonists...
  20. Yurgel S, Kahn M. Sinorhizobium meliloti dctA mutants with partial ability to transport dicarboxylic acids. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1161-72 pubmed
  21. Ferdinandusse S, Denis S, van Roermund C, Wanders R, Dacremont G. Identification of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes involved in the degradation of long-chain dicarboxylic acids. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:1104-11 pubmed
    b>Dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) are omega-oxidation products of monocarboxylic acids. After activation by a dicarboxylyl-CoA synthetase, the dicarboxylyl-CoA esters are shortened via beta-oxidation...
  22. Yoshimizu T, Shimazaki T, Ito A, Chaki S. An mGluR2/3 antagonist, MGS0039, exerts antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in behavioral models in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006;186:587-93 pubmed
    ..1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (MGS0039) is a selective antagonist for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3), and that it exerted antidepressant effects in some animal behavioral tests...
  23. Lévai F, Liu C, Tse M, Lin E. Pre-column fluorescence derivatization using leucine-coumarnylamide for HPLC determination of mono- and dicarboxylic acids in plasma. Acta Physiol Hung. 1995;83:39-46 pubmed
    ..pre-column labelling technique was developed for plasma level monitoring of different types of mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids form mixed anhydrides with ethyl chloroformate in the presence of triethylamine; the mixed ..
  24. Grobler J, Bauer F, Subden R, van Vuuren H. The mae1 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes a permease for malate and other C4 dicarboxylic acids. Yeast. 1995;11:1485-91 pubmed
    ..The mae1 gene was mapped 2842 bp 5' to the MFml gene on chromosome I. Transport assays revealed that the mae1 gene encodes a permease involved in the uptake of L-malate, succinate and malonic acid...
  25. Mosier N, Sarikaya A, Ladisch C, Ladisch M. Characterization of dicarboxylic acids for cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol Prog. 2001;17:474-80 pubmed
    ..These results are especially significant because maleic acid, in the form of maleic anhydride, is widely available and produced in large quantities annually...
  26. Parke D, Garcia M, Ornston L. Cloning and genetic characterization of dca genes required for beta-oxidation of straight-chain dicarboxylic acids in Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:4817-27 pubmed
    ..Because the mutants were affected in their ability to utilize additional saturated, straight-chain dicarboxylic acids, the newly discovered 10 kb of DNA was termed the dca (dicarboxylic acid) region...
  27. Nohta H, Sonoda J, Yoshida H, Satozono H, Ishida J, Yamaguchi M. Liquid chromatographic determination of dicarboxylic acids based on intramolecular excimer-forming fluorescence derivatization. J Chromatogr A. 2003;1010:37-44 pubmed
    A highly sensitive and selective fluorimetric determination method for dicarboxylic acids (C5-C12) has been developed...
  28. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini A, Bellia F, Janson C, et al. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005;38:997-1008 pubmed
    ..and reliable ion-pairing HPLC method for the synchronous separation of several purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis and screening of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM).
  29. Clegg S, Seinfeld J. Thermodynamic models of aqueous solutions containing inorganic electrolytes and dicarboxylic acids at 298.15 K. 2. Systems including dissociation equilibria. J Phys Chem A. 2006;110:5718-34 pubmed
    Atmospheric aerosols contain a significant fraction of water-soluble organic compounds, including dicarboxylic acids. Pitzer activity coefficient models are developed, using a wide range of data at 298...
  30. Karasawa J, Shimazaki T, Kawashima N, Chaki S. AMPA receptor stimulation mediates the antidepressant-like effect of a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist. Brain Res. 2005;1042:92-8 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment with NBQX significantly attenuated the increase in serotonin release by MGS0039. These findings suggest that stimulation of postsynaptic AMPA receptors plays a role in mediating the pharmacological effects of MGS0039...
  31. Mingrone G, Castagneto M. Medium-chain, even-numbered dicarboxylic acids as novel energy substrates: an update. Nutr Rev. 2006;64:449-56 pubmed
    Medium-chain dicarboxylic acids are produced by higher plants and animals via fatty acid omega-oxidation or by beta-oxidation of longer-chain dicarboxylic acids...
  32. Halder R, Richards G. Topical agents used in the management of hyperpigmentation. Skin Therapy Lett. 2004;9:1-3 pubmed
    ..The non-phenolic agents, which include tretinoin, adapalene, topical corticosteroids, azelaic acid, arbutin, kojic acid, and licorice extract, are also used for hyperpigmentation disorders...
  33. Vassylyev D, Svetlov V, Vassylyeva M, Perederina A, Igarashi N, Matsugaki N, et al. Structural basis for transcription inhibition by tagetitoxin. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:1086-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Remodeling of the active site by metal ions could be a common theme in the regulation of catalysis by nucleic acid enzymes...
  34. Akihisa T, Mafune S, Ukiya M, Kimura Y, Yasukawa K, Suzuki T, et al. (+)- and (-)-syn-2-isobutyl-4-methylazetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acids from the extract of Monascus pilosus-fermented rice (red-mold rice). J Nat Prod. 2004;67:479-80 pubmed
    ..ethanol extract of red-mold rice fermented with Monascus pilosus were established to be (+)- [1; (+)-monascumic acid] and (-)-syn-2-isobutyl-4-methylazetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acids [2; (-)-monascumic acid] based on spectroscopic methods.
  35. Yoshimizu T, Chaki S. Increased cell proliferation in the adult mouse hippocampus following chronic administration of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, MGS0039. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;315:493-6 pubmed
    ..These findings raise the possibility that MGS0039 may exert antidepressant-like effects by modulating cell proliferation in the hippocampus...
  36. Forward J, Behrendt M, Wyborn N, Cross R, Kelly D. TRAP transporters: a new family of periplasmic solute transport systems encoded by the dctPQM genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus and by homologs in diverse gram-negative bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5482-93 pubmed
    ..The name TRAP (for tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic) transporters is proposed for this new group...
  37. Craft D, Madduri K, Eshoo M, Wilson C. Identification and characterization of the CYP52 family of Candida tropicalis ATCC 20336, important for the conversion of fatty acids and alkanes to alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:5983-91 pubmed
    Candida tropicalis ATCC 20336 excretes alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids as a by-product when cultured on n-alkanes or fatty acids as the carbon source...
  38. Cappa C, Lovejoy E, Ravishankara A. Determination of evaporation rates and vapor pressures of very low volatility compounds: a study of the C4-C10 and C12 dicarboxylic acids. J Phys Chem A. 2007;111:3099-109 pubmed
    ..pressures of low volatility compounds was developed and applied to the homologous series of C4-C10 and C12 dicarboxylic acids. Proton-transfer chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to follow directly the temperature-dependent ..
  39. Januszewski A, Alderson N, Jenkins A, Thorpe S, Baynes J. Chemical modification of proteins during peroxidation of phospholipids. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:1440-9 pubmed
    ..Analyses of plasma proteins from control and diabetic patients indicated significant increases in lipoxidative modification of protein in diabetic compared with control subjects...
  40. Salinari S, Bertuzzi A, Gandolfi A, Greco A, Scarfone A, Manco M, et al. Dodecanedioic acid overcomes metabolic inflexibility in type 2 diabetic subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E1051-8 pubmed
  41. Tedeschi G, Negri A, Mortarino M, Ceciliani F, Simonic T, Faotto L, et al. L-aspartate oxidase from Escherichia coli. II. Interaction with C4 dicarboxylic acids and identification of a novel L-aspartate: fumarate oxidoreductase activity. Eur J Biochem. 1996;239:427-33 pubmed
    ..24 mM and 0.22 mM, respectively. A competitive behaviour was observed for these two dicarboxylic acids towards iminoaspartate and sulfite ions...
  42. Chen P, Vericel E, Lagarde M, Guichardant M. Poxytrins, a class of oxygenated products from polyunsaturated fatty acids, potently inhibit blood platelet aggregation. FASEB J. 2011;25:382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PDX and other oxygenated products from PUFAs of nutritional interest, having the E,Z,E-conjugated triene motif and collectively named poxytrins (PUFA oxygenated trienes), might have antithrombotic potential...
  43. Fluhr J, Degitz K. [Antibiotics, azelaic acid and benzoyl peroxide in topical acne therapy]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010;8 Suppl 1:S24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover gram negative folliculitis may develop. Azelaic acid is acting as an antimicrobial and can also reduce comedones. It can also be used in pregnancy and during the lactation period...
  44. Rhee E, Souza A, Farrell L, Pollak M, Lewis G, Steele D, et al. Metabolite profiling identifies markers of uremia. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1041-1051 pubmed publisher
    ..of numerous previously identified uremic toxins, we identified several additional markers of ESRD, including dicarboxylic acids (adipate, malonate, methylmalonate, and maleate), biogenic amines, nucleotide derivatives, phenols, and ..
  45. Zhao M, Bi H, Zhou H, Yang H, Shi M. Cinchona alkaloid squaramide catalyzed enantioselective hydrazination/cyclization cascade reaction of ?-isocyanoacetates and azodicarboxylates: synthesis of optically active 1,2,4-triazolines. J Org Chem. 2013;78:9377-82 pubmed publisher
  46. Hunt M, Alexson S. Novel functions of acyl-CoA thioesterases and acyltransferases as auxiliary enzymes in peroxisomal lipid metabolism. Prog Lipid Res. 2008;47:405-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will therefore focus on new and emerging roles for these enzymes in assisting with the oxidation of various lipids, amidation of lipids for excretion from peroxisomes, and in controlling coenzyme A levels in peroxisomes...
  47. Kircik L. Efficacy and safety of azelaic acid (AzA) gel 15% in the treatment of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and acne: a 16-week, baseline-controlled study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10:586-90 pubmed
    ..This pilot study demonstrates the efficacy of topical AzA gel 15% when applied twice daily for the reduction of both acne and PIH. J..
  48. Nishimura H, Setogawa Y, Watanabe T, Honda Y, Watanabe T. Epoxy ceriporic acid produced by selective lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Chem Phys Lipids. 2011;164:707-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this study is the first to report that natural alkylitaconic acid bears an epoxy group on its side chain...
  49. Scheinfeld N, Berk T. A review of the diagnosis and treatment of rosacea. Postgrad Med. 2010;122:139-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Other pharmacotherapeutic interventions have been shown to improve the signs and symptoms of rosacea, although many of these have not yet received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for this indication...
  50. Yang W, Lin X, Blake A, Wilson C, Hubberstey P, Champness N, et al. Self-assembly of metal-organic coordination polymers constructed from a bent dicarboxylate ligand: diversity of coordination modes, structures, and gas adsorption. Inorg Chem. 2009;48:11067-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Both 3 and 4 retain structural integrity and permanent microporosity upon evacuation of guest molecules, with hydrogen uptakes of 0.57 and 0.78 wt %, respectively, at 20 bar and 77 K...
  51. Hill L, Sørensen T, Blackburn O, Brown A, Beer P, Faulkner S. Self-assembly between dicarboxylate ions and binuclear europium complexes: moving to water-pH dependence and effects of buffers. Dalton Trans. 2013;42:67-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of buffer, pH and ligand structure on the binding of dinicotinate has been investigated...
  52. Landete J, Pardo I, Ferrer S. Regulation of hdc expression and HDC activity by enological factors in lactic acid bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:1544-51 pubmed publisher
  53. Sanphui P, Tothadi S, Ganguly S, Desiraju G. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt. Mol Pharm. 2013;10:4687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the ..