Summary: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.

Top Publications

  1. Clement E, Richard A, Thwaites M, Ailon J, Peters S, Dickson C. Cyclic and sleep-like spontaneous alternations of brain state under urethane anaesthesia. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2004 pubmed publisher
  2. Tanida M, Yamano T, Maeda K, Okumura N, Fukushima Y, Nagai K. Effects of intraduodenal injection of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 on renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure in urethane-anesthetized rats. Neurosci Lett. 2005;389:109-14 pubmed
    ..the effects of intraduodenal injection of LJLa1 on blood pressure (BP) and the activity of autonomic nerves in urethane-anesthetized rats...
  3. Moldestad O, Karlsen P, Molden S, Storm J. Tracheotomy improves experiment success rate in mice during urethane anesthesia and stereotaxic surgery. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;176:57-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Urethane anesthesia is frequently used for acute experiments on small rodents in physiology and neuroscience. Severe respiratory distress is a common side-effect of urethane anesthesia in many strains of mice...
  4. Buesa I, Ortiz V, Aguilera L, Torre F, Zimmermann M, Azkue J. Disinhibition of spinal responses to primary afferent input by antagonism at GABA receptors in urethane-anaesthetised rats is dependent on NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2006;50:585-94 pubmed
    ..work, extracellular field potentials elicited by electrical peripheral nerve activation were recorded in the urethane-anaesthetised rat following spinal administration of GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptor-antagonists, and the involvement ..
  5. Kelly Spratt K, Philipp Staheli J, Gurley K, Hoon Kim K, Knoblaugh S, Kemp C. Inhibition of PI-3K restores nuclear p27Kip1 expression in a mouse model of Kras-driven lung cancer. Oncogene. 2009;28:3652-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the regulation of p27 expression and the role of p27 during lung cancer are poorly understood. Urethane-induced lung tumors in mice frequently harbor mutations in the Kras oncogene, and in this study, we use this ..
  6. Khang D, Kim S, Liu Snyder P, Palmore G, Durbin S, Webster T. Enhanced fibronectin adsorption on carbon nanotube/poly(carbonate) urethane: independent role of surface nano-roughness and associated surface energy. Biomaterials. 2007;28:4756-68 pubmed
    ..roughness on the adsorption of one key cell adhesive protein, fibronectin, on carbon nanotube/poly(carbonate) urethane composites of different surface energies was evaluated...
  7. To M, Perez Losada J, Mao J, Hsu J, Jacks T, Balmain A. A functional switch from lung cancer resistance to susceptibility at the Pas1 locus in Kras2LA2 mice. Nat Genet. 2006;38:926-30 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that cancer predisposition should also be considered in the context of somatic events and could have major implications for the design of human association studies to identify cancer susceptibility genes...
  8. Accorsi Mendonça D, Leão R, Aguiar J, Varanda W, Machado B. Urethane inhibits the GABAergic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract of rat brain stem slices. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R396-402 pubmed
    Because urethane is a widely used anesthetic in animal experimentation, in the present study, we evaluated its effects on neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in brain stem slices from young rats (25-30 days old)...
  9. Zaynagetdinov R, Sherrill T, Polosukhin V, Han W, Ausborn J, McLoed A, et al. A critical role for macrophages in promotion of urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis. J Immunol. 2011;187:5703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..p. injection of the carcinogen urethane. After urethane treatment, lung macrophages developed increased M1 macrophage marker expression during the first ..

More Information


  1. Redente E, Orlicky D, Bouchard R, Malkinson A. Tumor signaling to the bone marrow changes the phenotype of monocytes and pulmonary macrophages during urethane-induced primary lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:693-708 pubmed
    ..These biochemical markers of macrophage activation states would have diagnostic and/or therapeutic value if analogous systemic shifts occur in humans...
  2. Li X, Loh X, Wang K, He C, Li J. Poly(ester urethane)s consisting of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] and poly(ethylene glycol) as candidate biomaterials: characterization and mechanical property study. Biomacromolecules. 2005;6:2740-7 pubmed
    Poly(ester urethane)s with poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) as the hard and hydrophobic segment and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as the soft and hydrophilic segment were synthesized from telechelic hydroxylated PHB (PHB-diol) and PEG ..
  3. Matsuoka A, Isama K, Tanimura S, Kohno M, Yamori T. A novel candidate compound with urethane structure for anticancer drug development. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2007;4:69-76 pubmed
    Diethyl-4,4'-methylenebis(N-phenylcarbamate) (MDU) is a urethane compound that we originally synthesized, along with three other compounds, to investigate how polyurethane is hydrolysed...
  4. Ruusuvirta T, Koivisto K, Wikgren J, Astikainen P. Processing of melodic contours in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:701-3 pubmed
    ..We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in urethane-anaesthetized Wistar rats presented with rare pairs of tones ('deviants') interspersed with frequently repeated ..
  5. Schehl B, Senn T, Lachenmeier D, Rodicio R, Heinisch J. Contribution of the fermenting yeast strain to ethyl carbamate generation in stone fruit spirits. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;74:843-50 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, using this strain for fermentation of stoneless cherry mashes did not completely impede EC formation. This indicates another, as yet unidentified, source for this compound...
  6. Kiss T, Feng J, Hoffmann W, Shaffer C, Hajos M. Rhythmic theta and delta activity of cortical and hippocampal neuronal networks in genetically or pharmacologically induced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction under urethane anesthesia. Neuroscience. 2013;237:255-67 pubmed publisher
  7. Ghanayem B. Inhibition of urethane-induced carcinogenicity in cyp2e1-/- in comparison to cyp2e1+/+ mice. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95:331-9 pubmed
    b>Urethane is an established animal carcinogen and has been classified as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen...
  8. Pagliardini S, Greer J, Funk G, Dickson C. State-dependent modulation of breathing in urethane-anesthetized rats. J Neurosci. 2012;32:11259-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Sleep-like brain-state alternations occur in rats under urethane anesthesia and may be an effective and efficient model for sleep itself...
  9. Wisniewska Jarosinska M, Poplawski T, Chojnacki C, Pawlowska E, Krupa R, Szczepanska J, et al. Independent and combined cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and urethane dimethacrylate. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:4603-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, we investigated cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), often used as a monomer, at 1 mM, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), a ..
  10. Zur G, Linder Ganz E, Elsner J, Shani J, Brenner O, Agar G, et al. Chondroprotective effects of a polycarbonate-urethane meniscal implant: histopathological results in a sheep model. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..was to examine the ability of a non-degradable, anatomically shaped artificial meniscal implant, composed of Kevlar-reinforced polycarbonate-urethane (PCU), to prevent progressive cartilage degeneration following complete meniscectomy.
  11. Schlatter J, DiNovi M, Setzer R. Application of the margin of exposure (MoE) approach to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic: example: ethyl carbamate (CAS 51-79-6). Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48 Suppl 1:S63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The corresponding calculated MOEs were 16600 and 3125, respectively...
  12. Chang H, Havton L. Differential effects of urethane and isoflurane on external urethral sphincter electromyography and cystometry in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F1248-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Urethane is a common and often preferred anesthetic agent for urodynamic recordings in rats, but its use is often restricted to terminal procedures because of a prolonged duration of action and potentially toxic effects...
  13. Krynauw H, Bruchmüller L, Bezuidenhout D, Zilla P, Franz T. Degradation-induced changes of mechanical properties of an electro-spun polyester-urethane scaffold for soft tissue regeneration. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2011;99:359-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Tubular scaffolds were electro-spun from a DegraPol® D30 polyesther-urethane solution (target outer diameter: 5.0 mm; scaffold wall thickness: 0.99 ± 0.18 mm)...
  14. Karabela S, Kairi C, Magkouta S, Psallidas I, Moschos C, Stathopoulos I, et al. Neutralization of tumor necrosis factor bioactivity ameliorates urethane-induced pulmonary oncogenesis in mice. Neoplasia. 2011;13:1143-51 pubmed
    ..For this, Balb/c mice (n = 42) received four weekly intraperitoneal urethane injections (1 g/kg) and twice-weekly intraperitoneal soluble TNF receptor (etanercept; 10 mg/kg) administered ..
  15. Kreisel D, Gelman A, Higashikubo R, Lin X, Vikis H, White J, et al. Strain-specific variation in murine natural killer gene complex contributes to differences in immunosurveillance for urethane-induced lung cancer. Cancer Res. 2012;72:4311-7 pubmed
  16. Zorniak M, Mitrega K, Bialka S, Porc M, Krzeminski T. Comparison of thiopental, urethane, and pentobarbital in the study of experimental cardiology in rats in vivo. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010;56:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to compare the influence of three anesthetics (60 mg/kg thiopental, 1200 mg/kg urethane, 60 mg/kg pentobarbital intraperitoneally) on ventricular arrhythmias and to combine it with measured hemodynamic ..
  17. Siebert W, Mai S, Kurtz S. Retrieval analysis of a polycarbonate-urethane acetabular cup: a case report. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2008;18:69-74 pubmed
    An acetabular cup made of a compliant polycarbonate-urethane material has been introduced as an alternative bearing solution. This case study examines the use of this acetabular cup in a single patient at 12 months...
  18. Hutchison R, Chidiac P, Leung L. Hippocampal long-term potentiation is enhanced in urethane-anesthetized RGS2 knockout mice. Hippocampus. 2009;19:687-91 pubmed publisher
    ..potentiation (LTP) of RGS2 knockout and wild-type mice was examined at the Schaffer collaterals to CA1 pathway in urethane-anesthetized mice in vivo to examine RGS2's possible role in the regulation of potentiation...
  19. Pagliardini S, Funk G, Dickson C. Breathing and brain state: urethane anesthesia as a model for natural sleep. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013;188:324-32 pubmed publisher
    ..has often substituted as a model for a unitary stage of slow-wave (non-REM) sleep, it is only recently that urethane anesthesia has been proposed to model the full spectrum of sleep given the presence of spontaneous brain state ..
  20. Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, et al. Carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages. Lancet Oncol. 2007;8:292-3 pubmed
  21. Ritchie K, Henderson C, Wang X, Vassieva O, Carrie D, Farmer P, et al. Glutathione transferase pi plays a critical role in the development of lung carcinogenesis following exposure to tobacco-related carcinogens and urethane. Cancer Res. 2007;67:9248-57 pubmed
    ..susceptibility to chemically induced lung tumors following exposure to BaP, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), and urethane. Gstp-null mice were found to have substantially increased numbers of adenomas relative to wild-type mice ..
  22. Zalipsky S, Mullah N, Engbers C, Hutchins M, Kiwan R. Thiolytically cleavable dithiobenzyl urethane-linked polymer-protein conjugates as macromolecular prodrugs: reversible PEGylation of proteins. Bioconjug Chem. 2007;18:1869-78 pubmed
    New thiolytically cleavable dithiobenzyl (DTB) urethane-linked conjugates of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and a model protein, lysozyme, were prepared and thoroughly characterized...
  23. Stathopoulos G, Sherrill T, Cheng D, Scoggins R, Han W, Polosukhin V, et al. Epithelial NF-kappaB activation promotes urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18514-9 pubmed
    ..Several lines of evidence indicate that ethyl carbamate (urethane)-induced lung tumor formation, a prototypical mouse model of multistage lung carcinogenesis, is potentiated by ..
  24. Minowada G, Miller Y. Overexpression of Sprouty 2 in mouse lung epithelium inhibits urethane-induced tumorigenesis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;40:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the hypothesis, the consequences of overexpressing Sprouty 2 in the distal lung epithelium on urethane-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis were determined...
  25. Sceniak M, MacIver M. Cellular actions of urethane on rat visual cortical neurons in vitro. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:3865-74 pubmed
    b>Urethane is widely used in neurophysiological experiments to anesthetize animals, yet little is known about its actions at the cellular and synaptic levels...
  26. Bauer A, Cho H, Miller DeGraff L, Walker C, Helms K, Fostel J, et al. Targeted deletion of Nrf2 reduces urethane-induced lung tumor development in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26590 pubmed publisher
    ..and lack of Nrf2 suppresses chemically-induced pulmonary neoplasia by treating Nrf2(+/+) and Nrf2(-/-) mice with urethane. Airway inflammation and injury were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage analyses and histopathology, and lung ..
  27. Balli D, Zhang Y, Snyder J, Kalinichenko V, Kalin T. Endothelial cell-specific deletion of transcription factor FoxM1 increases urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2011;71:40-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Pulmonary tumorigenesis induced by urethane administration was compared in mice genetically deleted for FoxM1 in endothelial cells (enFoxm1(-/-) mice)...
  28. Devonshire I, Grandy T, Dommett E, Greenfield S. Effects of urethane anaesthesia on sensory processing in the rat barrel cortex revealed by combined optical imaging and electrophysiology. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:786-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide information regarding the impact of anaesthetic agents on the brain, and show the value of combining spatial analyses from neuroimaging approaches with more traditional electrophysiological techniques...
  29. Piché M, Uchida S, Hara S, Aikawa Y, Hotta H. Modulation of somatosensory-evoked cortical blood flow changes by GABAergic inhibition of the nucleus basalis of Meynert in urethane-anaesthetized rats. J Physiol. 2010;588:2163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that cortical rCBF changes induced by somatosensory stimulation are partly regulated by NBM...
  30. Rukhadze I, Fenik V, Branconi J, Kubin L. Fos expression in pontomedullary catecholaminergic cells following rapid eye movement sleep-like episodes elicited by pontine carbachol in urethane-anesthetized rats. Neuroscience. 2008;152:208-22 pubmed
    ..expression following REMS-like state induced by pontine microinjections of a cholinergic agonist, carbachol in urethane-anesthetized rats...
  31. Whitten T, Martz L, Guico A, Gervais N, Dickson C. Heat synch: inter- and independence of body-temperature fluctuations and brain-state alternations in urethane-anesthetized rats. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:1647-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently we have shown that urethane-anesthetized rats display cyclic alternations between an activated state and a deactivated state that are highly ..
  32. Dey J, Xu H, Shen J, Thevenot P, Gondi S, Nguyen K, et al. Development of biodegradable crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers. Biomaterials. 2008;29:4637-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a new class of biodegradable elastomers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyesters (CUPEs), which is able to satisfy the need for soft, strong, and elastic biomaterials...
  33. Boucetta S, Jones B. Activity profiles of cholinergic and intermingled GABAergic and putative glutamatergic neurons in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum of urethane-anesthetized rats. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4664-74 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the discharge of these cell types in relation to cortical activity, we recorded neurons in urethane-anesthetized rats during spontaneous slow wave and somatosensory evoked fast electroencephalographic (EEG) ..
  34. Wippermann B, Kurtz S, Hallab N, Treharne R. Explantation and analysis of the first retrieved human acetabular cup made of polycarbonate urethane: a case report. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2008;18:75-83 pubmed
    This report describes the first human retrieval of a polycarbonate-urethane (PCU) acetabular cup implanted for 10.5 months that was revised for pain of unknown origin...
  35. Nakamura T, Tanida M, Niijima A, Nagai K. Effect of auditory stimulation on parasympathetic nerve activity in urethane-anesthetized rats. In Vivo. 2009;23:415-9 pubmed
    ..Here, the effects of auditory stimulation with TM on gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats were investigated...
  36. Salinas N, Lopes C, Palma P, Oshima C, Bueno V. Lung tumor development in the presence of sphingosine 1-phosphate agonist FTY720. Pathol Oncol Res. 2009;15:549-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Urethane is a chemical carcinogen which causes lung tumorigenesis in mice with similarities to human adenocarcinoma (AC)...
  37. Salinas N, Oshima C, Cury P, Cordeiro J, Bueno V. FTY720 and lung tumor development. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:689-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Lung adenoma was induced in mice by urethane injection followed by different periods of FTY720 administration in order to evaluate lung tumor development...
  38. Fenik V, Ogawa H, Davies R, Kubin L. Carbachol injections into the ventral pontine reticular formation activate locus coeruleus cells in urethane-anesthetized rats. Sleep. 2005;28:551-9 pubmed
    ..We previously determined that, in urethane-anesthetized rats, microinjections of a cholinergic agonist, carbachol, into the dorsal region produce REM sleep-..
  39. Cadossi M, Chiarello E, Savarino L, Tedesco G, Baldini N, Faldini C, et al. A comparison of hemiarthroplasty with a novel polycarbonate-urethane acetabular component for displaced intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck: a randomised controlled trial in elderly patients. Bone Joint J. 2013;95-B:609-15 pubmed publisher
    ..to compare bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA) with a novel total hip replacement (THR) comprising a polycarbonate-urethane (PCU) acetabular component coupled with a large-diameter metal femoral head for the treatment of displaced ..
  40. Avanzo J, Mesnil M, Hernandez Blazquez F, da Silva T, Fukumasu H, Mori C, et al. Altered expression of connexins in urethane-induced mouse lung adenomas. Life Sci. 2006;79:2202-8 pubmed
    Lung carcinogenesis is a multistep process whose molecular alterations can be studied in mouse models. Urethane, a specific lung tumor carcinogen, can induce adenomas in mice...
  41. Lachenmeier D, Sarsh B, Rehm J. The composition of alcohol products from markets in Lithuania and Hungary, and potential health consequences: a pilot study. Alcohol Alcohol. 2009;44:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The rates of alcohol-attributable mortality in Lithuania and Hungary have been shown to be higher than those in most other European countries. Quality of alcohol products is investigated as a possible explanation...
  42. Hori Y, Takasuka N, Mutoh M, Kitahashi T, Kojima S, Imaida K, et al. Periodic analysis of urethane-induced pulmonary tumors in living A/J mice by respiration-gated X-ray microcomputed tomography. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:1774-7 pubmed publisher
    ..was applied for the detection of lung lesions induced by a single intraperitoneal injection (250 mg/kg) of urethane in male A/J mice, at 2-week intervals from 10 to 30 weeks after carcinogen exposure...
  43. Curto C, Sakata S, Marguet S, Itskov V, Harris K. A simple model of cortical dynamics explains variability and state dependence of sensory responses in urethane-anesthetized auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2009;29:10600-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that in auditory cortex of urethane-anesthetized rats, population responses to click stimuli can be quantitatively predicted on a trial-by-trial ..
  44. Kim J, Khang D, Lee J, Webster T. Decreased macrophage density on carbon nanotube patterns on polycarbonate urethane. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009;88:419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..after 4 h, 24 h, and 4 days on aligned regions of a currently implanted polymer (specifically, polycarbonate urethane) compared to aligned carbon nanotube patterns were found...
  45. Cekanova M, Lee S, Donnell R, Sukhthankar M, Eling T, Fischer S, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 expression inhibits urethane-induced pulmonary tumorigenesis in transgenic mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009;2:450-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated whether the NAG-1 protein would alter urethane-induced pulmonary lesions in NAG-1 transgenic mice on an FVB background (NAG-1(Tg+/FVB))...
  46. Aravindan N, Cata J, Hoffman L, Dougherty P, Riedel B, Price K, et al. Effects of isoflurane, pentobarbital, and urethane on apoptosis and apoptotic signal transduction in rat kidney. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2006;50:1229-37 pubmed
    ..Anesthetic agents have been shown to modulate apoptotic signal transduction in various tissues. We examined the effects of 6 h of different general anesthetic techniques on renal cell apoptosis in rat kidneys...
  47. Soto Gutierrez A, Navarro Alvarez N, Rivas Carrillo J, Chen Y, Yamatsuji T, Tanaka N, et al. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to hepatocytes using deleted variant of HGF and poly-amino-urethane-coated nonwoven polytetrafluoroethylene fabric. Cell Transplant. 2006;15:335-41 pubmed
    ..hES cells were subjected to suspension culture for 5 days, and then cultured onto poly-amino-urethane (PAU)-coated, nonwoven polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fabric in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (bFGF) ..
  48. Wolansky T, Clement E, Peters S, Palczak M, Dickson C. Hippocampal slow oscillation: a novel EEG state and its coordination with ongoing neocortical activity. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6213-29 pubmed
    ..Here we describe, using extracellular field recording techniques in naturally sleeping and urethane-anesthetized rats, a novel state present during deactivated stages of sleep and anesthesia that is characterized ..
  49. Chen R, Tsai S, Ho C, Pan M, Ho Y, Wu C, et al. Chemopreventive effects of pterostilbene on urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis in mice via the inhibition of EGFR-mediated pathways and the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:11533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate the chemopreventive effects of pterostilbene in urethane-induced murine lung tumors...
  50. Lachenmeier D, Kanteres F, Kuballa T, Lopez M, Rehm J. Ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Mexico (tequila, mezcal, bacanora, sotol) and Guatemala (cuxa): market survey and risk assessment. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009;6:349-60 pubmed publisher
    ..15 mg/L). Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE) in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico...
  51. Zehendner C, Luhmann H, Yang J. A simple and novel method to monitor breathing and heart rate in awake and urethane-anesthetized newborn rodents. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62628 pubmed publisher
    ..Further our data indicate that urethane, an agent that is widely used for anesthesia, induces a hypoventilation in neonates whilst heart rate remains ..
  52. To M, Wong C, Karnezis A, Del Rosario R, Di Lauro R, Balmain A. Kras regulatory elements and exon 4A determine mutation specificity in lung cancer. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1240-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The two Kras isoforms undergo different post-translational modifications; therefore, these findings can have implications for the design of therapeutic strategies for inhibiting oncogenic Kras activity in human cancers...
  53. Park J, Ye Q, Topp E, Spencer P. Enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of dentin adhesives containing a new urethane-based trimethacrylate monomer. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009;91:562-71 pubmed publisher
    A new trimethacrylate monomer with urethane-linked groups, 1,1,1-tri-[4-(methacryloxyethylamino-carbonyloxy)-phenyl]ethane (MPE), was synthesized, characterized, and used as a comonomer in dentin adhesives...