thiophanate

Summary

Summary: Nematocide used in livestock; also has fungicidal properties.

Top Publications

  1. Saquib Q, Al Khedhairy A, Alarifi S, Dutta S, Dasgupta S, Musarrat J. Methyl thiophanate as a DNA minor groove binder produces MT-Cu(II)-DNA ternary complex preferably with AT rich region for initiation of DNA damage. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;47:68-75 pubmed publisher
    Interaction of a genotoxic fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) has been studied in vitro with calf thymus DNA. Fluorescence quenching data revealed the binding constant (K(a)=3.23 x 10(4)M(-1)) and binding capacity (n=1.1) of MT with ctDNA...
  2. Sciarrillo R, De Falco M, Virgilio F, Laforgia V, Capaldo A, Gay F, et al. Morphological and functional changes in the thyroid gland of methyl thiophanate-injected lizards, Podarcis sicula. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;55:254-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Methyl thiophanate is a systemic broad-spectrum fungicide used to prevent and control plant diseases caused by various fungi...
  3. De Falco M, Sciarrillo R, Capaldo A, Russo T, Gay F, Valiante S, et al. The effects of the fungicide methyl thiophanate on adrenal gland morphophysiology of the lizard, Podarcis sicula. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;53:241-8 pubmed
    ..Although the fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) is not considering a specific reproductive and developmental toxicant, it can induce histopathological ..
  4. Sandahl M, Mathiasson L, Jonsson J. Determination of thiophanate-methyl and its metabolites at trace level in spiked natural water using the supported liquid membrane extraction and the microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction techniques combined on-line with high-performance liqu. J Chromatogr A. 2000;893:123-31 pubmed
    ..MMLLE) techniques for sample preparation of natural water samples have been developed for the determination of thiophanate-methyl (TM), carbendazim (MBC) and 2-aminobenzimidazole (2-AB) using reversed-phase HPLC...
  5. Cycoń M, Wójcik M, Piotrowska Seget Z. Biodegradation kinetics of the benzimidazole fungicide thiophanate-methyl by bacteria isolated from loamy sand soil. Biodegradation. 2011;22:573-83 pubmed publisher
    Degradation of the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM) by Enterobacter sp. TDS-1 and Bacillus sp. TDS-2 isolated from sandy soil previously treated with TM was studied in mineral salt medium (MSM) and soil...
  6. Buono S, Cristiano L, D Angelo B, Cimini A, Putti R. PPARalpha mediates the effects of the pesticide methyl thiophanate on liver of the lizard Podarcis sicula. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;145:306-14 pubmed
    ..In the present work we have tested the sensitivity to methyl thiophanate (TM) of the lizard Podarcis sicula in order to propose a biological model for monitoring the ecotoxicological ..
  7. Capaldo A, Gay F, De Falco M, Virgilio F, Valiante S, Laforgia V, et al. The newt Triturus carnifex as a model for monitoring the ecotoxic impact of the fungicide thiophanate methyl: adverse effects on the adrenal gland. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006;143:86-93 pubmed
    ..to propose a bioindicator organism, the newt Triturus carnifex, for the assessment of toxicological impact of thiophanate methyl in the Campania region (Italy) and the possible adverse activity on the adrenal gland...
  8. Maranghi F, Macrì C, Ricciardi C, Stazi A, Rescia M, Mantovani A. Histological and histomorphometric alterations in thyroid and adrenals of CD rat pups exposed in utero to methyl thiophanate. Reprod Toxicol. 2003;17:617-23 pubmed
    Pregnant CD rats were treated with an initial dose of 0, 310 or 560 mg/kg bw per day of the fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) on gestational days 10-14, corresponding to formation of thyroid and adrenal primordia; newborns were ..
  9. Paolini M, Pozzetti L, Perocco P, Mazzullo M, Cantelli Forti G. Molecular non-genetic biomarkers of effect related to methyl thiophanate cocarcinogenesis: organ- and sex-specific cytochrome P450 induction in the rat. Cancer Lett. 1999;135:203-13 pubmed
    ..used selective biochemical markers of effect to evaluate some non-genotoxic cocarcinogenic properties of methyl thiophanate (MTH) associated with cytochrome P450 (CYP) changes...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Li J, Sun D, Pu H, Jayas D. Determination of trace thiophanate-methyl and its metabolite carbendazim with teratogenic risk in red bell pepper (Capsicumannuum L.) by surface-enhanced Raman imaging technique. Food Chem. 2017;218:543-552 pubmed publisher
    ..multivariate analysis in spectral region of 200 to 1800cm-1 was developed to quantify and visualize thiophanate-methyl (TM) and its metabolite carbendazim residues in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)...
  2. Hanlon S, Kerby J, Parris M. Unlikely remedy: fungicide clears infection from pathogenic fungus in larval southern leopard frogs (Lithobates sphenocephalus). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43573 pubmed publisher
    ..tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus) to the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM) at 0.6 mg/L under laboratory conditions...
  3. Su M, Li S, Li F, Gong Z, Wang J. [Rapid determination of 6 pesticide residues in tomato paste by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry]. Se Pu. 2011;29:1070-5 pubmed
    ..method (UPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of imidacloprid, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, propamocarb, methomyl and dimethomorph residues in tomato paste...
  4. Saquib Q, Al Khedhairy A, Alarifi S, Dwivedi S, Mustafa J, Musarrat J. Fungicide methyl thiophanate binding at sub-domain IIA of human serum albumin triggers conformational change and protein damage. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;47:60-7 pubmed publisher
    Fluorescence quenching data on interaction of a fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) with human serum albumin (HSA) elucidated a primary binding site at sub-domain IIA...
  5. Li J, Liu X, Ren C, Li J, Sheng F, Hu Z. In vitro study on the interaction between thiophanate methyl and human serum albumin. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2009;94:158-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Thiophanate methyl (MT) is one of the widely used fungicides to control important fungal diseases of crops, which has led to potential toxicological risk to public health...
  6. Broccolini A, Gidaro T, Morosetti R, Gliubizzi C, Servidei T, Pescatori M, et al. Neprilysin participates in skeletal muscle regeneration and is accumulated in abnormal muscle fibres of inclusion body myositis. J Neurochem. 2006;96:777-89 pubmed
  7. Fimognari C, Nusse M, Hrelia P. Flow cytometric analysis of genetic damage, effect on cell cycle progression, and apoptosis by thiophanate-methyl in human lymphocytes. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1999;33:173-6 pubmed
    Flow cytometric technique was used to study the effects of the fungicide Thiophanate-methyl on cell proliferation, micronucleus induction, and apoptosis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes treated in vitro...
  8. Anastassiades M, Schwack W. Analysis of carbendazim, benomyl, thiophanate methyl and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in fruits and vegetables after supercritical fluid extraction. J Chromatogr A. 1998;825:45-54 pubmed
    Simple methods for the analysis of carbendazim, benomyl and thiophanate methyl in fruits and vegetables and of 2,4-D in citrus fruits are presented...
  9. Saquib Q, Al Khedhairy A, Singh B, Arif J, Musarrat J. Genotoxic fungicide methyl thiophanate as an oxidative stressor inducing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2' -deoxyguanosine adducts in DNA and mutagenesis. J Environ Sci Health B. 2010;45:40-5 pubmed publisher
    Dimethyl 4,4' -(O-phenylene)bis(3-thioallophanate), commonly known as methyl thiophanate (MT), is a systemic fungicide and suspected carcinogen to humans...
  10. Delatour P, Besse S. [Ethyl benzimidazole carbamate: teratogenic effect and presence in the milk of cows after administration of thiophanate]. Ann Rech Vet. 1990;21:87-92 pubmed
    After oral administration of 40 mg/kg of thiophanate to dairy cows, the active metabolite, ethyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (EBC) reached a maximal concentration of 0...
  11. Yan L, Chen J, Zhang C, Ma Z. Molecular characterization of benzimidazole-resistant isolates of Cladosporium fulvum. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;278:242-8 pubmed
    The benzimidazole fungicide thiophanate-methyl is commonly applied to control leaf mould of tomato caused by Cladosporium fulvum in China. In this study, 32 isolates of C...
  12. Waruiru R, Kogi J, Weda E, Ngotho J. Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in Kenya. Vet Parasitol. 1998;75:191-7 pubmed
    ..against levamisole on the same farm. Injectable and orally administered ivermectin was effective against the benzimidazole and levamisole resistant H. contortus...
  13. Hai Y, Kong X, Li J, Lei G. [Determination of thiophanate-methyl residue in peppers by solid phase extraction-HPLC]. Se Pu. 2005;23:319 pubmed
  14. Xi Y, Feng L. Effects of thiophanate-methyl and glyphosate on asexual and sexual reproduction in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;73:644-51 pubmed
  15. Zhang D, Park J, Kim S, Cho S, Cho S, Yi H, et al. Determination of residual levels of naloxone, yohimbine, thiophanate, and altrenogest in porcine muscle using QuEChERS with liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci. 2016;39:835-41 pubmed publisher
    ..method) was used for the simultaneous detection of four veterinary drug residues, namely naloxone, yohimbine, thiophanate, and altrenogest, in porcine muscle, using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole ..
  16. Abramov Y, Loschen C, Klamt A. Rational coformer or solvent selection for pharmaceutical cocrystallization or desolvation. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101:3687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitor axitinib, which has a propensity to form relatively stable solvated structures with the majority of common solvents, as well as on thiophanate-methyl and thiophanate-ethyl benzimidazole fungicides, which form channel solvates.
  17. Osekre E, Wright D, Marois J, Funderburk J. Flower-inhabiting Frankliniella Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), pesticides, and Fusarium hardlock in cotton. J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:887-96 pubmed
    ..to determine whether weekly applications during flowering of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin, the fungicide thiophanate methyl, and the combination of the two reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest...
  18. Waruiru R, Weda E, Otieno R, Ngotho J, Bøgh H. Comparative efficacies of closantel, ivermectin, oxfendazole, thiophanate and levamisole against thiabendazole resistant Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1996;28:216-20 pubmed
    ..0 mg kg-1; ivermectin, 0.2 mg kg-1; oxfendazole, 5.0 mg kg-1; thiophanate, 50 mg kg-1, levamisole, 7.5 mgkg-1 and thiabendazole, 66 mg kg-1...
  19. Capriglione T, De Iorio S, Gay F, Capaldo A, Vaccaro M, Morescalchi M, et al. Genotoxic effects of the fungicide thiophanate-methyl on Podarcis sicula assessed by micronucleus test, comet assay and chromosome analysis. Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:885-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, the genotoxic effects of environmentally relevant exposure to the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM) were assessed in the lizard Podarcis sicula (Reptilia, Lacertidae) using micronucleus test, ..
  20. Assini R, Fracchiolla F, Ravalli C, Nava C. [Allergic diseases caused by pesticides: 3 case reports]. Med Lav. 1994;85:321-6 pubmed
    ..Only one subject was atopical. The substances to which sensitization was found were Cynoxamil, Mancozeb, Thiophanate, Seccatutto for the first case, Paraquat for the second and Dodine for the third subject...
  21. Yahia I, Al Khedhairy A, Musarrat J, Yakuphanoglu F. Optical spectroscopy studies of the interaction between thiophanate methyl and human serum albumin for biosensor applications. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2011;79:1285-90 pubmed publisher
    Optical properties of the interaction between thiophanate methyl and human serum albumin have been investigated for biosensor applications...
  22. Wen Y, Li J, Yang F, Zhang W, Li W, Liao C, et al. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with the aid of experimental design for determination of benzimidazole fungicides in high salinity samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Talanta. 2013;106:119-26 pubmed publisher
    ..e., carbendazim, fuberidazole, thiophanate-methyl and thiophanate) in high salinity samples was developed by using salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ..
  23. Chayata H, Lassalle Y, Nicol Ã, Manolikakes S, Souissi Y, Bourcier S, et al. Characterization of the ultraviolet-visible photoproducts of thiophanate-methyl using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry-Detection in grapes and tomatoes. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1441:75-82 pubmed publisher
    UV-visible irradiation of thiophanate-methyl (TM) led to the formation of nine photoproducts that were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass ..
  24. Economou A, Botitsi H, Antoniou S, Tsipi D. Determination of multi-class pesticides in wines by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:5856-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 60 wine samples in the course of an annual monitoring study with carbendazim-benomyl, thiophanate-methyl and carbaryl being the most frequently determined pesticides.
  25. Saquib Q, Al Khedhairy A, Al Arifi S, Dhawan A, Musarrat J. Assessment of methyl thiophanate-Cu (II) induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:848-54 pubmed publisher
    Dimethyl 4,4'-(O-phenylene)bis(3-thioallophanate), commonly known as methyl thiophanate (MT), is a category-III acute toxicant and suspected carcinogen to humans...
  26. Yu X, Wang Z, Sheng S, Xu J. [Effects of Atractylodes macrocephala seeds coated with SCF on field diseases]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2002;25:230-1 pubmed
    ..The results showed that the treatment 2 was the best SCF to control field diseases. The treatment of seed-coating with thiophanate methyl reduced the percentage of field diseases significantly.
  27. Singh S, Foster G, Khan S. Determination of thiophanate methyl and carbendazim residues in vegetable samples using microwave-assisted extraction. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1148:152-7 pubmed
    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was carried out for the determination of the fungicides thiophanate methyl [1.2-alpha-(3-methoxycarbonyl-2-thioureido)benzene] and carbendazim (methyl benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate) in vegetable samples...
  28. Fan S, Zhao P, Zhang F, Yu C, Pan C. Spinach or amaranth may represent highest residue of thiophanate-methyl with open field application on six leaf vegetables. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;90:477-81 pubmed publisher
    ..among leaf vegetables which may contain the highest residue after fungicide uses, open field applications with thiophanate-methyl on six crops including pakchoi, rape, crown daisy, amaranth, spinach and lettuce were designed and ..
  29. Galea K, MacCalman L, Jones K, Cocker J, Teedon P, Sleeuwenhoek A, et al. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures in residents living near agricultural land. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:856 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study aims to collect measurements to determine if the current methods and tools are appropriate for assessing pesticide exposure for residents living near agricultural fields...
  30. Pinto J, Pereira R, Mota S, Ishikawa F, Souza E. Investigating phenotypic variability in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum populations. Phytopathology. 2012;102:490-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Isolates were classified according to their sensitivities to the fungicide thiophanate-methyl, normally used in the control of common bean anthracnose...
  31. Mandal S, Das S, Bhattacharyya A. Dissipation study of thiophanate methyl residue in/on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;84:592-5 pubmed publisher
    A multi-location field trial was conducted in India during 2006-2008 to evaluate the dissipation pattern of thiophanate methyl (75% WP) in/on grapes at two application rates (500 and 1,000 g a.i. ha(-1))...
  32. Delatour P, Besse S, Romdane M. [Pharmacokinetics and anti-Dicrocoelium activity of thiophanate and its major metabolite in ruminants]. Ann Rech Vet. 1988;19:119-22 pubmed
    After a single oral dosage of 40 mg thiophanate/kg in cattle, sheep and goats, the parent compound and its main metabolite: ethyl benzimidazol-1H-yl-2-carbamate (EBC) are evidenced in plasma by HPLC analysis for 60 to 72 hours...
  33. Barale R, Scapoli C, Meli C, Casini D, Minunni M, Marrazzini A, et al. Cytogenetic effects of benzimidazoles in mouse bone marrow. Mutat Res. 1993;300:15-28 pubmed
    The cytogenetic effects of three benzimidazoles, i.e., benomyl, methyl thiophanate and methyl 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (MBC), were studied in mouse bone marrow cells by analyzing three genetic endpoints: micronuclei, structural ..
  34. Xi Y, Hu H. Effect of thiophanate-methyl on the reproduction and survival of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;71:722-8 pubmed
  35. Ngomuo A, Kassuku A, Ruheta M. Critical controlled test to evaluate resistance of field strains of Haemonchus contortus to thiophanate. Vet Parasitol. 1990;36:21-6 pubmed
    Following reports of suspected gastrointestinal strongylid nematode resistance to thiophanate in sheep and goats at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Tanzania, field strains of Haemonchus contortus, one from SUA and another from ..
  36. Mahan K, Odom O, Herrin D. Controlling fungal contamination in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures. Biotechniques. 2005;39:457-8 pubmed
  37. Sandahl M, Mathiasson L, Jönsson J. On-line automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography using parallel supported liquid membrane extraction and microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction. J Chromatogr A. 2002;975:211-7 pubmed
    ..The fungicide thiophanate methyl and its polar metabolites carbendazim and 2-aminobenzimidazole were used as model compounds...
  38. Nakamura M, Furumi Y, Watanabe F, Mizukoshi K, Taniguchi M, Nemoto S. Determination of carbendazim, thiophanate, thiophanate-methyl and benomyl residues in agricultural products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2011;52:148-55 pubmed
    ..liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for carbendazim (MBC), thiophanate (TE), thiophanate-methyl (TM) and benomyl (BM) in agricultural products...
  39. Cardone A. Testicular toxicity of methyl thiophanate in the Italian wall lizard (Podarcis sicula): morphological and molecular evaluation. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:512-23 pubmed publisher
    The effects of the fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) on testis were determined in the Italian wall lizard (Podarcis sicula) using morphological and molecular analyzes...
  40. Suga H, Nakajima T, Kageyama K, Hyakumachi M. The genetic profile and molecular diagnosis of thiophanate-methyl resistant strains of Fusarium asiaticum in Japan. Fungal Biol. 2011;115:1244-50 pubmed publisher
    Fusarium asiaticum strains resistant to thiophanate-methyl were detected in four prefectures in Japan though their proportion in the total population was low in all instances. The F167Y or F200Y mutation in the ?2-tubulin gene (FGSG06611...
  41. Ferreira J, Santos L, Souza N, Navickiene S, de Oliveira F, Talamini V. MSPD sample preparation approach for reversed-phase liquid chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in stem of coconut palm. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;91:160-4 pubmed publisher
    ..diode array detector for determination of carbofuran, difenoconazole, ?-cyfluthrin, spirodiclofen and thiophanate-methyl in stem of coconut palm. The best results were obtained using 2.0 g of stem, 1...
  42. Zhang Z, Gong Y, Shan W, Jian Q, Shen Y, Liu X. [Determination of thiophanate-methyl and carbendazim in cucumber and soil by QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry]. Se Pu. 2012;30:91-4 pubmed
    A method was developed for the determination of thiophanate-methyl and carbendazim residues in cucumber and soil by using QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-..
  43. Connor R, Munyuku A, Mackyao E, Halliwell R. Helminthosis in goats in southern Tanzania: investigations on epidemiology and control. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1990;22:1-6 pubmed
    ..The beneficial effect of an anthelmintic treatment after the rains was demonstrated in weaner goats under traditional management and this should form the basis of rational control...
  44. Verma B, Sood S, Chauhan C, Sharma D. A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of thiophanate-methyl in commercial formulations and its residues in foodstuffs. J AOAC Int. 2004;87:811-4 pubmed
    A new, simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of thiophanate-methyl, based on its reaction with cobalt(II) in the presence of triethylamine, has been developed...
  45. Onar E. Efficacy of thiophanate and albendazole against natural infections of Dicrocoelium dentriticum, Fasciola hepatica, and gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes in sheep. Vet Parasitol. 1990;35:139-45 pubmed
    The anthelmintic efficacy of thiophanate and albendazole was compared in sheep with heavy infestations of Dicrocoelium dentriticum. The effectiveness of each drug was determined by counting the numbers of D...
  46. Gilvydis D, Walters S. Ion-pairing liquid chromatographic determination of benzimidazole fungicides in foods. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1990;73:753-61 pubmed
    A method is described for determining residues in foods of thiabendazole, thiophanate methyl, the di-oxygen analogue metabolite [dimethyl 4,4'-O-phenylene bis (allophanate)] that is the metabolite name of the latter, and methyl-2-..
  47. Ma Z, Yoshimura M, Michailides T. Identification and characterization of benzimidazole resistance in Monilinia fructicola from stone fruit orchards in California. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:7145-52 pubmed
    Low and high levels of resistance to the benzimidazole fungicides benomyl and thiophanate-methyl were observed in field isolates of Monilinia fructicola, which is the causative agent of brown rot of stone fruit...
  48. Hanlon S, Parris M. The impact of pesticides on the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis independent of potential hosts. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;63:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted laboratory culture studies to determine the effects of three pesticides {carbaryl, glyphosate, and thiophanate-methyl [TM; Topsin-M(R) (Cerexagri-Nisso LLC)]} on Bd zoospore production and zoosporangia growth...
  49. Waruiru R, Ngotho J, Mukiri J. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus on a sheep farm in Kenya. Vet Res Commun. 1997;21:483-91 pubmed
    Multiple resistance to albendazole, thiophanate, levamisole and orally administered invermectin was detected in an isolate of Haemonchus contortus in sheep on a farm where benzimidazole resistance had already been identified...
  50. Wedge D, Nagle D. A new 2D-TLC bioautography method for the discovery of novel antifungal agents To control plant pathogens. J Nat Prod. 2000;63:1050-4 pubmed
    ..Mixtures of structurally diverse antifungal agents were tested to establish the validity and utility of this method in the discovery of new natural products with activity against agriculturally important fungal pathogens...
  51. Traina M, Fazzi P, Macri C, Ricciardi C, Stazi A, Urbani E, et al. In vivo studies on possible adverse effects on reproduction of the fungicide methyl thiophanate. J Appl Toxicol. 1998;18:241-8 pubmed
    The fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT), widely used to control some of the most common fungal diseases in crops, is metabolized in animals into benzimidazole compounds, including the well-known reproductive toxicant carbendazim...
  52. Jo Y, Chang S, Boehm M, Jung G. Rapid development of fungicide resistance by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on turfgrass. Phytopathology. 2008;98:1297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Population dynamics of S. homoeocarpa in response to two systemic fungicides (thiophanate-methyl and propiconazole) were assessed based on in vitro fungicide sensitivity. Dynamics of S...